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a faithful translation, containing valuable notes by Mr. Michael Jones, who is no less distinguished by refined taste, than by extensive acquaintance with classical literature, the author is under great obligation to that gentleman, as well as for the means of reference to many books in his valuable library. The numerous quotations and references by notes in this essay, will sufficiently evince the author's desire to do ample justice to his very interesting subject.

November 1st, 1833.

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THE

ROMAN VILLAS

OF

THE AUGUSTAN AGE.

IN the early times of the Republic, the Romans strictly confined themselves to what was useful, even in their public works: it was only during the reigns of the Emperors that they began to give to the Temples of the Gods an air of magnificence by the regularity of their architectural disposition'.

Before the war with Pyrrhus, which happened four hundred and seventy years after

Strabo, lib. 5.

B

the foundation of the City, it is clear they used only thatch or shingles as a covering for their houses, which at the same time consisted of no more than one story in height; the Laws of the Ædiles also forbidding the walls of private buildings to be made of a greater thickness than eighteen inches, English measure: subsequent regulations, indeed, fixed the height of houses at sixty or seventy feet ?.

In the time of Horace, who wrote in the reign of Augustus, every man, who was rich enough, had his country-seat in the charming Campania ; and the district of Naples, Baiæ, Puteoli, &c. was preferred, being the most beautiful sea coast in the world, according to the poet's own words,

What place on earth with charming Baiæ vies.

All were confessedly inferior to the cele

1 Dionysius Halicarnassensis, lib. 1.

2 Francis's Translation of “ Nullus in Orbe, sinus Baiis,” &c. Epistle 1. Baiæ was the winter retreat of the Romans; while Tibur, Tusculum, Preneste, Alba, Cajeta, Mons Cir

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