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We both have determined the nature of syllables, which, with this knowlege of the analogy, reduces the changes of the vowels, a subject formerly scarcely approachable, to a mere bagatelle. The doctrine of the tenses I have reduced to principles the most simple possible, and to those very principles, which in some degree prevail in our own language, and are fully recognised by the grammarians of the East. In this case Mr. Ewald has failed, although he has cordially recognised the facts on which my rules have been built. It would be too much here to enlarge; I must, therefore, as M. de Sacy has done, refer the readers to the works themselves. I was certainly anxious to hear what would be said on this subject; and, I must say, after carefully and impartially, as I trust, weighing the objections of M. de Sacy, who has not been accuse tomed to view grammar in this light, I am convinced that this is the legitimate method of coostructing grammars; and that although in some instances, neither Mr. Ewald, nor myself, may have succeeded to the utmost, yet, that in the main we have been successful; and have shown that the Hebrew language is not that chaotic and disorderly mass, which some, and particularly M. de Sacy, would have us believe; but that it may be reduced to a few general rules, and those rules easy to be acquired and retained.
In conclusion, I must say, I trust that what has here been advanced will not be construed as arising from any animosity or envy entertained by me against my learned reviewer. Certainly I entertain no such feelings : on the contrary, I most heartily congratulate the learned Baron in the celebrity which he has so deservedly acquired ; and shall ever be amongst the foremost to acknowlege that Europe will never be able to discharge the debt which it owes to him for his multifarious and valuable works. In a question of science, however, every consideration of this kind must give way; and where the highest deserved celebrity appears to be advocating what is not true, the love of truth will, I hope, always be a sufficient plea for raising and advancing such objections as may appear in this article. This I avow to have been
my motive, and this must suffice.
THE MANDARIN TONGUE
When I visited Macao, in the year 1827, as naturalist to the expedition under the command of Captain Beechey, I was requested by Dr. Morrison to ascertain the dialectical variation of the Kevan-heva, or Mandarin tongue, at Loo-choo, as it was expected we should call at that group of islands on our way to Kotzebue's Sound. For some time after our arrival I had rea
son to despair of being able to fulfil my friend's wishes, owing to the eager curiosity which these people exhibited to scrutinise the novelties on board the Blossom ; so that out of many hundreds who honored us with their presence, I could seldom obtain the attention of any one more than a few minutes, who, if he chanced to be possessed of a competent skill, had not patience enough to separate the general from the peculiar by casting his eye over a cluster of characters, and in this way educe what is sometimes represented to be their leading denomination : instead of this, they gave me the provincial readings of such characters as happened to be recognised within the range of their grammatical attainments, which, in consequence, conduced very little towards advancing the object I had in view. A learned man, who accompanied the mandarin, showed great readiness to assist me, by compromising the canons of a ceremonious behaviour, and doing only an occasional justice to the viands of a board which was garnished for our entertainment, that he might have leisure to inspect a list of characters, which I had copied out for the purpose of availing myself of any accidental assistance. But, unfortunately, he mistook my meaning, and taught me the Loo-chooan pronunciation of all the characters that were shown him, as the rest of his countrymen, whom I had previously consulted, bad of a few. From the copy of a letter written to Dr. Morrison, soon after our departure from Loochoo, I will make the following extract, as it briefly shows what the reader is to expect from this communication, and the mode in which it was obtained :
“They had always shown much reluctance in suffering us to pass through their villages, uniformly appointing one or more natives to accompany our officer as soon as be landed, who never quitted his side till they had conducted him back to the sea-side. Having one day taken your book on shore with me, I easily yielded to my guide's admonitions, consented to shorten the extent of my herbarising excursions, and return to the hostelry, or house of entertainment, where, among many others, I encountered two or three old men, who, willing to sacrifice their curiosity to their quiet, patiently sat by me during that day, and very soberly went through nearly all the characters in the dictionary; and it was from them that I obtained the symbolical orthoëpy, or nomenclature, which pertains to the dialect of Loo-choo. I confess, indeed, that I could perceive nothing of that nice discrimination of sounds, which you tell me exists among the Chinese. Extreme accuracy was not to be expected, when I observed that in their articulation they did not agree among themselves, and that the facility with which I imitated their peculiarities confounded them ; which I took to be an indication, that precision in vocal sounds was looked on as something beyond the compass of ordinary attainment. But a decision would require a better warrant, than so short an acquaintance could furnish; besides, these old men might not be a good sample of the
more learned and better educated part of society. Had the old gentleman of the mandarin's suite, whom I met at an entertainment given to the officers of the Blossom by that personage, bad the opportunity of conning over the characters in the dictionary, he would, I doubt not, have given me a more accurate orthoëpy than I possess."
LoO-CHOOAN. А Ang Navu Tsa Cha Tsa Tsae (nearly Tsy) Sang Chang Chaou Chay or Juy Chee or Jee Se Cheng Chih Jing Jing Tsaw Choo Choo Chue Chueng Che Tchong Choong Chuee Sae Chwang Ee Chee Hwang or Fang Fang Föee Foo Foo Pow Fuh Foong Foong Ngae Nang Peeang Gaou and Naou Fer Gnuw Jeě Hae Hang Hàng Hang Haou She
LOO-CHOOAN. Kae (English Ky) Jang Cheaou Jea Jee Chëčng Chee Keở Chee Jeuě Jueng Jeuh or Cheuh Cheung Cheu Ka or Kih Jing Jing Ko Κό Koo Keu Koo or Kúh Kwa Kwă Kwe (Italian e) Kwang Kong Kuëě Ko Kwă Kwae Da Lae Jeng Dang or Lang Deng Laou Dee Deang Deaou Dëě Dëčng Dee Deð Deu Pow Deng Deuh Deu Dih Ding Ding Do or Lo Do Doo Lůh Doong Doong
LOO-CHOOAN. Duy Dwang Ma Mă Mae Măng Moung Maou Me Meo or Meaou Meng Moee Mee Chaw Mih Ming Ming Mo Mě Mou Moo Mo Mung Moong Mang Na Nae Neu Zeaoứ Ning Na Noo NON Nůh Noong Nuee Nwan O Aw Pha Pă Phae Pang Pang Poong Paou Pe Peaou Pëě Pëëng Paee Per Poong Pe Ping
LOO-CHOOAN. Poee Puh or Po Půng Poong Pang Pē Sae Sang Săng Sang Saou Se Seang Seaou Seay Se Seăng See Seue Seueng Seŭh Soong or Seung Sa Sang Seng Shaou Shay Shee Shë Sheng Shih Sbing Shing Cho Shoo Shoo So Soong Shwa Swă Swae ? Swang Swee Se Sing Săw Saw Soo Sow Sůh Soong Soong
Sở Soo Sow Sůl Sun Sung Suy Swan Sze Ta Tae Tan
Swang Seu Ta Tae Tang