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warm debates were held about religion. The Romanists again insisted, that the ban should be executed upon the Lutherans; which was opposed by the electors of Saxony and Brandenburgh, the dukes of Lunenberg, the landgrave of Hesse, and the prince of-Anhalt, who declared again for a council, either general or national. But the Romanists prevailed, and confirmed the decree of the former diet of Spires; against which the Lutheran princes, and fourteen cities, joined in a formal protest, whereby they appealed, from all that should be done, to the emperor, a future council, or to unsuspected judges; and accordingly they sent deputies to the emperor, with a petition that this decree might be revoked." This was the remarkable protestation, which gave the name of Protestants to the Lutherans in Germany. The protesters acted with so much steadiness and resolution, that the emperor was much startied at it, and determined to use moderation for the present.
The same year, the landgrave of Hesse brought Luther and Zuinglius to a conference at Marpurg; when the Lutherans
produced such articles as they objected against in the doctrine of the Zuinglians. After some debates, articles were drawn up, in which they agreed about the Trinity, original sin, justification by faith, the efficacy of baptism, and the authority of the magistrates: but they disagreed about the sacrament, in the sense and meaning of the words; though they assented, that the communion should be administered in both kinds; and they denied transubstantiation, as also the sacrifice of the
At this time, Solyman the Magnificent invaded Germany, and besieged Vienna ; but soon retired with great loss. The emperor Charles returned to Germany, and appointed another diet to be held at Augsburg, which was opened June 20, 1530. It was given out, that the emperor would tread the gospellers under his feet ; which made the Protestant princes inclined to meet him in arms; but Luther prevailed on them to meet in peace. The princes appointed Luther, Melancthon, Justus Jonas, and Pomeran, to draw up their forin of doctrine, to lay before the diet, where Luther was too noxious to appear, and was left in the castle of Coburg, near at hand, that he might be consulted on occasion. Erasmus excused himself froni
appearing at this diet, because he knew upon whose judge. ment the emperor relied; upon divines, in whose opinion whosoever should dare to open his mouth in favour of piety, was a Lutheran, and worse than a Luthcran. The imperial chancellor opened the diet by declaring, that the emperor had summoned this assembly, that every one might consult upon such propositions as should be made, and offer in writing what he thought convenient, conceming religion. The Protestant princes petitioned the emperor to permit their confession of faith to be read in a full diet, which he refused; but granted them leave to read it in his presence before a special assembly of princes, and other members of the empire. This confession of faith, which was afterwards called,“ The Augsburg Confession, was delivered to his imperial ma esty both in Latin and German, with the authority whereon each article was founded. The emperor shed tears when this confession was read; which were doubtless owing to the truth of the doctrines contained in it, and the moderaiion that Melancthon had shewn in revising the whole. Luther, in his retirement, was not a little afraid to what lengths the pacitic spirit of Melancthon might induce him to yield to the Papists, and therefore wrote to him to be carefni of what concessions he should make them.
This confutation, however, was read before the diet, and the Romanists said they hoped the Protestants would return to the communion of the church, as they agreed in several points which had been formerly contested. The elector of Saxony answered, that the Protestants were al. ways ready to come to an union in religion, in any thing which was not prejudicial to their consciences. In consequence of this, the Romanists appointed seventeen pere sons to treat about religion with the Protestants; and this conference was held at Augsburg on August 7. The Popish deputies said, that Luther would not submit to the judgement of a council : but the Protestants declared, they would refer themselves to the determination of a council, to which they appealed; and also presented to the emperor an apology for their confession, which put an end to the diet at Augsburg, and the Protestant princes Teturned home in October, without an accommodation with the Rornauisis. The sacramentarians also presented their conse:sion of faith to the emperor at this diet; which was drawn up by Bucer and Capito; but this confession was more unacceptable than that of the Lutherans, and was answered by Faber and Eckius; in consequence of which, the emperor commanded the Zuinglians to renounce their errors, and threatened to compel them by his authority, if they refused *.
Luther wrote some books against Popery, during the sitting of the diet; particularly a treatise upon the second Psalm, in which he applied to the princes met at Augsburg, what was said in that Psalm concerning the assembly and conspiracy of the princes of the world against Jesus Christ. The emperor procured a decree in the diet, which allowed the Protestant princes till the 15th of April following, to consult about their submission to it; and his imperial majesty promised to issue out his summons for a council to begin the next year. The Protestant princes remained firm to their confession of faith, and the emperor published the decree of the diet on the 16th of
A symbolical representation was exhibited before the emperor and his brother Ferdinand at Augsburg, when the Lutherans presented their confession of faith to that assembly. As the princes were at table, a company of persons offered to act a small comedy for the entertainment of the company. Thcy were ordered tu beyin; and first entered a man in the dress of a doctor, who brought a large quantity of sınall wont. of straight and crooked billets, and laid it on the iniddle of the hearth and retired: on bis back was written the name of Reuchlin. When this actor went ort, another entered, apparelled also like a doctor, who attempted to make fagyots of the wood, and to fit the crooked to the straight; but having laboured long to no purpose, he went away out of hnmour, and shaking his head : on his back'appeared the name of Erasmus. A third, dressed like an Augustinian monk, came in with a chafing dish full of fire, gathered up the crooked wood, clapped it upon the fire, and blew till be made it burn, and went away, having upon his fruck the name of Luther. A fourth entered dressed like an emperor, who, seeing the crooked wood all on fire, seemed much concerned, and to put it out drew his sword, and poked the fire with it, which only inade it burn the brisker: on his back was written Charles, V. Lastly, a fifth entered, in his pontifical babit and triplecrown, who seenied extremely surprized to see the crooked billets all on fire, and by his countenance and uititude betrayed excessive grief: then looking about on every side, to see if he could extinguish the flame, he cast his eyes on two bottles in a corner of the room, one of which was full of oil, and the other of waier; and in his hurry, lie unfortunately seized on the oil, and poured it upon the fire, which made it blaze só violent); that he was forced to walk off on his back was, written Leo X. This farce wanted no commentary.
November, which ordered, that no alterations or innovation should be made in the faith or religious worship of the church ; and that none should be admitted to the imperial chamber, who disobeyed this decree.
The elector of Saxony was summoned by the emperor to be present at Cologne, on the 29th of December, at the election of Ferdinand to be king of the Romans: but the elector appointed the other Protestant princes to meet him at Smalkald, on the 22nd of the same month; where they entered into a confederacy to defend themselves against the emperor and the Romanists, who were determined to put the decree, made at the diet of Augsburg, rigorously into execution. ;
The court of Rome was greatly disturbed at what had been transacted at the diet at Augsburg; and the Pope employed nuncios to dissuade the emperor from hold. ing a council : but the emperor urged the necessity of it; and the Pope, Dec. 1, '1530, wrote a circular letter to all the Christian princes, informing them, that a council should be held, and desiring them to countenance so holy a cause by their personal attendance. The Protestant princes also wrote circular letters to the European sovereigns, and particularly to the kings of England and France, requesting their interest and protection in obtaining a Reformation, which had been attempted by John Colct in England, by John Gerson and Nicholas Clemangis in France, and by Lather in Germany. The kings of England and France, declared for a general council, peace, and Reformation ; which encouraged the confederate princes to meet again at Smalkald on March 29, 1531; when they renewed their league ; and Luther composed a treatise against the diet of Augsburg, to prove that it was lawful to resist the magistrates, if they commanded any persons to assault those who would not submit to the decree.
The Protestant princes held another assembly at Franc, fort on July 4; and the emperor, on July 13, 1532, by the treaty of Nuremburg, agreed that all the disputes concerning religion should cease, until a free general council was held, which was to be within a year. The Protestants insisted, that no innovation in doctrine should be made from their confession, nor any ceremonies introduced contrary thereto; which was granted by the einVOL. 111.No 69. 0o
peror, and the Protestant princes agreed to assist hing tha the war against the Turks.
The elector of Saxony died in August, and was so ceeded by his son John Frederic in his dominions, t'en zeal for the Protestant cause. The Pope sent his nunerve in January, 1531, to the new elector, to settle with the the conditions of holding a council ; and the Protestere princes met upon this occasion at Smalkald, June when they desired that the council might be free, and t held in Germany, where the differences in religion.” began : but the Pope: refused to comply with theirlzth quest.
toda Luther dissuaded the elector of Saxony from makling an alliance with the Switzers, and persisted to unite im of zealously than ever against the sacramentarians : Iver Bucer undertook to reconcile the Lutherans and Zuitug Jians, Luther met Bucer and Capito at Wittenberg, fim May 22, 1.536, when they entered into a long debate uptet their faith and doctrine concerning the sacrament ; atish they delivered to Luther the confession of faith of this churches of Switzerland ; but they could not agree ta their articles of the form of union about the sacramenities Luther explained himself concerning the Lord's Suppetani by saying, he had never taught that Jesus Christ came down from heaven to the earth, either visibly or in visibly and that he left it to the almighty power of God to effect how the body and blood of Christ are offered in the Lord's Supper, keeping himself entirely close to the words of the Scripture, " This is any body, this is my-blood. He observed, that as they could not understand each other, it was convenient they should be friends, and entertain a good opinion reciprocally of themselves, till the spirit of contention should cease among them; and so he committed to the care of Bucer and Capito to finish what they had begun.
About the beginning of 1597, Luther was attacked by is a severe illness, which brought him near to his grave He applied himselt to prayer, made a confession of bis faith, and lamented grievously his unworthiness of martyrdom, which he had so often and so ardently desired. In this situation he made a will, for he had a son, and his wife was again with child, in which he recommended his family to the care of Heaven : Lord God, says he, I thank