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examples—The Shays rebellion-Arguments of those who favor
separate States answered — Historical examples — Appeal to the
people from these examples.

No. XI.—THE UTILITY OF THE UNION IN RESPECT TO COM-

MERCIAL RELATIONS AND A NAVY

Foreign nations jealous of our commerce-Need of uniformity of
action-Respect commanded by a navy-Effects of disunion on com-
merce-On the fisheries-On the navigation of the Western lakes and
the Mississippi river-Jealousy of Spain-Advantages of a navy-

Internal commerce-Europe not superior to America.

No. XII.-THE UTILITY OF THE UNION IN RESPECT TO

REVENUE

Commerce the best source of wealth, and increases the ability to
pay taxes Indirect taxation best suited to America, and that must
come from commerce — Taxation of this sort impossible without
Union - The results of a destruction of this resource—The need of
revenue, and the best sources for it ensured by Union.

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No. XIII.-ADVANTAGE OF THE UNION IN RESPECT TO

ECONOMY IN GOVERNMENT
One civil list instead of many-Small confederacies will be formed,

cach as expensive as the single Confederacy proposed-Reasons for

this.

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No. XIV.-OBJECTIONS TO THE PROPOSED CONSTITUTION

FROM EXTENT OF TERRITORY ANSWERED .
Distinction between a republic and a democracy-Errors as to
ancient republics-Extending the limits of a republic, Territory of
the United States not too extended, compared with European nations
-Jurisdiction of the United States limited to objects of general
interest-Purpose of the Constitution to unite States and add to their
number-Intercourse between the States will be promoted-All the
States exposed, and all need protection.

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No. XV.—THE INSUFFICIENCY OF THE PRESENT CONFED-

ERATION TO PRESERVE THE UNION .
Evil results of the present Confederation-Analysis of the defects
of the Confederation - The true purposes of government-Impotence
of the Confederation for efficient government—Experience under the
present Confederation.

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No. XXI.-OTHER DEFECTS OF THE PRESENT CONFEDERA-
TION

119
No sanction to its laws, no power to exact obedience, no power to
punish disobedience, no power to use force with the States, no power
to assist a State in enforcing its own laws–Objection as to interfering
with States answered— The principle of raising money by contribu-
tions from the States—This rule unequal and oppressive and will
become ruinous—The remedy proposed-Advantages of taxes on

articles of consumption, and of indirect taxation.
No. XXII.-THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED

· 125
No power to regulate commerce-Evils of this lack of power-
Raising troops by quota-Evils of such a system-The evils and
dangers arising from the equal vote of the States in Congress—The
want of a judiciary power—The organization of Congress utterly im-
proper for the exercise of suitable powers. —The present Confedera-

tion never ratified by the people.
No. XXIII.—THE NECESSITY OF A GOVERNMENT AS ENER-

.

GETIC AS THE ONE PROPOSED TO THE PRESERVATION
OF THE UNION

. 135
The objects of the federal government–The common defence of
the States and the powers necessary-Reasons why these powers
should not be limited-Failure in this respect of the Confederation

-Remedies of the Constitution.
No. XXIV.-THE POWERS NECESSARY TO THE COMMON
DEFENCE FURTHER CONSIDERED

141
Objection as to standing army answered— These powers given to
Congress—Limitations on Congress—No interdiction in State consti-
tutions, with two exceptions, to standing armies—None in articles of
Confederation-Necessity of such powers in the federal government-

Our commerce demands a navy.
No. XXV.-THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED

146
Objection that States can provide for common defence answered-
The common defence cannot be entrusted to the separate States be-
cause it would be oppressive to some States, might become dangerous
to all, would create jealousies between the States, and might imperil
the authority of the Union-Provisions of the Confederation in this
respect—A mistake to restrain the discretion of Congress in keeping
or raising armies—Disadvantages of militia-Standing armies some-
times necessary when there is no foreign war-Example of Pennsyl-
vania and Massachusetts—Dangerous to restrain too much the fed-
eral government.

PAGB

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No. XXVI.—THE IDEA OF RESTRAINING THE LEGISLATIVE

AUTHORITY IN REGARD TO THE COMMON DEFENCE

CONSIDERED

152

Its origin-Not in favor here—The exclusion of military establish-
ments in time of peace-Its origin and progress-Giving the author-
ity to Congress a sufficient safeguard-Reasons for this—Objection
that the Executive may seize supplies answered and an appeal made

on this point for Union.

No. XXVII.—THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED

· 159

The objection that the new government will require the military
force to administer its laws considered—The national government
not in danger of popular ill-will any more than those of the States-
Reasons for believing that the federal government will be better ad-
ministered than those of the States—Less liability to sedition against
federal government–Less likely to require force than that proposed
by the opposition-Reasons for this—The laws of the Union, so far

as they go, to be the supreme law of the land.

No. XXVIII.—THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED

163

Cases in which the federal government must use force-Equally

necessary in plan of opposition—Employment of force controlled by

Congress- If Congress prove unfaithful there is the original right of

self-defence — The States' security against Federal usurpation-Fur-

ther security in the extent of territory and the limited resources of the

country.

No. XXIX.-CONCERNING THE MILITIA

168

Regulation of militia must be confided to federal government to
secure uniformity of organization and discipline-Objections that
no power is given to federal magistrate to call out posse comitatus,
that danger may be apprehended from authority over militia, an-
swered— The project of “ Publius " for a militia establishment and
its advantages—The appointment of officers of militia by States a
sufficient safeguard-Objection as to power to order militia to distant
States answered.

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No. XXX.-CONCERNING THE GENERAL POWER OF TAXA-

TION

174

Such power necessary to every constitution-Evil effects of want of
such power-Results in present Confederation-Objection that Con-
gress should be limited to external taxation answered—Evils and de-
fects of the system of requisitions-Without general power existing
funds would be diverted in time of war-The general power will
bring out the resources of the country and give confidence to lenders.

PAGB

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No. XXXI.—The Same SUBJECT CONTINUED

180

The importance of first principles--In morals and politics-Rea-

sons for diversity of opinion on these matters—The positions thus far

established reviewed. The opposing arguments as to usurpations by

the federal government and as to federal aggressions on State gov-

ernments reviewed— The popular sympathy with the State govern-

ments.

No. XXXII.—THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED

185

Objection that the general power of taxation would interfere with

the State levies considered-Barrier against this danger-Federal

sovereignty limited— The only exclusive power of taxation in the

federal government is in laying duties on imports—The power of

taxation in all other respects concurrent with that of the States-

Proof of this—No repugnancy between federal and State power-

Concurrent authority the necessary result of a divided sovereignty.

No. XXXIII.—THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED .

189

Objections to incidental powers of taxation considered— These

powers necessary—Their express grant an act of caution—The fed-

eral authorities and then their constituents the judges of the propriety

of federal measures-Objections that the taxation laws of the Union

are supreme considered, and the necessity of this supremacy shown

-These laws limited by the Constitution.

No. XXXIV.—THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED

194

Concurrent authority concerning taxation the only alternative to

complete subordination of the States-Absurdity of denying the prac-

ticability of concurrent authority-Examples from Roman history,

Needs of the federal government for large powers of taxation.

No. XXXV.-THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED .

Reasons for not restricting federal government in the matter of

revenue-Restraint would lead to inequality of taxation and oppres-

sion-Objections that the interest of the revenue would guard against

an extreme tariff, and that all classes of tax-paying citizens cannot be

represented, considered— Representation in Congress analyzed in re-

gard to taxation-Good effects of mixed representation and the need

of extensive information among representatives.

No. XXXVI.—THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED

207

Representation further considered with reference to taxation—The

federal government able to exercise the power of internal taxation-

Better than the system of requisitions-No danger of conflict between

State and federal authorities in regard to taxation-Minor objections

to power of taxation considered.

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