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allow, where employment, not idlenesse, gives a title to it,) will be well bestowed in reviewing or improving your University notions; and if at this distance I could afford your studies any direction or assistance, I should be glad, and you need only let me know it. Though your ancestors have left you a condition above the ordinary rank, yet it's yourself alone that can advance yourself to it; for it's not either your going upon two legs, or liveing in a great house, or possessing many acres, that gives advantage over beasts or other men ; but the being wiser and better, I speake not this to make you carelesse of your estate; for, though wealth be not virtue, it's a great instrument of it, wherein lyes a great part of the usefulnesse and comfort of life. In the right management of this lyes a great part of pru. dence, and about money is the great mistake of men; whilst they are either too coviteous or too carelesse of it. If you throw it away idlely, you lose your great support and best friend. If you hugge it too closely, you lose it and yourself too. To be thought prudent and liberal, provident and good-natured, are things worth your endeavour to obtain, which perhaps you will better doe by avoiding the occasions of expences'than by a frugall limiting of them when occasion hath made them necessary. But I forget you

are

neere your lady mother whilst I give you these advises, and doe not observe what I

meant for a letter begins to grow into a treatise. Those many particulars that here is not roome for, I send you to seeke in the writings of learned and sage authors. Let me give you by them those counsells I cannot now. They will direct you as well as I wish you; and I doe truly wish you well. You will therefore pardon me for thus once playing the tutor, since I shall hereafter always be, Sir, your faithful friend and servant. JOHN LOCKE.

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THE following Extract from a letter from Dr. STEPHEN HALES to Bishop HILDESLEY, was written at fourscore, in a clear but shaking hand. "Blest with serenity of mind, and an excellent constitution, he attained to the age of 84 years, and died, after a short illness, January 4, 1761." See Biog. Dict. in 12 vol. 8vo. Teddington May 16, 1758. My good Lord,

"I am much obliged to you for your kind letter of April 11, and for the favourable reception of my book, in which I hope there are many things of so great benefit to mankind as will hereafter have a considerable influence on the affairs of the world for the better, especially in relation to those mighty destroyers,. DRAMS; and that, not only of the lives, but also of the morals of mankind. With a view to which I have sent sixteen of this book, with its first part, to several nations of Europe;

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THE author of this Sermon has attained a large share of celebrity both in his own coun→ try and in ours. His writings are of course read with an uncommon share of expectation and interest. Such being the case with any writer, he has it in his power to be extensively useful, or to do extensive injury, according to the disposition of his heart, and the opinions which he entertains. We have seen no room Vol. VI. No. 7. 26

N. B. The letter, from which the foregoing extract is made, was first published in the Gentleman's Magazine for August,

1794.

REVIEW OF DR. CHALMERS' SERMON TO THE HIBERNIAN

SOCIETY

The Doctrine of Christian Charity applied to the case of religious differences: a Sermon preached before the Auxiliary Society, Glasgow, to the Hibernian Society, for establishing Schools, and circulating the holy Scriptures in Ireland. By Thomas Chalmers, D. D. minister of the Tron Church, Glasgow.

to doubt the disposition of Dr. Chalmers to do good; and the opinions which he has advanced in the Sermon now before us, we believe to be in general, not only correct, but very important, and useful in their tendency.

The sermon was designed to promote the objects of the Hibernian Society-in other words, to encourage the efforts of delivering Ireland from its present state of igno

rance and barbarism, by the establishment of schools and the circulation of the scriptures. As the majority of the inhabitants of Ireland are Roman Catholics, it was of great importance to abate the exis ting prejudices against the people of that religion. For this purpose the Preacher aimed to show, that the spirit of popery, or that which constitutes the criminality of papists, is by no means confined to the people of that denomination; and he very justly believed, that if people were more in the habit of looking at home for the discovery of error, they would be more candid in their judgements one of another.

Such being the object of the Sermon, the Doctor se lected for his text, Matt. vii. 3, 4, 5. "And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye ? Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and behold a beam is in thine own eye ?-Thou hypocrite! first cast out the beam out of thine own eye, and then shait thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye."

For the word "beam" in the text, the Preacher substituted ❝thorn," after the example of Dr. Campbell. The plan of the discourse is-First, a short application of the leading principle of the text, to the case of those judgements that we are so ready to pronounce on each other in private life;

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Secondly, that more general kind of judgement which we are apt to pass on the man of a different persuasion in mátters of religion. Under each of these heads we shall allow the Doctor to speak for himself, by a selection of such passages as will give a correct view of his reasoning :—

"I. Every fault of conduct in the outer man, may be run up to some defect of principle in the inner man. It is this defect of principle, which gives the fault all its criminality. It is this alone, which makes it odious in the sight of God. For example, it is a fault to speak evil one of another; but the essence of the fault lies in the want of that charity, which thinketh no ill. . .

...

But though all evil-speaking be referable to the want of a good, or to: the existence of an evil principle in the heart, yet there is one style of evil-speaking different from another; and you can easily conceive how a man addicted to one way of it, may hate, and despise, and have a mortal antipathy, to another way of it.... The forms of evil-speaking break out into manifold varieties. There is the soft insinuation. There is the resentful outcry. There is the manly and indignant disapproval. There is the invective of vulgar malignity. There is the poignancy of satirical remark. There is the giddiness of mere volatility, which trips so carelessly along, and spreads its entertaining levities over a gay and lighthearted party. These are all so many transgressions of one and the same duty; and you can easily conceive an enlightened Christian sitting in judgement over them all, and taking hold of the right principle upon which he would condemn them all; and which, if brought to bear with effica cy on the consciences, of the different offenders, would not merely silence the passionate evil-speaker out of his outrageous exclamations, and restrain the malignant evil-speaker from his deliberate thrusts at the reputation of the absent; but would rebuke the humorous evil-speaker out of his fan

ciful and amusing sketches, and the gossiping evil-speaker out of his tirésome and never-ending narratives....

of its being a religion with the intole erance of which our fathers had to struggle unto the death; a religion which lighted up the fires of persecu tion in other days; a religion, which at one time put on a face of terror, and bathed its hands in the blood of cruel martyrdom; a religion, by resistance to which, the men of a de parted generation are embalmed in the memory of the present, among the worthies of our established faith.

Now, mark the two advantages which arise from every man bringing himself to a strict examination, that he may if possible find out the principle of that fault in his own mind, which he conceives to deform the doings and the character of another. His attention is carried away from the mere accompaniment of the fault to its actual and constituting essence. He pursues his search from the outward and accidental varieties, to the one principle which spreads the lea ven of iniquity over them all. . . .

But another mighty advantage of this self-examination is, that the more a man does examine, the more does he discover the infirmities of his own character. That very infirmity against which, in another, he might have protested with all the force of a vehement indignation, he might find lurking in his own bosom, though under the disguise of a different form. Such a discovery as this will temper his indignation. It will humble him into the meekness of wisdom. It will soften him into charity. It will infuse a candour and a gentleness into all his judgements. . :

Now Popery is just such a religion: and I appeal to many present, if, though ignorant of almost all its doctrines and all its distinctions, there does not spring up a quickly felt antipathy in their bosoms even at the very mention of Popery. There can be no doubt, that for one or two generations, this feeling has been rapidly on the decline. But it still lurks, and operates, and spreads a very wide and sensible infusion over the great mass of our Scottish population...

Now the fault of evil-speaking is only one out of the many. The lesson of the text might be farther illustrated by other cases and other examples..

Now, is it not conceivable that such a traditional repugnance to Popery may exist in the very same mind, with a total ignorance of what those things are for which it merits our repugnance? May there not be a kind of sensitive recoil in the heart against this religion, while the understanding is entirely blind to those alone features which justify our dislike to it? May there not be all the violence of an antipathy within us at Popery, and there be at the same time within us all the faults and all the errors of Popery? . . .

Let us therefore take a nearer look of Popery, and try to find out how much of Popery there is in the religion of Protestants.

II. I now proceed, then, to the more general kind of judgement which we are apt to pass on men of a different persuasion in matters of religion. There is something in the very circumstance of its being a different religion from our own, which, prior to all our acquaintance with its details, is calculated to repel and to alarm us. It is not the religion in which we have been educated. It is not the religion which furnishes us with our associations of sacredness. Nay, it is a religion, which, if admitted into our creed, would tear asunder all these associations. It would break up all the repose of our established habits. It would darken the whole field of our accustomed contemplations...

But, let it be premised, that many of the disciples of this religion disclaim much of what we impute to them; that the Popery of a former age may not be a fair specimen of the Popery of the present; that, in point · of fact, many of its professors have evinced all the spirit of devout and enlightened Christians; that in many districts of Popery, the Bible is in full and active circulation; and that thus, while the name and externals are retained, and waken up all our

..

Add to all this, the circumstance traditional repugnance against it,

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there may be among thousands and tens of thousands of its nominal adherents, all the soul, and substance, and principle, and piety of a reformed faith.

But again, it is said of Papists, that they hold the monstrous doctrine of transubstantiation. Now a doctrine may be monstrous on two grounds. It may be monstrous on the ground of its absurdity, or it may be monstrous on the ground of its impiety. It must have a most practically mischievous effect on the conscience, should a communicant sit down at the table of the Lord; and think that the act of appointed remembrance is equivalent to a real sacrifice, and a real expiation; and leave the performance with a mind unburdened of all its past guilt, and resolved to incur fresh guilt to be wiped away by a fresh expiation. But in the sacraments of our own country, is there no crucifying of the Lord afresh? Is there none of that which gives the doctrine of transubstantiation all its malignant influence on the hearts and lives of its proselytes? Is there no mysterious virtue annexed to the elements of this ordinance ? Instead of being repaired to for the purpose of recruiting our languid affections to the Saviour, and strengthening our faith, and arming us with a firmer resolutien, and more vigourous purpose of obedience, does the conscience of no communicant solace itself by the mere performance of the outward act, and suffer him to go back with a more reposing security to the follies, and vices, and indulgences of the world? Then, my brethren, his erroneous view of the sacrament may not be clothed in a term so appalling to the hearts and the feelings of Protestants as transubstantiation, but to it belongs all the immorality of transubstantiation; and the thorn must be pulled out of his eye, ere he can see clearly to cast the mote out of his brother's eye.

But, thirdly, it is said, that Papists worship saints, and fall. down to graven images. This is very, very bad. "Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve." But let us take ourselves to task upon this charge also. Have we no consecrated names in the annals of reformation, no worthies who hold too commanding a place, in the remembrance and affection of Protestants? Are there no departed theọ

First, then, it is said of Papists that they ascribe an infallibility to the Pope, so that if he were to say one thing and the Bible another, his authority would carry it over the authority of God. And, think you, my brethren, that there is no such Popery among you? Is there no taking of your religion upon trust from another, when you should draw it fresh and unsullied from the fountain-head of inspiration? You all have, or you ought to have, Bibles; and how of ten is it repeated there," "Hearken diligently unto me?" Now, do you obey this requirement, by making the reading of your Bibles a distinct and earnest exercise? Do you ever dare to bring your favourite minister to the tribunal of the word, or would you tremble at the presumption of such an attempt, so that the hearing of the word carries a greater authori, ty over your mind than the reading of the word? Now this want of daring, this trembling at the very idea of a dissent from your minister, this indolent acquiescence in his doctrine, is just calling another man master; it is putting the authority of man over the authority of God; it is throwing yourself into a prostrate attitude at the footstool of human infallibility; it is not just kissing the toe of reverence, but it is the profounder degradation of the mind and of all it's faculties and without the name of Popery, that name which lights up so ready an antipathy in your bosoms, your soul may be infected with the substantial poison, and your conscience be weighed down by the oppressive shackles of Popery.

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We tremble to read of the fulminations that have issued in other days from a conclave of cardinals. Have we no conclaves, and no fulminations, and no orders of inquisition, in our own country? Is there no professing brother-hood, or no professing sister-hood, to deal their censorious invectives around them, upon the members of an excommunicated

world?...

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