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Poland, 2,320; Asiatic Russia, 224,000; and Russian America, 18,000 square German miles. The greatest extent of this immense territory is, from north to south, 580 German, or 2,900 English miles; and from west to east more than 180 degrees, i.e., one-fifteenth of the whole population of the earth, and onefourth of that of Europe. It contains 100 nations, with more than forty different languages. If we classify them according to families and races, we obtain the following results:
England; 70,550 in Scotland; 29,868 in Wales; or, in Great Britain and Ireland, 1,340,812-considerably more than half of the foreign-born residents of the country; France, 54,069; Prussia, 10,549; rest of Germany, 573,225; Austria, 946; Switzerland, 13,358; Norway, 12,678; Holland, 9,848; Sweden, 3,559 Spain, 3,113; Italy, 3.645; West Indies, 5,772; Denmark, 1,838; Belgium, 1,313; Russia, 1,414; Portugal, 1,274; China, 758; Sandwich Islands, 588; Mexico, 13,317; South America, 1,543. The number 33,000,000 of foreigners who arrived in the United States 11,200,000 in 1853 was 372,725; in 1854, 368,643. About 3,600,000 40 in every 100 Irish live in the large cities, 7,000,000 and about 36 in the 100 Germans. 56,214 3,300,000 persons born in the United States reside in 2,400,000 Canada. 600,000 2,000,000 1,600,000 600,000
70,000,000 In the year 1850, Russia contained 1,842 towns, of which, 1,608 were situated in Europe. The following territories have fallen into the iron, insatiable grasp of Russia within the last fifty years:-1st, Acquisitions from Sweden, greater than what remains of that kingdom; 2d, from Poland, nearly equal to the Austrian Empire; 3d, from Turkey in Europe, a territory, exclusive of the Rhenish provinces; 4th, from Asiatic Turkey, possessions nearly equal to the smaller States of Germany; 5th, from Persia, acquisitions equal in extent to England; 6th, from Tartary, an area not inferior to that of Turkey in Europe, Greece, Italy, and Spain.
National Debts.-At a time like the present,
when the contraction of national debts is becoming general, the following statement of the debts by the principal States in the world, corrected up to a late period, is of some interest. It is contained in Ayre's edition of "Fenn on the English and Foreign Funds," very recently issued :-"Austria, amount of debt, 211,000,0001.; Baden, 7,000,000l.; Bavaria, 14,117,000.; Belgium, 26,000,000l.; Bolivia, 521,000l.; Brazil, 12,392,000l.; Buenos Ayres, 2,500,000Z.; Chili, 1,784,000l.; Columbia, 6,625,950.; Cuba, 311,2307.; Denmark, 13,069.000l.; Ecuador, 3,817,000Z.; England, 773,923,000l.; France, 233,000,0007.; Granada (New), 7,500,000l.; Greece, 8,250,0007.; Guatemala, 594,5007.; Hamburgh, 4,000,0007.; Hanover, 5,174.0007.; Holland, 102,451,000l.; India (British), 48,000,000Z.; Mexico, 10,000,000Z.; Peru, 9,953,8007.; Portugal, 19,122,000l.; Prussia, 33,500,000l.; Roman States, 17,152,0007.; Russia, 68,000,0007.; Sardinia, 23,000 0007.; Saxony, 6,223,0007.; Spain, 70,000,000l.; Sweden, 450,000l.; Switzerland, 160,000l.; Turkey, 5,000,000l.; United States of America (Federal), 10,000,0007.; Venezuela, 3,789,000l.; Wurtemburg, 4,850,000.; total, 1,736,229,5507."
Foreigners in the United States. According to Mr. De Bow, there are in the United States 961,719 persons born in Ireland; 278,675 in
Established Church Clergy-The poor clergy of the Established Church are about to petition the Queen and two Houses of Parliament for a more equal distribution of ecclesiastical revenues. The facts on which the petitioners ground their case are, that while bishops and great dignitaries receive enormous incomes, the yearly income of 10,000 parochial clergymen does not exceed 2004, the yearly incomes of 7,800 are under 1501., and of 600 under 501. The men who receive these pitiful salaries are the working clergy.
The Roman Catholic hierarchy in the United States have, by their high-handed attempts to get all the property of the Church into their hands, inflamed against them the public indignation-not only among Protestants, but even among their own members. Wherever there is an unwillingness on the part of trustees of Church property to make the transfer, they are immediately excommunicated; and all those who do not co-operate heartily with the bishops, are instantly removed.
In the City of London-without any increase of population-the number of lunatic poor has doubled within the memory of some of the guardians; and the cause has baffled their inquiries. Some are inclined to attribute this dreadful visitation to excess of eagerness and strife in commercial pursuits, or in mental exertions; others, to diet, and some partially to the effects of railway travelling.
Dr. De Sanctis.-Mr. Gilly, in a letter to the Editor of the "Record," says:-"I have just received a letter from a member of the Vaudois Table, dated May 26, to this effect :—
Our Synod was closed yesterday evening, after a Session of seven days. It has been the longest, the most remarkable, and I trust it will be the most blessed in its results, of any that has been held since La Glorieuse Rentrée. The spirit which prevailed throughout the whole Session was admirable; it was serious, orderly, and full of Christian love and forbearance towards those who differed in opinion. It was just that sort of spirit which the prayers of members of the Synod, and of our friends at home and abroad, may be supposed to have implored, and which, we believe, the God of all mercy has been pleased to hear.' The letter concludes by describing a very impressive scene which took place in the Synod, when the reconciliation between Dr. De Sanctis and members of the Vaudois Church and Table was publicly declared."
"CHURCH PROGRESS."-No. I.
We have not overlooked the attention which has lately been directed to the present position and prospects of our Church, and regard it as an evidence of the existence of many amongst us who are anxious to further the cause of truth. But while the interest thus manifested cannot but be gratifying, we would have had more satisfaction had such zeal led to the consideration of topics and measures of essential and permanent import, upon which the real and progressive prosperity of our Church depends.
The object we have in view is, the extension of the Church. This at least is the ecclesiastical view of the question. Many would prefer a somewhat different definition. Love for the souls of men; a desire to save perishing sinners; a longing for the gathering of the masses of our countrymen into the fold of Christ, would more appropriately describe their principles of action. A desire merely to extend an ecclesiastical system—to have the mind continually dwelling upon the idea of the Church-would be a miserable motive for exertion. We must remember, however, that the Church principle, and love for perishing sinners, are not inconsistent. they do not, they ought to exist in the same mind, and combine in the production of evangelistic labours.
A question here occurs: Are we as a Church more actuated by Churchism than by desire for the souls of our perishing countrymen? Or, it might be asked, How much are we actuated by either the one or the other? Though confessing Churchism a miserable principle of action, we dare not deny its power. The Church of Rome, whose central dogma might be appropriately termed "ecclesiology," is a significant illustration of the principle to which we allude. When combined with higher principles our purely ecclesiastical notions assume a majesty and a power the influence of which we ought to cultivate. When love for our Church and love for the souls of men become our characteristics, an ever-flowing prosperity will be the result. No power could then arrest our progress. The power of God would be with us. Onward would be our courseever strengthening the congregations in existence, and continually occupying the waste places of our land.
The real means of our prosperity do not appear to have had sufficient attention. We have heard somewhat about the "barbarous music of our Church, her forms of worship, hymn-books, organs, pulpit oratory of all sorts, according to the taste or distaste of those who think they know all about it. That certain grievances exist we do not deny: but that these form any considerable barrier to our progress, cannot for a moment be entertained. Good music is certainly better than bad music, and yet we could point to flourishing congregations the music of which has been termed "barbarous" by our critics, and the pulpit oratory of which is certainly none of the best; where, in short, there is neither good music, nor an organ, nor a hymn-book, nor a pulpit orator, nor any change of the form of worship. Good music and slight changes in our form of worship are entirely within the reach of the congregations of our Church. If they wish any or all of these, why don't they at once secure them? Our Church has not hitherto used chants in her service; but her congregations may do so if they please. Some of our Scotch friends would doubtless be horrified No. 92.-New Series.
at these novelties. They would denounce them as rags o' Popery." But our good friends might by and by become reconciled, and thank their amiable, loving, and loveable English friends for having helped them to an elevated taste in connexion with Divine service. By all means let us have good music, chants, change of form, pulpit oratory, &c., if needful. But these are merely secondary. They are scarcely worth fighting for, and scarcely worth any resistance on the part of those who may feel opposed to them. The prosperity of the Church in her present position does not depend upon one or all of these means. We have deeper, vital wants, without the supply of which we can never prosper.
1. A sufficient number of men for the ministry. Here we are lamentably deficient, and so long as this deficiency exists we are only trifling with the Church's interests by expending attention and energy upon minor details. Give us abundance of men who love the Church and the souls of her people-men fully qualified to discharge the duties of the sacred ministry, and we shall have secured one unfailing element of success. We cannot contrast our real wants with the outcry about music, hymn-books, forms, and what not, without the deepest regret, being assured that our essential wants lie in another direction, and that the English Presbyterian Church (if she shall ever really be entitled to that name) must be built upon other foundations. Men we want-men we must have in abundance to preach the Gospel before we can prosper.
We do not here attempt to investigate the causes of our lamentable deficiency in this respect. Perhaps the genteel poverty to which the office of the ministry sometimes consigns an individual may have some influence in checking the zeal of aspirants. This, however, cannot exist to any great extent. It would be unwarrantable to suppose that the members of our Church were guided in these matters by pecuniary considerations, and were destitute of nobler emotions and influences than those of gold. Suppose, however, that prospective interests have deterred some few from entering the ministry. Can we conscientiously condemn them? Would it become us to denounce them as men unworthy of the office? Certainly not. The office of a Christian minister is sometimes, but, happily, far from being always, accompanied by a manifold martyrdom, from the endurance of which we must expect men to shrink.
It would be gratifying to find that our Church possessed enticements of a lucrative character. These do not exist: would that they did! We are not, however, to lament our comparative poverty, as if, on that account, the Church was incapable of being built up and increased. Difficulties sometimes form enticements to enter upon a certain work. He is yet a child who finds everything smooth and favourable, and who shrinks from the prospect of adversity. He is a man who looks with unflinching purpose at the obstacles before him and proceeds in the path of duty. The greater the difficulty, the greater the determination to overcome it. Our Church presents no lucrative enticements to enter her ministry. Her inducements are of another and a far higher character, She requires men of heart and head-men of purpose and power-who are willing to commit themselves to the cause and the providence of God; men who are determined not to be subdued-men who will brave, and gain strength by, the difficulties of their position. We cannot say, Come, enter our ministry: you will find everything smooth and comfortable. You will spend your days in sunshine and ease. Troubles and perplexities, arising from your position, will never come near you." But we can say,
ministry. Our position is difficult, but the work is God's, who calls us to this work and this ministry. We promise nothing but work and the reward which God has promised. Perhaps He will make your position. more prosperous than we or you anticipate." Such are the inducements which our Church appears to present to those who enter her ministry. They are such as address themselves to men. While fully admitting the complaints sometimes made, in reference to the inadequate support of the ministry, we will not, unless compelled, believe that this is the sole cause why so few devote themselves to the preaching of the Gospel; unless, indeed, we admit that the very reference to what is termed an adequate support," as an inducement, operates in withdrawing the mind from the contemplation of principles which would nerve the soul, and carry the individual not only into, but through the work.
We cannot but doubt the policy of those who are continually referring to the support of the ministry, and would have us believe that this must be attended to before we can expect a sufficient supply of men. Such sentiments appear to ignore the character and necessities of our present position, which demands the existence of men who, by their labours, and the blessing of God, would build up and create churches, and thus produce an adequate support for themselves. Better, far better, to look upon our position in its real character; state it freely and fully, and make it, difficult as it is, an inducement to enter the ministry-than to neglect it, and permit men to find it out for themselves, when, perhaps, they are scarcely able to grapple with it. We dread the idea of young men finding themselves disappointed in this respect. But we do not dread to let them know the difficulties of the position they will have to encounter; and urge them, on this account, to give themselves to the work of the ministry. Surely our young men are not so faint-hearted as to be frightened at our difficulties-they are surely made up of better material than to require to be coaxed into the ministry by the prospect of adequate support. We believe that there are men of heart and head amongst them-men of the right stampwho, if the matter were placed properly before them, would think, resolve, and act. Our Church requires to be built up. She is not an Elysium in which easy-going souls may pass their days in undisturbed repose. requires men of purpose, who know her position, her difficulties, and prospects-men who love her, and who resolve, according to their ability, to increase her strength. Such men she must already have within her pale. How are they to be induced to enter her ministry? By having continual reference to support as an essential condition for the supply of ministers? No. But by reference to the necessities of our position-to the work given our Church to perform. A struggling Church is far more worthy of love and labour than one already established, and is eminently qualified to draw into her service men of courage, love, and faith.
Perhaps the dread of inadequate support may have deterred not a few of our ministers from urging the claims of our Church upon the services of her young men. If so, how are we to prosper? How are we to attain to that position in which the status of the ministry, considered in a pecuniary aspect, could be made an inducement? We fully admit the force of the temptation which may have influenced our ministers. But it ought to be cast aside. An explicit statement of our position should be made. If done, perhaps God would bless us with men of the proper mould-and, in addition, grant success and its accompanying temporal rewards. We are
far more likely to receive the desired support by acting in this manner than by endeavouring to receive the reward first, and then wait for the
Some, perceiving the necessity for an increased number of ministers, would persuade us to lay aside the "red tape" of a regular curriculum. Presbyteries have the power to admit one whom they find " duly qualified." If there are any "duly qualified" who have not had a regular training for the ministry, we ought certainly to receive their services. But we suspect that, by "duly qualified" our friends mean something less than the qualification Now exacted. Every one knows that mere attendance at a college does not entitle one to become a minister.
Any attempt to reduce the qualifications of the ministry should be resisted. It is not an easy task to preach the Gospel. It is a calling which demands every talent. The talent of the pulpit ought to keep pace with that of the
Besides, if a man desires to spend his life in the Christian ministry, and if that ministry be worthy of attainment, he cannot consider the conditions prescribed by the wisdom of the Church too great a sacrifice. If the Christian ministry is not worthy a thorough preparation, he had better leave it alone.
A REVIVAL FORTY YEARS AGO.
WE need revival. We are not revived. Our best ministers long for it. Our best people long for it. It is proper, it is desirable, it is even needful to consider, while we have not got a revival, some of God's dealings with his people in former days.
Robert Findlater was the son of godly parents, and was born in 1786 in the parish of Kiltearn, Ross-shire. Having studied for the ministry in Edinburgh, he was licensed in 1807. Having been for a short time employed in the mission at Rothiemurchus, he received, in 1810, the appointment to the station of Loch-Tay-side, in Perthshire. This extensive district embraced both sides of the lake. He laboured with great faithfulness and diligence for about six years with little appearance of fruit. The district was very dead, but had been somewhat stirred up by the itinerant labours of the Independents in connexion with the Haldanes. It is curious that the first person awakened by his preaching was a woman not of his congregation, but from the district of Comrie. We know of other ministers who can say the same. In this there is Divine sovereignty.
But the time was at hand. "He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him." (Psalm cxxvi.) It was especially in connexion with a sacramental visit of Dr. M'Donald, of Urquhart, to Loch-Tay-side, that the work of God commenced. There had been for months before unusual solemnity and attentiveness of hearing-a preparation for more distinctive and manifest blessing. Dr. M'Donald took the place usually occupied by the minister of the congregation in preaching the action sermon, which he did from Isaiah liv. 5: "For thy Maker is thine husband." On the Monday, he again preached from Luke xvi. 2: "Give an account of thy stewardship." At this time of remarkable blessing attending