« FöregåendeFortsätt »
Yueng or Eng Yuen From a comparison of the sounds expressed in the corresponding columns, we may deduce the following observations:
That among the people of Loo-choo, there is a disposition to substitute sibilants in the place of aspirates : she for he, &c.
They confound the sounds of d and l together, like the natives of the South-Sea Islands,
There exists among them a predominance of nasal sounds, Cheng for Chen; the same difference takes place in the Haweriian and New Zealand dialects of the Polynesian language.
They often exchange a consonantal combination for one of smoother articulation : se for che.
Extracts from some of the Lost Works of Aristotle,
Xenocrates, and Theophrastus.
The following fragments of some of the lost writings of Aristotle, Xenocrates, and Theophrastus, are, I believe, not generally known; and they are only to be found in the under-mentioned authors.
Βουλει το μετα τουτο την πανσοφον υπαγορευσω Σειρηνα, τον του λογιου τυπον Ερμου * * (Supple και τω) Απολλωνι και ταις Μουσαις φιλον και εκεινος αξιοι τους επερωτωντας, και όλως επιχειρουντας ει θεοι εισιν, ουχ ως ανθρωπους αποκρισεως τυγχανειν, αλλ' ως θηρια κολασεως.
The Emperor Julian says this of Aristotle in Orat. VII. p. 440. 4to. i.e.“ Are you willing, after this, that I should adduce as a testimony the all-wise Syren, a type of the eloquent Hermes, and dear to Apollo and the Muses ? For he thinks it fit that those who inquire, or in short argue as if they were dubious, whether or not there are gods, do not deserve to be answered as men, but to be punished as brutes."
Eγνως αν προ παντων ότι τα προς τους θεους ευσεβεις ειναι, και
Aristotle, Xenocrates, and Theophrastus. 333
μεμνησθαι παντα τα μυστηρια, και τετέλεισθαι τάς αγιωτατας τελετας, και δια παντων των μαθηματων ηχθαι, τοις εισω του περιπατου βαδιζουσι προηγορευτο. Julian. Οrat. VΙ. p. 440.
1. e. “To those who entered into the school of Aristotle, this was proclaimed prior to every thing else, that they should be pious to the gods, should have been instructed in all the mysteries, and initiated in the most holy teleta,' and have a perfect knowlege of all the mathematical disciplines.”
Φησι γαρ και αυτος Αριστοτελης ειναι Πυθιον οικοι παρ' εαυτω, όθεν αυτό και η ορμη προς φιλοσοφιαν εγενετο. Julian. Οrat. VΙΙ. p. 449.
I. e. “ For Aristotle says that he had a Pythian oracle in his house, and that from this his impulse tu philosophy was derived."
That Aristotle accords with Plato, in the dogma that the principle of all things is super-essential, is evident, as Simplicius well observes, from the end of his treatise On Prayer, in which he clearly says, “ that God is either intellect, or something above intellect.”. παρα τοις εσχατοις του βιβλιου περι προσευχης διαρρηδην λεγων, ότι ο θεος νους εστιν, η τι και υπερ νουν. Simplic. in Aristot. de Celo. p. 118. 6.
Αει γαρ ελλαμπειν ημιν το θειον ελεγεν ο Ξενοκρατης, αλλ' ουκ αει διαπεραινειν το μακαριον φως, δια την ύλην, και δια τας ταραχας τας εξ ανθρωπινων πραγματων εντυχουσας αει και ενοχλουσας ήμιν. όσο γαρ καθαρωτερα ψυχη ευχομεθα τη θεια, τοσουτο επιτηδειοτεροι εσμεν προς το τυχειν παρ' αυτου, ων βουλομεθα αγαθων, και καλων και δικαιων. I. e. «Divinity always illuminates us,” said Xenocrates, “ but the blessed light is not always perfectly received, on account of matter, and the perturbations arising from human affairs, through which we suffer perpetual molestation. For by how much purer our soul is when we pray to God, by so much greater is our aptitude to receive from him the good, beautiful, and just things, which are the objects of our wish.
· Such as the Eleusinian Mysteries, for they are always so denominated by Proclus.
· For the principle of all things is celebrated by Plato, the one, and the good; by the former of these appellations denoting that all things proceed from him, and by the latter, that he is the object of desire to all things; for all things desire good. But Plato, in his Parmenides, shows that the one, and in the 6th book of his Republic, that the good is superessential. But that which is above intellect is super-essential; therefore this must be asserted of God, who is beyond all things.
334 Extracts from Lost Works of Aristotle, foc.
The ancient author of those fragments of Metaphysics first published by Aldus, and ascribed by him and others to Theophrastus, observes concerning the simple energy of intellect as follows: μεχρι μεν ουν τινος δυναμεθα δι' αιτιου θεωρειν τας αρχας, απο των αισθησεων λαμβανοντες, όταν δε επ' αυτα τα ακρα και πρωτα μεταβαινωμεν, ουκ ετι δυναμεθα, ειτε δια το μη εχειν αιτιαν· ειτε δια την ημετεραν ασθενειαν, ώσπερ προς τα φωτεινοτατα βλεπειν" ταχα δ' εκεινο αληθεστερον, ως αυτα τα νω η θεωρια θιγoντι, και οίον αψαμενω" διο και ουκ έστιν απατη περι αυτα χαλεπη δε και εις αυτο TOUTO XA1 Ý Ouveris xav Ý KITTIS i. e. “To a certain extent, therefore, we are able to survey principle, through cause, deriving assistance for this purpose from the senses. But when we pass on to summits, and things that are first, we are no longer able to do this [i. e. to survey them through cause]; either because they have no cause, or on account of our imbecility to look as it were at the most luminous of things. Perhaps, however, the assertion is more true, that the contemplation of intellect is by contact, and as it were adhesion. Hence there is no deception in the survey of these objects by intellect. But such a perception as this, and the faith by which it is attended, are difficult."
This simple and self-visive energy of intellect, by wbich it speculates things themselves, and by intuition and contact becomes one with the object of its perception, is called by Plato in the Phædo, besos aogos, divine reason ; and by the best of the Platonists, vospa emißoan, intellectual intuition.
Conformably to what is said in the above extract from Theophrastus, Aristotle, in the last chapter of the 9th book of his Metaphysics, observes, concerning the objects of the intuitive perception of intellect, “that in these, truth is obtained by contact and assertion :" To Mev Dryelv xai Pavas aanbes. And he afterwards adds : “ but not to pass into contact with them, is to be ignorant of them :” το δ' αγνοειν μη θιγγανειν. Shortly after likewise he adds, “ With respect to such things as are beings and in energy, about these it is not possible to be deceived, but they are either intellectually apprehended or not :” So a On EOTIV όπερ ειναι τι και ενεργεια, περι ταυτα ουκ εστιν απατηθηναι, αλλ' η VOEIV, y fun.
With respect to these beings in energy, which are the same as the truly-existing beings of Plato, TA OVTWS OUTA, Aristotle says, in the 8th chapter of the 12th book of his Metaphysics, (Aldus's edition): "It is necessary that each of the revolutions of the celestial orbs should be moved by an essentially immove
able and eternal essence; and that these essencés should be as many in 'number as the revolving spheres.” To these first essences also he alludes in the following beautiful passage, in the second book of the same work : ωσπερ γαρ και τα των νυκτεριδων ομματα προς το φεγγος έχει το μεθ' ημεραν, ούτω και της ημετερας ψυχης ο νους προς τα τη φυσει φανερωτατα παντων: i.
eyes of bats to the light of day, so is the intellect of our soul to such things as are naturally the most splendid of all.”
Manor Place, Walworth.
N O. L.
A Striking Coincidence between a Chinese Author and Hesiod.
«The highest order of men [called Shing, PERFECT, or inspired] are virtuous or wise, independently of instruction ; the middle class of men [Heen, Goob, or moral] are so after instruction; the lowest order [Yu, stupid, or WORTHLESS] are vicious in spite of instruction."
Ούτος μεν ΠΑΝΑΡΙΣΤΟΣ, ος αυτος παντα νοησει,
Quarterly Review, No. 81. p. 97. According to the Platonic philosophy, in every order of beings there are υπεροχη, συστοιχια, υφεσις, ε. e. transcendency, co-ordination, and dininution. Thus in the human species, the highest class, from the proximity and alliance which it has to natures superior to man, possesses, with respect to the rest of mankind, transcendency. The second class possesses the characteristics of human nature in such a way as neither to transcend, nor fall below these characteristics. And the third class, from its proximity to the brutal species, composes what the
Αναγκη και τουτων έκαστης των φορων ακινητου τε κινεισθαι
αθ' αυτο, και αϊδιου ουσιας.
φανερον τοινυν, ότι τοσαυτας ουσιας αναγκαιον ειναι, την τε φυσιν αίδιους και ακινητους καθ' αυτας, και ανευ μεγεθους, δια την ειρημενην αιτιαν προτερον.
Chaldean oracle calls the herd of mankind, or, in the emphatic language of Burke, the swinish multitude. The first of these corresponds to the παναριστος ανηg, the second to the εσθλος, and the third to the axonios amp of Hesiod.
For further information on this subject, see p. 324. of Taylor's Translation of the Phædrus, p. 336. of the Phædo of Plato, and p. 229. of the 3rd vol. of the same gentleman's translation of Pausanias.
J. J. W.
The Earth Cavernous. “ Franciscus Patritius, a man famous enough for his learning, in a certain book of his · Of the Rhetoric of the Ancients,'
tten in Italian, and printed at Venice by Franciscus Senensis, 1562, has the following pleasant story, which he says Julius Strozza had from Count Balthazzar Castillon, and he had it from a certain Abyssinian philosopher in Spain. This wise Abyssinian did say, that in the most ancient annals of Etbiopia, there is a history of the destruction of mankind, and the breaking of the earth. That in the begioning of the world the earth was far bigger than now it is, and nearer to heaven, perfectly round, without mountains and vaHies, yet all cavernous like a sponge, and that men dwelling in it, and enjoying a most pure æther, did lead a pleasant life,” &c.—The Abyssinian Philosophy Confuted, by Robert St. Clair, M.D. 12mo. 1697.
The foregoing is in perfect accordance with the Platonic philosophy, e. g. “For I am persuaded that there are every where about the earth many hollow places of all-various forms and magnitudes.
We are ignorant, therefore, that we dwell in the cavities of this earth, and imagine that we inhabit its upper parts.
For dwelling in a certain hollow of the earth, we think that we reside on its surface.”—Plato, the Phædo, p. 220 of Mr. Thomas Taylor's invaluable translation, 8vo, edition. See also p. 140 of the translator's masterly and luminous introduction to that most beautiful dialogue.
In the subjoined passage from Olympiodorus, there occurs the very same simile as given above in Italics : IoTEOV ŠTI oi poλοσοφοι οιoνται συριγγας εχειν την γην ωσπερ την κισσηριν, και ότι διατετρηται αχρι του εσχατου του κεντρου αυτης.-Olympiod. Schol. Mss. in Plat. Gorgiam.
J. J. W.