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most agreeable to Scripture pattern. Though herein we differ from them, yet we are far from thinking that this difference should hinder a happy union between them and us. Nay, we crave leave to confess to the world, that it will never, as we humbly conceive, be well with England till there be a union endeavoured and effected between all those that are orthodox in doetrine, though differing among themselves in some circumstances about Church-government.' I cannot help expressing my fervent hope that the Presbyterians of England (who, I trust in God, will soon be one body themselves) will prove themselves heirs to these noble and Christian sentiments of their forefathers. And, in reiterating, after the lapse of two hundred years, the same overtures of peace, may we not, considering the position which we occupy, placed as we are between the extremes of a despotic externalism on the one hand, and a lax sectarianism on the other, anticipate the realization under happier auspices of that blessed union which our fathers desired to see but were not able? In a general re-organisation of the Churches of England, should such a thing be ever attempted in our day, we frankly admit that it is quite possible we may have much to learn from our neighbours, and they may be the better perhaps of
lesson or two from us. In the spirit of these overtures, I would say to all our Evangelical brethren within and beyond the pale of the Establishment, with a slight change on the ancient adage, let our motto be,-In doctrine, unity; in Church polity, moderation; and in all things, charity.'
We earnestly hope our readers will put themselves in possession of this excellent lecture, which they may obtain by post for
The Literature of Labour; or, Contributions to Letters by Working-men. A Lecture, by the Rev. ROBERT STEEL, Minister of the Presbyterian Church, Salford, Manchester. London: D. F. Oakey.
A MOST excellent Lecture, delivered to working-men, and which deserves a very wide circulation.
Judging from this lecture, and the success that has attended his ministry, we think that the Presbyterian minister of Salford is the right man in the right place.' Long may he continue to labour and prosper in his important sphere of
Our young readers, especially, will peruse with interest the following passage in the Lecture, on
"THE PROSE LITERATURE of labour. "John Bunyan (1628-1688) was the son of a tinker at Bedford, and after acquiring the elements of reading and writing, fol
lowed for many years his father's occupation, and travelled about the country as a repairer of broken utensils. Such a life was not very favourable to literature, any more than to religion, and Bunyan grew up a wild, swearing, and lying fellow. But a great change passed over him he became a Christian, and, without undergoing any literary preparation, a Baptist preacher. Imprisoned under Charles II. for twelve years and a-half, with only two books-the Bible and Fox's Book of Martyrs'--he sent forth from his cell a work which ranks as high as any in the English languageThe Pilgrim's Progress,' and which has been translated into most of the European and Asiatic tongues. This book, though the production of a man who, even in his prison, had to aid, by his labours, the support of his wife and children, has received the highest eulogium which could be pronounced. Macaulay's brilliant pen has been occupied in its praise. When we consider the beauty of its style, the minds it has aroused, the good of which it has been the instrument, the literature of the Bedford tinker cannot be too highly valued. It has written John Bunyan's name on imperishable records, as with a pen of iron upon a roek for ever.
"Daniel Defoe (1661-1731) was the son of a butcher, and himself successively hosier, tile-maker, and woollen merchant. When he was thirty-eight he published his True-born Englishman,' and in his fiftyeighth, Robinson Crusoe.' Ere he died his fertile pen had produced no fewer than two hundred and ten books and pamphlets. He had to contend with poverty, ill success in business, and persecution. Yet, despite of all, he left an impression on English literature which, in the continued popularity of his best works, and in the stimulus he gave to other minds, remains to this day. As a novelist,' says a well-known writer, he was the father of Richardson, and partly of Fielding; as an essayist he suggested the "Tatler and "Spectator;' and in grave irony he may have given to Swift his first lessons.' Who has not felt the charm, and lingered fondly over the adventures of Robinson Crusoe ? And how often, for the purpose of exciting a habit of reading in the youthful mind, has this incomparable tale been recommended.
"Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was a printer, and the youngest son, and, all but two, the youngest child of a family of seventeen children! At ten years of age he left school, and was made his father's helper in soap-boiling; but, having a strong passion for the sea, he hated to attend the soapy waves. Notwithstanding the blighting of his wishes, he was fond of books, and read voraciously. His brother having brought
printing-presses over from England, received Benjamin as an apprentice. Soon it was manifest that the child was father to the man,' when he wrote two ballads for the sake of his brother's business, and hawked them through the streets of Boston. To obtain books he boarded himself for half the money which his meals were reckoned to cost.' Self-denial secured him reading. Determined to rise, yet rash it may be, he found himself in Philadelphia, in his eighteenth year, 'with one dollar and a few copper coins in his pocket, and moreover, hungry, tired, dirty, and miserable.' But time rolled on, and Benjamin Franklin became the author of works which fill six volumes, made important discoveries in electricity, was elected one of the representatives of Philadelphia in Congress, and was sent as ambassador of the United States to the Court of France, then the most splendid in the world. He had only common abilities, and many disadvantages; but, by self-education, self-denial, and persevering industry, he became one of the most illustrious names in the Literature of Labour.
"Hugh Miller, of Cromarty, has lately published his 'Autobiography.' He was the son of a sailor, and bred a mason. He had, for his education, means which are available to all the youth of Scotland. He has given the 'story' of it in the work referred to; and the schools he has attended have been happily styled by a writer in the 'North British Review' 'the school of ancestry,' being wholesome influences of uncles who were alive, and of memories of the dead, for he was early fatherless; the school of local circumstance,' being the shores and rocks, caves and hills, of his native Cromarty, which he has done so much to make famous, and from which he has brought so many contributions to science; the school of literature,' being the parish and subscription schools of Cromarty, where he had all the improvement that his own insubordination and inefficient masters suffered him to get; 'the school of friendship,' which, in his work as an artisan, he found among other workingmen. Though thirty years of his life were spent in these various scenes of education, and some of them amidst many things uncongenial to an inquiring spirit-though they were no better than many of his fellows possessed-yet Hugh Miller has become one of the first names in geological science-his works, text-books in Oxfordone of the purest writers of the English language, whose style has provoked the envy
of eminent professors, and excited the praise of all leading critics. His works already fill five goodly octavos, and he has, with consummate ability, for sixteen years, edited a first-class paper in Edinburgh,
"Elihu Burritt is believed to be one of the greatest linguists of the present time, yet he acquired his learning while toiling at an anvil as a blacksmith. He is the author of Sparks from the Anvil,' Voice from the Forge,'Peace Papers for the People,' on which the following critique has been pronounced:-In every line coined from the reflecting mind of the blacksmith of Massachussets there is a high philosophy and philanthropy, genuine and pure.'
"Old Humphrey is a name very familiar to readers of the Religious Tract Society's works for the young. Though early apprenticed to a trade, Mr. Mogridge, for such was his name, cultivated literature, and familiarised himself with the best English poets. He thus acquired a facility of expressing himself in verse, which he afterwards turned to good account. Impressed with the number of unsound and irreligious publications which issued from the press, he began, in 1814, to attempt to counteract them by preparing some interesting tracts. "Thomas Brown; or, a Dialogue on Sunday Morning,' was one of his first efforts, and in the ballad style. It obtained great popularity, and was often chanted in the streets of London. Having been unsuccessful in business, he devoted himself entirely to literature, and became the author of one hundred and forty-six works on the Society's catalogue, seven volumes of the Peter Parley series, and ten other books, besides contributions to periodicals. His writings have been very useful, and yet retain all their freshness and popularity.
"I might mention J. C. Loudon, who, from a landscape gardener, rose to the 'head of all the writers of his day, upon subjects connected with horticulture, and of the whole class of industrious compilers.' He wrote four Cyclopædias, and an Arboretum Britannicum,' in eight volumes, which itself might be the work of a lifetime. So much can be done by men of ordinary education, in the use and improvement of their powers.
"But lest these should all be considered rather high for the ambition of the majority of labouring men, let me direct attention to a fact of some significance which the last few years has brought to light. In the year 1847, the cause of the Sabbath was agitated. Many urged the plea of the working-man, who, for six days, was confined to his shop and labour, and who needed the Sabbath for recreation. It was
resolved to obtain the opinion of working men on the subject. A pious and liberal gentleman offered three prizes of 25l., 15., and 107., respectively, for the three best essays on The Advantages of the Sabbath to the working-classes in a Christian point of view,' to be prepared exclusively by persons engaged in labour. It was the first experiment of the kind, but, in the course of three months, nine hundred and fifty compositions were given in, and altogether a thousand and fifty-seven. Of these, several have been published, and have had an extensive circulation. One was by a labourer's daughter, entitled 'The Pearl of Days,' which, though precluded from a prize, was published under the patronage of Her Majesty, and has had a circulation of 50,000 copies, besides translations into various languages. These compositions attest not merely a love for the Sabbath among the operative classes, but also the literary character which many of them posBess. They afford a stimulus to all in similar occupations to cultivate their minds. Nor are these solitary instances. For a prize on infidelity among the workingclasses, one hundred and nine essays were sent in. Throughout the empire of late, by the establishment of Mechanics' Institutions, Debating Clubs, Young Men's Christian Associations, &c., where the taste for composition, as well as for reading, has been encouraged, literature has got a place among the sons of toil, by which they can enjoy many a pleasure after the day's labour is over, and be elevated into regions of thought, and feeling, and usefulness, to
which their predecessors were strangers. I might refer to the letters of the soldiers from the Crimea, as illustrations of my meaning. These patriotic men have not only earned a place among their country's warriors by their heroic deeds, but they have secured a niche in their country's literature, by the intelligent, racy, and Christian epistles they transmitted home. Men of labour may be men of mind, able to appreciate the best writing in books, and able, if need be, to add their mite to the general knowledge, and float down the stream of time in the remembrance of pos terity. In Germany, it is said, there are no fewer than 50,000 persons who have each written a book. It is not unusual among ourselves to observe works with such titles as 'The Autobiography of a Workingman,' by one who has whistled at the plough; The Working-man's way in the World,' being the autobiography of a journeyman printer; The Autobiography of an Atheist,'-a valuable book by a man who was a sawyer in the bush in Australia; The Life of a Vagrant,' &c.—which indicate the literary aspirations and capabilities of the class. Men of handicraft! these examples are before you to encourage the cultivation of your minds, and the expres sion of your thoughts. Though you may never appear in print, yet you may make many advances, profitable to yourself, and useful to others. It is said that the letters of Harlan Page, a humble joiner, were the means of making the world better while he lived, and of causing joy in heaven over sinners that repented."
Presbyterian Church in England.
COLLECTIONS AND DONATIONS. St. Andrew's, Birkenhead....Coll. £ 8 0 0
White, Tullo, and Macpherson (ministers); with Messrs. Houghton, Murray, Eunson, and Craig (elders).
The office of Clerk to the Presbytery having become vacant, in consequence of the removal to Ireland of the Rev. James Speers, the late Clerk, the Rev. G. Lewis was unanimously chosen as his successor. Mr. Lewis therefore resigned the office of Moderator, and the Rev. James White, of Hanley, was elected Moderator in his stead for the current Synodical year.
The Clerk reported that, in accordance with the instructions of Presbytery, he had presided at the moderation of a call at Stafford, on Thursday, the 23d ult. ; that the utmost unanimity prevailed; and that a call had been made out in favour of the Rev. Nason Brown, of Fivemiletown, Ireland, which he now laid on the table.
Mr. Murray, Elder from Stafford, also presented an extract Resolution of Session, relative to stipend and gave explanations regarding the financial and other circumstances of the congregation.
Thereafter it was moved, and unanimously agreed to, "that the call be sustained, and the usual steps taken to pro
Mr. Brown, being present, laid on the table credentials in the usual form, from the Presbytery of Clogher, in connexion with the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, attesting his ordination by them on the 23d of August, 1853, and "that since that time he has discharged the duties of his office with activity, fidelity, and zeal; and, in accepting his resignation, recommend him to the care of the Presbyterian Church in England, confident that they will find him a faithful and efficient minister of the Gospel." These credentials having been sustained, and the call placed in Mr. Brown's hands, he expressed his intention of accepting the same, whereupon the Presbytery appointed his induction to take place on Monday, the 17th inst., at six o'clock, p.m., the edict to be served in the usual form on Sabbath, the 9th inst. At the induction services, the Moderator to preach, Mr. Macpherson to offer up the induction prayer, and Mr. Lewis to deliver the charge to the minister and people.
Mr. Tullo was appointed Moderator pro tem. of the Session at Wolverhampton, in room of Mr. Speers; and the Presbytery having heard a verbal statement from Mr. Eunson of the trying position of that congregation, instructed the Session to present, as early as practicable, an accurate report of their present circumstances.
The Presbytery adjourned, to meet at Stafford, on Monday, the 17th inst., at four o'clock.
Stafford, Nov. 17, 1856. Which day and place the Presbytery met and was duly constituted. Sederunt-the Rev. James White (Moderator); Messrs. Tullo, Macpherson, and Lewis (ministers); with Messrs. Murray, Eunson, Craig, and Poole (elders). The Clerk read a letter from the Rev. J. Speers, late minister of Stafford, giving additional information relative to the manse belonging to that congregation, and to the liabilities still remaining thereon, which was regarded as satisfactory. An application from Stafford to the Home Mission Committee was ordered to be attested, and the Clerk was instructed to give some additional explanations to the Committee.
The Rev. W. Tullo laid before the Presbytery an extract Minute of the Session of Wolverhampton, stating the position of the congregation, and asking advice of the Presbytery as to the propriety of discontinuing it; and Mr. Eunson, the Treasurer, also presented a financial statement, which showed a very large sum due to him, to meet which there was not available income.
The Presbytery agreed to lay the circumstances before the Home Mission Committee, and to inquire whether they deemed it expedient still to contribute from their funds to the support of the congregation, and if so, to what extent.
School schedules from Stafford, and from Broad-street, Birmingham, were ordered to be attested.
The hour appointed for the induction of the Rev. Nason Brown having arrived, the edict was returned, duly attested, and the Presbytery proceeded to engage in the usual services. The Moderator preached from Romans i. 16, Mr. Macpherson proposed the usual questions, and offered up the induction prayer, and Mr. Lewis addressed the minister from 1 Timothy iv. 16, and the people from 1 Thessalonians v. 12, 13. The services having concluded, Mr. Brown's name was added to the roll of the Presbytery.
The Presbytery adjourned, to meet at Wolverhampton on Thursday, December 11, 1856, at three o'clock.
PRESBYTERY OF LANCASHIRE.
THIS Presbytery met at Manchester on the 5th day of November. The Rev. A. Inglis, Moderator.
Present-Rev. Dr. Munro, Messrs. Forster, Cromar, Lundie, M'Caw, Inglis, Blelloch, White, Steel, Thomson, Paterson, Blyth, Wood, and Breakey (ministers); and Messrs. Adam, Chalmers, M'Ewen, Sorley, and Wilson (elders). The Rev. Dr. Hetherington, of the Free Church of Scotland, being present, was associated.
Mr. J. Adam's "Reasons of Dissent and Complaint" were read and received.
On the application of the Moderator of Bolton Church Session, the Presbytery resolved to meet at Bolton on the 20th inst., at half-past six p.m., to moderate in a call. The Rev. A. Cromar to preach and preside.
A Memorial was presented from the congregation at present worshipping at Rock Ferry, in Cheshire, praying to be sanctioned as a charge preparatory to the calling of a minister, which was read and received. After discussion and deliberation it was unanimously agreed to-that while the Presbytery rejoice in the measure of success, and in the amount of resources as exhibited in the Memorial, they, in compliance with the instructions in the Directory in such cases, appoint a Committee, viz., Rev. R. H. Lundie (Convener), Dr. Munro, Messrs. Paterson, and White, ministers, and Mr. M'Ewen, elder, to in quire into the various particulars, and more especially into the amount of stipend it is purposed to give to the minister, and to report at next Meeting.
The Home Mission schedule of Crewe was produced, examined, and attested.
The Moderator having put the question to Mr. Cromar and his elder, Whether the injunction of the Presbytery, to desist from the use of instrumental music, was complied with in St. George's Church, and answer being returned to the effect, that it was not, and St. George's Church Session stood on their constitutional right to have their case adjudicated upon by the Synod, it was, after considerable discussion and deliberation, unanimously agreed to:-That the Presbytery address a friendly and solemn remonstrance to the Minister and Church Session of St. George's Church, with the view of pointing to them the evils which may arise from their present course of conduct, in opposition to the injunction of the Presbytery, founded upon the Synod's deliverance; and especially the discord it is likely to produce in our Church; the harm also that may thus accrue to the government and discipline of our judicature in the estimation of office-bearers and people; as well as the injury it may bring on the Presbyterian name in the judgment of other Christian communions in England. And that the following members, viz., Rev. Dr. Munro (Convenor), Messrs. Lundie and Paterson, ministers; and Messrs. M'Ewan and Sorley, elders, be appointed a Committee, to draw up the remonstrance, and to forward it to St. George's Church
The Presbytery adjourned to meet at Liverpool on the first Wednesday of January next at eleven a.m.
INAUGURATION OF THE REV.
DR. M CRIE.
ON Tuesday the 4th inst., the interesting event of the installation of the Rev. Dr. M'Crie in the Chair to which he was recently! appointed in the Theological College of the Presbyterian Church in England, took place in circumstances of the most auspicious and gratifying kind.
The Presbytery of London met in the College Hall, 51, Great Ormond-street, at three o'clock, with the special view of receiv ing the Reverend Doctor. The minute of his appointment by the College Committee, acting for the Synod, was read by the Clerk, whereupon it was moved and seconded, and unanimously agreed to, that Dr. M'Crie's name be added to the Presbytery roll. Mr. Thompson of Woolwich was called upon by the Moderator to engage in prayer; and after commending Dr. M'Crie, in his new and important labours, to the grace of God, the members gave to him, one by one, with the warmest cordiality, the right hand of fellowship.
In the evening, at seven o'clock, the Professor delivered his inaugural lecture in the lower room, Exeter Hall, which, in anticipation of a larger assemblage than could be accommodated in the College Hall, had been engaged for the occason. Admission was by ticket; and the hall was crowded in every part with a most respectable audience, consisting chiefly of gentlemen. We ob served several eminent ministers of other Evangelical denominations present, including the venerable Dr. Bunting, of the Wesleyan body, and several Professors of University College and King's College, including Professors Hoppus and Leone Levi. Mr. Keedy, Moderator of the Presbytery of London, commenced the proceedings with an appropriate prayer, after which Alexander Gillespie, Esq., as Convenor of the College Committee, stated briefly the circumstances connected with Dr. M'Crie's appointment, and, in the name of the Synod, installed him in the vacant Chair. Dr. M'Crie then took his place in the chair, amidst the cordial plaudits of the assembly, and proceeded to deliver his inaugural lecture. The Address occupied an hour and a-half in delivery, and was listened to throughout with sustained interest and attention.
The Lecturer commenced by tracing the progress of English Puritanism from its earliest origin down to the period when it assumed the specific form of Presby terianism. Referring to the controversy about the vestments, he took occasion to
advert to the moderate and liberal views of