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a tower sa. Arms-Ermine, a tower sa., on a chief gu. three fleurs-de-lis or. Is there any authority for these arms, and does any reader know of a record or reference to them earlier than 1780 ?

3. Will any reader who has copies of seals, cenotaphs, or any other memoranda relating to the name or family of Bullivant be so kind as to tell me of them in ' N. & Q.' ? descendants living of the ancient family of 4. Can any reader tell me if there are Norwich of Brampton, Northants.

PAULINE TARN.-I recently came across some volumes of French verse published by Lemerre & Sansot under the nom de plume of "Renée Vivien." I could quote from those volumes at least 200 verses, which rank among the finest specimens of French poetry, and, though little known, are entitled to perennial fame. Now I have ascertained that the gifted author, who died quite young in Paris (1909), was an American girl of Scotch parentage called Pauline Tarn (the name was given to me at Lemerre's; my spelling may be wrong). Could any of your readers inform me about her family, her education, her English or American friends? I gather from her books that she travelled a great deal, visiting Greece, the islands, Smyrna, India, and Japan. I am Robinson, born about 1754, died 1834, aware that there are some objectionable married Margaret Withers, daughter of elements in her books, and wish that they Withers, by his wife


The Châlet, Port Wrickle,
St. Germans, Cornwall.

Admiral Marks

O'Neil. The

should not be dwelt upon; but her genius-marriage is stated to have taken place at for genius she had is the more extra-Worcester, where a family of Withers ordinary as she wrote in a language not her resided. Wanted, the entry of marriage, own. I feel sure that she will be famous and any information regarding the wife's some day, and think it desirable that we family. P. D. M. should try to know more about her before it gets too late. S. REINACH. Boulogne-sur-Seine.

BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION WANTED.I should be glad to obtain any particulars concerning the following Old Westminsters: (1) Charles Cary, admitted 1716, aged 8. (2) Henry Cary, admitted 1775. (3) John Carr, admitted 1726, aged 17. (4) Ralph Carr, admitted 1781. (5) William Carr, admitted 1820. (6) Reginald Jeremiah Carter, born 27 Oct., 1805, admitted 1820. (7) John Cartwright, admitted 1742, aged 13. G. F. R. B.

BULLIVANT.—I have been interested to read the repeated notices which from time to time have appeared in N. & Q.' respecting the name of Bullivant, but have so far been unable to secure any answers to my queries. I shall be grateful to any reader who can enlighten me in these pages on the following points :—


A "TRAWN CHAER." Can anyone tell me what sort of a chair a Trawn chaer was? It occurs in the will of Dan William Burton, Vicar of Wighill, York, 7 March, 1499 (Testamenta Eboracensia, iv. 160: Surtees Society). If the explanation, with any authorities, could be sent to me, I should be very greatly obliged. F. P. BARNARD. Bilsby House, near Alford, Lincolnshire.

GLADSTONE ON THE OFFICE OF CHAN CELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER.-I read the other day in The Christian Science Monitor of Boston, Mass., a reference to

"Gladstone's saying that no Chancellor of the Exchequer should atttend a Cabinet Council without bringing his written resignation in his pocket."

Did he ever say this? and did he do it himself in the four governments in which he served as Chancellor under other Prime Ministers? J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. Glendora, Hindhead, Surrey.

1. I have a fairly continuous record of the THE "FLASH" OF THE WELSH FUSILIERS. Bullivants of Northamptonshire from c. 1610.-What is the origin of the word "flash" as Can any reader give me information about applied to the piece of silk worn at the back them prior to that date? Any extracts from of the uniform of the Welsh Fusiliers as a pedigrees will be greatly appreciated. survival of the piece of silk with which the

2. Edmondson in his 'Heraldry,' 1780, pigtail was tied? and Burke in his General Armory' (first


and subsequent editions), assign to Bulli


"RAG-TIME."-I fail to find this in the

vant the following crest and arms: Crest-N.E.D.' Will some one set forth the A demi-lion rampant or, charged on breast origin and evolution of the term? with a fleur-de-lis vert, and holding in gambs


OLD ETONIANS.-I shall be grateful for PORTRAITS OF BEAU NASH " AT BATH. information regarding any of the follow-In 1738 a full-length portrait of Richard ing:

(1) Buckeridge, John, admitted 15 Jan., 1759, left 1766. (2) Buckley, Edward, admitted 20 Sept., 1765, left 1768. (3) Burke, John, admitted 13 Jan., 1759. (4) Burwell, James, admitted 30 Sept., 1760, left 1764 or 1770. (5) Calvert, Charles, admitted 1773, buried at Eton, 4 Feb. 1774. (6) Calvert, George, admitted 23 April, 1763, left 1770. (7) Calvert, Richard, admitted 19 June, 1754, left 1760. (8) Campbell, John, admitted 19 April, 1763, left 1767. (9) Campbell, John, admitted 25 Jan., 1765, left 1767. (10) Capstack, John, admitted 26 July, 1762, left 1763. (11) Carew, Robert Shapland, admitted 5 July, 1765, left 1767. (12) Carkett, Robert, admitted 8 Sept., 1763, left 1769.

WEST INDIAN FAMILIES.-I should be obliged if any reader could tell me whether there exist any books giving genealogies of the families belonging to Jamaica and other islands in the West Indies in the same way that they have been given for Antigua, by Mr. V. R. Oliver. R. A. A.-L.

THE VOYAGE OF THE PROVIDENCE : CAPT. BLIGH.-The reissue of Sir John Barrow's book, The Mutiny and Piratical Seizure of H.M.S. Bounty,' with an Introduction by Admiral Sir Cyprian Bridge, G.C.B., leads me to repeat a query which I asked in your pages some years ago. It is this: Is there any account published of the voyage of the Providence, commanded by Capt. Bligh in his second (and successful) expedition to Tahiti for the purpose of obtaining plants of the bread-fruit ?

As he is said to have spoken highly of the behaviour of the crew, and to have recommended several for promotion, he must either have learnt wisdom by experience, or the account of his tyranny, which is said to have led to the mutiny of the Bounty, must have been highly coloured.

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Nash, commonly called" Beau Nash," was placed in the Long Room at Bath between the busts of Newton and Pope. In another Nash was also hung, one, or both, being assembly room a full-length portrait of attributed to Hoare, a portrait painter of some note in Bath prior to the advent of tell me whether these portraits are still in Gainsborough. Can any of your readers existence, and, if so, where?

T. S. C.

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DANISH LYRICS.-Will quainted with the literature of Northern Europe inform me who are the outstanding lyrical poets of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway the modern men of decided genius?

D. L.

MOORE OF WINSTER.-In The Genealo- pond, brew-house, and dovecot are all in gists' Guide' (Marshall) there is a reference good preservation, surrounded with some to the "Pedigree of Moore of Winster, co. fine walnut and chestnut trees. I cannot Derby (includes Smedley, Bright, Wood, &c.), get to know any more about it. four pages folio, compiled by T. N. Ince, 1867." May I ask where I could see this? RALPH SEROCOLD.

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DRYDEN ST. MARGARET'S, WESTMINSTER.-I should be glad to know if there are any entries relating to persons of the name of Dryden in the recently published Registers of St. Margaret, Westminster,' edited by A. M. Burke. A near relative of John Dryden the poet is said to have resided in the parish. LITERATUS.

[There are no entries of the name of Dryden in this most valuable record.]

STRAHAN: MACK.-I want to get biographical information about Alexander Strahan, publisher, of Ludgate, London, who succeeded Moxon, and published Tennyson's poems before H. S. King.

Also I want to know if Robert S. Mack is living; or, if dead, where I can get biographical information concerning him. Can any reader help me? L. WELSH.

FRAINE FAMILY.—I should be glad of any references to this family, said to have been of Irish origin, members of which were resident in Bath in the eighteenth century, and married into the Wrighte or Wright families, also of Bath. The latest record I have relates to Capt. Fraine of Bath in


Essex Lodge, Ewell.


COTTAM FAMILY.-Information respecting the whereabouts of any member of this family connected with John Cottam of "Horse and Jockey Inn," Bedford, who died in 1855, will be welcome. The name was seen over a shop in Southwell, near Nottingham on Easter Monday, 1913; but, of course, the place was then closed. H. T. JOHNSON. Puckeridge, Herts.

PENMON PRIORY.-Can any reader refer me to works dealing with the above? Said to have been built in the sixth century on the north end of the island of Anglesey, the old priory, with the Abbot's House (where I have stayed) is still standing, and the fish



(11 S. ix. 449.)

ACCORDING to the oath which a Privy Councillor takes on his admission to office his duties are to:


1. Advise the King according to the best of his cunning and discretion.

2. To advise for the King's honour and the good of the public, without partiality through affection, love, meed, doubt, or dread.

3. To keep the King's counsel secret. 4. To avoid corruption.

5. To help and strengthen what shall be resolved in the council.

6. To withstand all persons who would attempt the contrary; and

7. To observe, keep, and do all that a good and true Counsellor ought to do to his Sovereign Lord.

The political importance of the Privy Council has almost entirely disappeared since the duties of the Government have been assumed by the Cabinet.

The privileges of Privy Councillors are to be styled "Right Honourable," and to have precedence of all knights and baronets, and A Privy Councillor must be a natural born of the younger sons of barons and viscounts. subject of Great Britain.

the Privy Council unless they are specially summoned. In ordinary cases, only the ministers, the great officers of the household, and the Archbishop of Canterbury are summoned; but on extraordinary occasions summonses are sent to the whole of the Council. On 23 Nov., 1839, the whole of the Privy Council were summoned to Buckingham Palace to receive the Queen's announcement of her intended marriage to Prince Albert.

No members attend the deliberations of

Greville relates the incident as follows:"All the Privy Councillors seated themselves [about eighty were within call for the occasion] when the folding doors were thrown open, and gown, but wearing a bracelet containing Prince the Queen came in, attired in a plain morning Albert's picture. She read the declaration in a clear, sonorous, sweet-toned voice, but her hands able to read the paper which she held. Lord trembled so excessively that I wonder she was Lansdowne made a little speech, asking her permission to have the declaration made public.

She bowed assent, placed the paper in his hands, and then retired." -Greville's Journal,' 23 Nov., 1839.

Some interesting sidelights are seen in the following further extracts from Greville :


When I was with the Chancellor the other lay, he said a difficulty had been started about making Prince Albert a Privy Councillor before he was of age, and asked me if there was anything in it. I found, on looking into the books, that the Royal Dukes had not been brought into Council till they were of age, but probably that was because they could not take their seats in the House of Lords before; but I also found very clear proofs that George III.'s sons had not been sworn, but introduced in his reign, and this puzzled me, for I remembered to have sworn several of them at different times during the present and two last reigns. I therefore wrote to the Duke of Sussex, and asked him what had occurred in his case. His reply cleared the matter up. He said the King's sons are born Privy Councillors, and that they are declared sworn by the King whenever he pleases; that accordingly he was merely introduced into Council in 1807; but after the death of George III., when he stood in a different relation to the reigning Sovereign, he was sworn; and again at the accessions of King William IV. and Queen Victoria. I found an account in the Council Books of the form with which the Prince of Wales was introduced into Council in 1784, and this I sent to Melbourne to show to the Queen, suggesting that Prince Albert should be introduced upon the same terms as Prince George of Denmark had been; and with the same ceremonies as the Prince of Wales in 1784."-Greville's Journal of the Reign of Queen Victoria,' vol. i. p. 274.

Meetings of the Privy Council are usually held at intervals of three or four weeks, and six Privy Councillors at least with the Clerk of the Council constitute a meeting:

"The list of Privy Councillors now includes the members of the Royal Family, the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Bishop of London, the great officers of State, the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Chief Justice of England, the Lords Justices of the Court of Appeal, the President of the Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division, the law officers of the Crown, the members of the Judicial Committee, several of the Scotch judges, the Speaker of the House of Commons, the Ambassadors, some of the Ministers Plenipotentiary and Governors of Colonies, the Commander-in-Chief, the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Vice-President of the Board of Trade, the Paymaster of the Forces, &c., and necessarily all the members of the Members of the Council are in their collective capacity styled His (or Her) Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council'; individually, each member is styled "Right Honourable.' (The Lord Mayor of London, although styled 'Most Honourable,' is not a Privy Councillor. See Notes and Queries,' first series, iii, 496; iv. 9, 28, 137, 157, 180, 236, 284; ix. 137, 158.) the authority of letters-patent dated 28th May, Under 10 James I., 1612, Privy Councillors take precedence after Knights of the Garter. Amongst themselves they take rank according to seniority of appointment when no other principle of classifi


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A list of the present members of the Privy Council is in Whitaker's Almanack.' Bibliographically, I would add that W. J. Thoms's Book of the Court' contains much valuable information. Mr. A. V. Dicey, when a young man of 25, gained the Arnold Prize Essay for his book on The Privy Council,' first issued in 1860, and since reissued in 1887 by Macmillan, with a careful analysis at the beginning. Sir Francis Palgrave published in 1834 his slender book,

An Essay upon the Original Authority of the King's Council.' Sir Harris Nicholas published seven volumes of The Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council of England,' 1834-7. Mr. J. R. Dasent published 'Acts of the Privy Council,' 6 vols., 1890-3. I mention these last two works chiefly in order to direct attention to the valuable articles on the Privy Council (based on the two works named) which appeared in The Edinburgh Review, January, 1892, and in The Quarterly Review, July, 1893. For the appellate jurisdiction and powers of the Privy Council there is a Report of the Lords Committee on the Privy Council Bill,' 1844. Sir Robert contributed to The Law Quarterly Review, Stout, the Chief Justice of New Zealand, vol. xxi. (1905), an article, Is the Privy Council a Legislative Body?? Baldwin has within the last few years Mr. J. F. written valuable historical articles on the subject: The Beginnings of the King's Council' (Trans., Royal Hist. Soc., vol. xix., 1905); Records of the King's Council (American Hist. Review, October, 1905); Hist. Review, January, 1906); The Privy Antiquities of the King's Council' (English Council of Richard II.' (American Hist. Review, October, 1906); "The King's Council from Edward I. to Edward III.' (English Hist. Review, January, 1908); The King's Council and the Chancery (American Hist. Review, April and July, 1910). All the best writers on constitutional history have numerous passages of note upon the Privy Council.


At a fire which occurred in Whitehall in 1618 the volumes of the Privy Council Registers belonging to the preceding years confusion, or possibly destroyed in the fire. of the reign of James I. were lost in the An Order in Council was passed directing the clerks of the Council to recover possession of these important records of State

wherever they could be found. The British Museum has one which has never been restored to the Council office, but the remainder of the series, from the last years of Henry VIII. to date, is perfect. Charles Greville was very angry with the British Museum authorities for not yielding up the Register in their possession. See his Journal' under date 7 June, 1843.


In The Law and Custom of the Constitution,' by the late lamented Sir William Anson, R. H. J. will find some useful information. In vol. i. p. 40, title, ' Cabinet and Party Government,' there is an account of the way in which the Cabinet has superseded the Privy Council. See also vol. ii. p. 65, title, 'The Ordinary and the Privy Councils,' and the following chapters to p. 100; and see also p. 112. Sir William Anson refers to many authorities.

R. H. J. will also find a great deal about the Privy Council in The Encyclopædia of the Laws of England,' second edition, vol. ii. p. 644, title, Privy Council,' and in vol. vii. p. 51 of The Laws of England,' by Lord Halsbury; Constitutional Law,' Sec. 3, title, The Privy Council.' There is an excellent article in Chambers's 'Encyclopædia' under the same title, and lastly, there is the Arnold Prize Essay, 1860, entitled 'The Privy Council,' by A. V. Dicey, now the distinguished writer on constitutional questions.

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"TROD (11 S. ix. 27, 116, 158, 454).— Although we have diverged somewhat from the original quest in treating this monosyllable as a substantive, it may be useful to supplement what has been said of it in this character. In some parts of Scotland, especially perhaps in the northern counties, "trod" was once commonly used in the sense of way, path, or footstep, and here and there the usage may still linger. Within living memory a novelist employed The Hot Trod' as the title of a story illustrative of clan rivalry. Jamieson duly enters the term in the Scottish Dictionary, giving as derivation, A.-S. trod, vestigium, gradus, passus," and as definition a path, a step, footstep." He illustrates thus from Tarras's Poems,' p. 59:




This is the worst o' a' mishaps. 'Tis waur than death's fell trod. Tarras was a Buchan man, who published at Edinburgh, in 1804, Poems, chiefly in the Scottish Dialect.' THOMAS BAYNE.


HERALDIC (11 S. ix. 430).-The family of Booth bear " argent three boars' heads erased erect sable 2 and 1, armed or," and for their crest, "a lion passant argent standing on two branches of laurel proper." The sinister impalement of the shield in question contains the arms of Moore, viz., ermine, three greyhounds courant sable, on a canton gules a lion of England for augmentation," as borne by Moore, Lord Mayor of Lndon in 1682.

The ermine spots on the field have evidently been mistaken by your correpondent for "Latin crosses." WILFRED DRAKE.

STAFFORDSHIRE POETS (11 S. ix. 448).— The following dates are given in Simms's Bibliotheca Staffordiensis':


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6. Robert Waring, b. at Lea, near Wolverhampton, 1614, d. at Lincoln's Inn Fields, 10 May, 1658.

7. Rev. Thomas Moss, b. at Bilston (n.d.), d. at Stourbridge, 7 Dec., 1808.

There are other interesting details of most of the above, which I shall be pleased to transcribe for MR. INGERSLEY if he is not within easy reach of a copy of the above work, in which case, perhaps, he would write me direct.

HOWARD H. COTTERELL, Foden Road, Walsall.

F.R.Hist.S., F.R.S.A.

I am surprised that the 'D.N.B.' does not mention place and date of birth of three of the poets referred to, as a reference to Simms's Bibliotheca Staffordiensis,' gives the particulars. If R. M. INGERSLEY will refer to a copy he will obtain correct details.

shire, nor yet, I think, was the Rev. Thomas Robert Waring was not a native of StaffordMoss, nor possibly Mrs. Katharine Thomson; for although her father was for some short time of Etruria in that county, he removed to Greek Street, London, and shortly afterwards married his wife from Derby. Meteyard's Wedgwood,' vol. ii. p. 484.


BISHOP CARTWRIGHT (11 S. ix. 150).If the gentleman who inquired some weeks ago about the Bishop will write, I may be able to give him full particulars as to parentage, family, &c. R. SIMMS.

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