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ASSISTED BY MORE THAN TWO THOUSAND OF THE MOST EMINENT
SCHOLARS AND AUTHORITIES IN AMERICA AND EUROPE
1ssued under the Editorial Supervision of
The Scientific American
IN TWENTY VOLUMES
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN COMPILING DEP'T
DEPARTMENT AND ADVISORY EDITORS
ELECTRICITY WILLIAM MAVER, JR., C.E. Consulting Electrical Engineer, New York ENGINEERING AND MACHINERY
WILLIAM MOREY, JR., C.E. Consulting Civil and Mechanical Engineer
STEEL ALBERT SAUVEUR, S.B. Professor of Metallurgy, Harvard University
JUDAISM ABRAM S. ISAACS, A.M., Ph.D. Professor of Semitic Languages, New York
HISTORY OF THE NATIONS
UNITED STATES ANDREW C. MCLAUGHLIN, A.M. Editor of "American Historical Review
ASTRONOMY SIMON NEWCOMB, Ph.D., LL.D., D.Sc.
PHILOSOPHY JAMES E. CREIGHTON, A.M., Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy, Cornell University
PHYSICS ROBERT S. WOODWARD, Ph.D., LL.D. President of Carnegie Institution
PURE MATHEMATICS CASSIUS J. KEYSER, M.A., Ph.D. Adrain Professor of Mathematics, Columbia
EDUCATION ANDREW SLOAN DRAPER, LL.D. Commissioner of Education, State of New York
ZOOLOGY DAVID STARR JORDAN, Ph.D., LL.D. President of Leland Stanford Jr. University
ENGLISH LITERATURE WILLIAM P. TRENT, A.M., LL.D. Professor of English Literature, Columbia
University WILLIAM T. BREWSTER, A.M. Professor of English, Columbia University
AMERICAN LITERATURE EDWARD EVERETT HALE, S.T.D., LL.D. Author of “The Man Without a Country”
CLASSICAL LITERATURE JAMES H. KIRKLAND, Ph.D., LL.D.
Chancellor of Vanderbilt University ARCHITECTURE AND THE FINE ARTS
RUSSELL STURGIS, F.A.I.A.
SYLVESTER BURNHAM, D.D. Dean of Hamilton Theological Seminary,
REV. P. A. HALPIN
Editor “Medical News.”
CANADA GEORGE MCKINNON WRONG, A.M. Professor of History, University of Toronto CHARLES WILLIAM COLBY, A.M., Ph.D. Professor of History, McGill University
MEXICO ELISHA HOLLINGSWORTH TALBOT Author Commercial and Industrial Mexico"
GREAT BRITAIN HALFORD JOHN MACKINDER, M.A. Director of the School of Economics and Political Science in the University of London
GERMANY HUGO MÜNSTERBURG, Ph.D., LL.D. Professor of Psychology, Harvard University
FRANCE HON. HILAIRE BELLOC M.P. for Salford (Eng.); Author of “Danton," Robespierre,' Paris," etc.
ITALY J. S. KENNARD, Litt.D., D.C.L., L.H.D. Author of “ Italian Romance Writers,".“ Studi
Danteschi,” “Romanzi e Romanzieri Italiani," “Les Femme dans le Roman Italien,” “The Fallen God," etc.
JAPAN GEORGE TRUMBULL LADD, D.D., LL.D. Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, Yale Uni
versity; Lecturer on Philosophy, Western Reserve University; Lecturer on Education in the universities of Japan.
AUSTRALIA HON. JOHN GREELEY JENKINS Premier of South Australia 1901-5; Agente
General in London for South Australia