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We both have determined the nature of syllables, which, with this knowlege of the analogy, reduces the changes of the vowels, a subject formerly scarcely approachable, to a mere bagatelle. The doctrine of the tenses I have reduced to principles the most simple possible, and to those very principles, which in some degree prevail in our own language, and are fully recognised by the grammarians of the East. In this case Mr. Ewald has failed, although he has cordially recognised the facts on which my rules have been built. It would be too much here to enlarge; I must, therefore, as M. de Sacy has done, refer the readers to the works themselves. I was certainly anxious to hear what would be said on this subject; and, I must say, after carefully and impartially, as I trust, weighing the objections of M. de Sacy, who has not been accuse tomed to view grammar in this light, I am convinced that this is the legitimate method of coostructing grammars; and that although in some instances, neither Mr. Ewald, nor myself, may have succeeded to the utmost, yet, that in the main we have been successful; and have shown that the Hebrew language is not that chaotic and disorderly mass, which some, and particularly M. de Sacy, would have us believe; but that it may be reduced to a few general rules, and those rules easy to be acquired and retained.

In conclusion, I must say, I trust that what has here been advanced will not be construed as arising from any animosity or envy entertained by me against my learned reviewer. Certainly I entertain no such feelings : on the contrary, I most heartily congratulate the learned Baron in the celebrity which he has so deservedly acquired ; and shall ever be amongst the foremost to acknowlege that Europe will never be able to discharge the debt which it owes to him for his multifarious and valuable works. In a question of science, however, every consideration of this kind must give way; and where the highest deserved celebrity appears to be advocating what is not true, the love of truth will, I hope, always be a sufficient plea for raising and advancing such objections as may appear in this article. This I avow to have been

my motive, and this must suffice.

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AT

THE MANDARIN TONGUE

LOO-CHOO.

1

When I visited Macao, in the year 1827, as naturalist to the expedition under the command of Captain Beechey, I was requested by Dr. Morrison to ascertain the dialectical variation of the Kevan-heva, or Mandarin tongue, at Loo-choo, as it was expected we should call at that group of islands on our way to Kotzebue's Sound. For some time after our arrival I had rea

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son to despair of being able to fulfil my friend's wishes, owing to the eager curiosity which these people exhibited to scrutinise the novelties on board the Blossom ; so that out of many hundreds who honored us with their presence, I could seldom obtain the attention of any one more than a few minutes, who, if he chanced to be possessed of a competent skill, had not patience enough to separate the general from the peculiar by casting his eye over a cluster of characters, and in this way educe what is sometimes represented to be their leading denomination : instead of this, they gave me the provincial readings of such characters as happened to be recognised within the range of their grammatical attainments, which, in consequence, conduced very little towards advancing the object I had in view. A learned man, who accompanied the mandarin, showed great readiness to assist me, by compromising the canons of a ceremonious behaviour, and doing only an occasional justice to the viands of a board which was garnished for our entertainment, that he might have leisure to inspect a list of characters, which I had copied out for the purpose of availing myself of any accidental assistance. But, unfortunately, he mistook my meaning, and taught me the Loo-chooan pronunciation of all the characters that were shown him, as the rest of his countrymen, whom I had previously consulted, bad of a few. From the copy of a letter written to Dr. Morrison, soon after our departure from Loochoo, I will make the following extract, as it briefly shows what the reader is to expect from this communication, and the mode in which it was obtained :

“They had always shown much reluctance in suffering us to pass through their villages, uniformly appointing one or more natives to accompany our officer as soon as be landed, who never quitted his side till they had conducted him back to the sea-side. Having one day taken your book on shore with me, I easily yielded to my guide's admonitions, consented to shorten the extent of my herbarising excursions, and return to the hostelry, or house of entertainment, where, among many others, I encountered two or three old men, who, willing to sacrifice their curiosity to their quiet, patiently sat by me during that day, and very soberly went through nearly all the characters in the dictionary; and it was from them that I obtained the symbolical orthoëpy, or nomenclature, which pertains to the dialect of Loo-choo. I confess, indeed, that I could perceive nothing of that nice discrimination of sounds, which you tell me exists among the Chinese. Extreme accuracy was not to be expected, when I observed that in their articulation they did not agree among themselves, and that the facility with which I imitated their peculiarities confounded them ; which I took to be an indication, that precision in vocal sounds was looked on as something beyond the compass of ordinary attainment. But a decision would require a better warrant, than so short an acquaintance could furnish; besides, these old men might not be a good sample of the

more learned and better educated part of society. Had the old gentleman of the mandarin's suite, whom I met at an entertainment given to the officers of the Blossom by that personage, bad the opportunity of conning over the characters in the dictionary, he would, I doubt not, have given me a more accurate orthoëpy than I possess."

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LoO-CHOOAN. А Ang Navu Tsa Cha Tsa Tsae (nearly Tsy) Sang Chang Chaou Chay or Juy Chee or Jee Se Cheng Chih Jing Jing Tsaw Choo Choo Chue Chueng Che Tchong Choong Chuee Sae Chwang Ee Chee Hwang or Fang Fang Föee Foo Foo Pow Fuh Foong Foong Ngae Nang Peeang Gaou and Naou Fer Gnuw Jeě Hae Hang Hàng Hang Haou She

Chinese,
A
An
Aou
Cha
Cha
Chå
Chae
Chan
Chang
Chaou
Chay
Che
Chë
Chen
Chih
Chin
Ching
Chó
Choo
Chow
Chue
Chuen
Chuh
Chun
Chung
Chuy
Chwae
Chwang
E
Fa
Fan
Fang
Fe
Foo
Fo
Fow
Fuh
Fun
Fung
Gae
Gan
Pang
Gaou
Go
Go
Gou
Hae
Han
Hån
Hang
Haou
He

Loo-CHOOAN.

CHINESE.
Sha

Hea
Hae or Shae

Heae
Shang

Heang
Sheaou

Heaou
Chaise

Hëě
Jueng

Hëen
Shaw

Heo
Eu

Heu
Chei

Heue
Heung

Heuen
Sheung

Heung
Shew

Hew
Fih

Hih
Jing

Hin
Haw

Но
Hwaw

H8
Foo

Hoo
How

How
Foong

Hung
Hwa

Hwa
Hwa

Hwă
Fae

Hwae
Hwang

Hwan
Hwang

Hwang
Hwang or Hwoong Hwang
Hwaw

Hwo
Hwůh

Hwůh
Hwuy (nearly Foee)

Hwy
Eang or Yang

Jang
Eaou or Yaou

Jaou
Eaou or Yaou

Jay
Je


Fee or Jee

Jih
Jang

Jen
Jing

Jin
Ing

Jing
Yaw

Jo
Neu or Eu

Joo
Joo or Yoo

Jow
Yuen

Juen
Soong

Juh
Joong

Jun
Nuy or Nuee

Juy
kae

Kae
Kang

Kan

Kån
Kang

Kang
Kang

Kăng
Kaou

Kaou
Jee or Chee

Ke
Kea

Kea
Кей

Keă

Kång

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LOO-CHOOAN. Kae (English Ky) Jang Cheaou Jea Jee Chëčng Chee Keở Chee Jeuě Jueng Jeuh or Cheuh Cheung Cheu Ka or Kih Jing Jing Ko Κό Koo Keu Koo or Kúh Kwa Kwă Kwe (Italian e) Kwang Kong Kuëě Ko Kwă Kwae Da Lae Jeng Dang or Lang Deng Laou Dee Deang Deaou Dëě Dëčng Dee Deð Deu Pow Deng Deuh Deu Dih Ding Ding Do or Lo Do Doo Lůh Doong Doong

CHINESĖ.
Keae
Keang
Keaoa
Keay
Кёё
Kêng
Keih
Keo
Keu
Keuě
Keuen
Keŭh
Keun
Keu
Kib
Kin
King
Ko
Κό
Koo
Kou
Kůh
Kwa
Kwă
Kwae
Kwan
Kwang
Kwei
Kwo
Kwo
Kwůh
La
Lae
Lan
Lang
Lăng
Laou
Le
Leang
Leaou
Lëě
Lëěn
Leih
Leð
Leu
Leuë
Leuen
Leuh
Leu
Lih
Lin
Ling
Lo

Loo
Lůh
Lune
Lung

LOO-CHOOAN. Duy Dwang Ma Mă Mae Măng Moung Maou Me Meo or Meaou Meng Moee Mee Chaw Mih Ming Ming Mo Mě Mou Moo Mo Mung Moong Mang Na Nae Neu Zeaoứ Ning Na Noo NON Nůh Noong Nuee Nwan O Aw Pha Pă Phae Pang Pang Poong Paou Pe Peaou Pëě Pëëng Paee Per Poong Pe Ping

Chinese.
Luy
Lwang
Ma

Mae
Mang
Măng
Maou
Me
Meaou
Meěn
Men
Meih
Meu
Mih
Min
Ming
Mo

Moo
Mow
Můh
Mun
Mung
Mwang
Na
Nae
Neu
Nim
Ning
No
Noo
Now
Nůh
Nung
Nuy
Nwan
O
() or Go
Pa

Pae
Pang
Pang
Pång
Paou
Pe
Peaou
Pëě
Pëě
Pei
Peih
Pew
Pih
Pin
Ping
Po
Po

Ping

Po Pě

LOO-CHOOAN. Poee Puh or Po Půng Poong Pang Pē Sae Sang Săng Sang Saou Se Seang Seaou Seay Se Seăng See Seue Seueng Seŭh Soong or Seung Sa Sang Seng Shaou Shay Shee Shë Sheng Shih Sbing Shing Cho Shoo Shoo So Soong Shwa Swă Swae ? Swang Swee Se Sing Săw Saw Soo Sow Sůh Soong Soong

CHINESE.

Pow
Puh
Pun
Pung
Pwan

Sae
San
Sån
Sang
Saou
Se
Seang
Seaou
Seay
Sěë
Seen
Seih
Seue
Seuen
Seŭh
Seun
Sha
Shan
Sheng
Shaou
Shay
She
She
Shen
Shih
Shin
Shing
Sho
Shoo
Show
Shůh
Shun
Shwa
Shwă
Swae
Shwang
Shwủy
Sih

Loo-chooan.

Tăng
Teng
Taou
Tee
Teaou
Teay
Teě
Tëeng
Tee
Tew
Te
Ting
To
To
Too
Tow
Tsă
Tsang
Tsang
Tseng
Tsaou
Tsee
Tseou
Je (Italian e)
Tsëě
Tsëeng
Tsee
Tseð
Seu
Seue
Tseueng
Tseung
Sew
Che
Tsing
Tsing
Tso
Tso
Tsoo
Tsow
Tsoo
Tsoong
Tsoong
Suee
Twang
0
Woong
Urh
Wa

Wae
Wang
Ong
Wang
Wee or Oee
Aw
Kwang
Oo

Chinese.

Tang
Tăng
Taou
Te
Teaou
Teau
Teě
Teen
Teili
Tew
Tih
Ting
To
To
Тоо
Tow
Tsă
Tsan
Tsang
Trăng
Tsaou
Tse
Tseaou
Tseng
Tsëě
Tsëen
Tseih
Tseo
Tseu
Tseuě
Tseuen
Tseun
Tsew
Tsih
Tsin
T'sing
Tso
Tsò
Tsoo
Tsow
Tsůh
Tsun
Tsung
Tsuy
Twan
Oh
Ung
Urh

Sin So

Wa

Sở Soo Sow Sůl Sun Sung Suy Swan Sze Ta Tae Tan

Su

Swang Seu Ta Tae Tang


Wae
Wan
Wăn
Wang
We
Wo
Wở
Woo

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