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political organization, of which the Jesuits f South America,) on terms comparatively were the institutors and directors. It is low, and with facilities incalculably famore than possible, that this has left vourable. That moment is not arrived ; behind it effects not yet entirely termi we therefore return to Mr. Graham's. nated. Nevertheless, the acknowledged remarks on the present trade of Buenos disinclination of this province to combine Ayres, which, he observes, “is princiwith its more violent neighbours, must be pally in the hands of the British.” On allowed a speaking importance, in con- this he reports interesting particulars, nexion with what has been already ob- which do not stand in peed of any ilserved,
lustration from us. But, if Buenos Ayres finds it so diffi The population of these provinces the cult to maintain supremacy over her im- reader will remark for himself: with the mediate neighbours, of what advantage advantages already obtained in the betto her are conquests in Chili, conquests ter price for labour, the greater imporbeyond that prodigious range of moun
tance attached to the lower classes, and lains, the Andes, which Nature has the acquisition of foreign articles at a placed as an elernal barrier between cheaper rate. If we are not misinformed, two dissimilar countries? Will that a part, at least, of these advantages are province, with Peru, long continue sub- now become questionable, as the governject to Buenos Ayres We answer, No. ment at Buenos Ayres has found itself Undoubtedly, commercial speculations under the necessity of having recourse have had their share in the motives to forced loans from the merchants, and of which have induced Buenos Ayres to laying additional duties on commodities. carry her arms into Chili, under pretence Whether any thing beyond the poof promoting liberty and independence, litical feelings of the moment entered and for a while this pretence may prosper. into the instructions of the American For a while that city may monopolize Commissioners, or the consideration of the commerce of those parts; but the their government, we presume pot to Western Ocean is the natural high road of commerce to the Western coast; Statesman is aware of the importance of
conjecture; but every well-inforined there is, at this moment, a trade carried Morals, both as to principles and pracon with it to a considerable extent,
tice, in forming the character of a though characterized as contraband ; people, after a time. There is, also, anoand when the legal impediments are re
ther important matter omitted in this moved, this will increase accordingly, Report, -—the state of Religion and renotwithstanding the abundance of horses ligious impulse, throughout these proand cattle furnish great facilities among vinces. It will be recollected, that the the mountains of Peru, as observed by system of religion is the CatholicMr. Grabam. Buenos Ayres has her ism of Rome, and this in its exclu.. object at present: time will shew how sive spirit. The population, as well as long she can retain it, after having ac- the clergy, are deeply imbued with it, complished it.
and there is no apparent means of loosenBut the great struggle of commerce ing their bondage. This implies a recogwill depend on the occupation of the nition of Rome as their Spiritual bead : Isthmus of Panama, and its vicinity. it implies submission, more or less real Whoever possesses that narrow neck of and profound, to injunctions from that land, and will call in the aid of art to court. Is the court of Rome favourable perfect the plan of nature, by a judicious or unfavourable to the cause of revolucanal-or more than one-will save the tions at this moment? What are likely dangerous passage round Cape Horn, to be the sentiments of that court, as which is not at all times practicable; time proceeds; and what effect will those may run southward and northward along sentiments produce on the government, the coast, by taking advantage of the the clergy, and the people at large ? winds, and thereby may furnish the Jo this respect, the provinces of South commodities of Europe received by way America are very differently situated, of the West lodieş, (and the returns of from what the provinces of North Ame
rica were, when they revolted from north-westeru sources of the river La Plata to Britaip. As Protestants they acknow- the southern cape of America, and from the ledged no spiritual superior, and they of the Andes, may be considered that wbich derived their religious authority from is called " the United Provinces of South amocg themselves; whereas, the supe- America.". rior clergy among the Spanish Ameri Under the royal government, it was divided cans must either maintain their obedi- into the Inteudencies or provinces of Buenos ence to the Holy See, or become schis- Piala, Cochabamba, La Paz, and Puno. Sub
Ayres, Paraguay, Cordova, Salta, Portos, matics, and possibly heretics, in the sequently to the revolution, in the year 1814, issue. If, then, the efficacy of their another division was made, and from the prospiritual administrations depends on their vinces of Cordova, Salta, and Buenos Ayres, regular induction and appointment to
were taken those of Cuyo or Mendoza, Tucu
man, Corieutes, Entre Rios, and the Banda office, what will become of that efficacy Oriental. The others, it is believed, retained should the Pope withold his sanction their former boundaries, and, with the excepshould be lay these provinces, all, or any tion of Paraguay, are generally called “ Upper of them, under an interdict—should be Peru.” include them in his anathemas, and
This widely extended country embraces al.
most every variety of climate and soil, and is assign them to a place too dreadful to be
capable of every variety of production. A large thought of, till they bad repented, and part of it, however, particularly on the west made their peace with Rome and side of the river La Plata, and southerly towith their mother couutry-SPAIN?
wards Cape Horu, is deficient in wood, even
for fuel, and in water; that which is found is The public has lately heard much on generally brackisb. volunteers from among our countrymen,
Although three centuries have passed by as well officers as soldiers, having sailed since the Spaniards made their first settlement to join the insurgents or patriots. Their and cities have grown iu it, yet its general im
in this country, and some considerable towns destination, if rumour be correct, is not provement and population have by no means the Southern Provinces, but the North- kept pace with them; for the lower provinces ern Provinces of South America: con bave been almost entirely abandoned to the cerning these, the Report before us af- immense herds of cattle which graze on their
plains, and require only the partial care of a fords no evidence; but all who are
comparatively few berdsmen; and the inhabi. acquainted, in any degree, with the na- tants
tants of Upper Peru bave been engaged more ture of the climate our compatriots are generally in the business of mining ihan was about to endure,—all who have read the favourable to improvement or population. life of Nelson, or have any recollection Certain small districts bave peculiar advanof the capture of Fort Omoa, with the productive: hut agriculture has in general
tages, are said to be well cultivated, and very consequences of that expedition-not to been very much neglected. It is, in a great go further back to the attempt on Car- degree, confided to the vicinity of towus and thagena, and the famous sea-monody of cities, and may be said to limit its supplies to Admiral Hosier's Ghost,--all will agree bined with the regulations of the former go
their demands. This state of things, comwith us, in allowing greater scope to ap- vernment, ibe influence of climate, and ihe prehension than to expectation. Alas! force of example, has stamped the character for those hernes, who will be vanquished or indolence upou that class of society usually without a combat, and will fall without considered as the labouring class. The same seeing the enemy that inflicts the fatal force, upon the other inhabitants of the coun
causes have not operated, at least with the same stroke!
try; hence they are more industrious, and REPORT
more active : their manners are social, friendly, and polite. To native laleots they are said
to be inferior to no people; and they have SPANISH SOUTH AMERICA, given proofs that they are capable of great and
persevering efforts; and they are ardently at.
tached to their country, and warmly enlisted BY MR. GRAHAM,
in the cause of its independence.
It is not necessary for me to enter into a
detail of the causes which led to the revolu. PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES tion in 1810. The most immediate, perhaps,
are to be found in the incidents connected with OF NORTH AMERICA.
the two invasions of the country by the BriThe country formerly known as the vice- tish in 1805 and 1816, and in the sabsequent royally of Buenos Ayres, extending from the events in Spain, as they had a direct tendency
ON THE PRESENT STATE OF
tu show to these people their own strength, attempts have been made to bring about a
something to complaiu of, and something to the great source of their wealth and power. blame themselves for.
The revolution having been auspiciously General Artigas and his followers profess a commenced in the city of Buenos Ayres, was belief that it is the intention of the Govern warmly and zea lously supported by the mass ment of Buenos Ayres to put them down, and of the people descended from the Spaniards ; oblige them to submit to such arrangements but the pative Spaniards, as well those do as will deprive them of the privileges of selfmesticated in the country as those in the ser. goveroment, to which they claim to have a vice of the king, were almost all opposed to it, right. They say, however, that they are wil. particularly at the time and under the cir- ling to unite with the people on the western cumstances it took place. Dissensions were side of the river, but not in such a way as the immediate result, and their long standing will subject them to what they call the tyranny jealousy and distrust of each other have by of the city of Buenos-Ayres. On the other subsequent events been heightened into deadly hand, it is stated that this is merely a pretext; hostility, which time alone can wear away. tbat the real object of General Artigas and These dissensions have been cousidered as one some of the principal officers is to prevent à of the causes that produced those which sub-union on any terms, and to preserve the power sequently took place among the patriots them they have acquired, by giving an erroneous seives, and which have been most serious ob excitement to the people who follow them. stacles in the progress of revolutiou. Other that it is wished and intended to place these obstacles, however, have been presented by the provinces on a footing with the others. That royal government in Peru, which has hitherto ine respectable portion of their inhabitants not only been able to sustain itself there, but are aware of this fact, and anxious for a union; has found means, by enlisting the native Peru. bat are prevented from openly expressing their vians, in its service, to send at different times sentiments from a fear of General Artigas, considerable armies into the upper provinces whose power is uncontrolled by law or justice; on the river La Plata, where the war has been and hence the propriety and necessity of aidcarried on from the commencement of the re-ing them to resist it. Armies have accordvolution to the present day with various suc- ingly been marched wiinin the present year cess ; the great extent and peculiar character of into these provinces; but they were not joined the country, aud the want of resources, having by a number of the inhabitants, and were de. prevented either party from making a decisive feated with great loss. blow of the contest. Wben we came away, This was is evideotly a source of great inthe advamage in that quarter was on the side jury and regret; and, at the same time, of of the Spaniards, as they were in possession of extraordinary irritation to both parties ; for, the provinces of Urper Peru, which had to a independently of other causes of recrimination, certain degree at least, joined in the revolu- each accuses the other of having brought tion, and some of which are represented in the about that state of things which threatens to Congress. Every where else they have been place a most important and valuable portina obliged to yield up the government and aban. of their country in the bands of a foreign powdon the country, or submit to the ruling power. er, who has invaded it with a regular and well. The peculiar situation of Monte Video, on the appointed army, and is gradually taking poscast side of the river La Plata, open to the session of commandiug points, from which it sea, and strongly fortified, enabled the Spanish may be difficult for their united force herenaval and military forces, at an early period after to dislodge them. That they will unite in the revolution, to make a stand there: tbey | is, I think, to be calculated ou, unless some were ultimately obliged to surrender it; not, event disastrous to the cause of the revolution however, intil long-protracted, and perhaps itself takes place ; for their mutual interest ill directed, efforts on the part of the assail. requires a union. But more of moderation ants, had given rise to many jarring incideuts and discretion may be necessary to bring it between those who came from the opposite about tbau is at this time to be expected from shores of the rivers, probably the effect, in the irritated feelings of some of the principal part at least, of ancient jealousies, kept alive personages on both sides. by the individual interest of different leaders ; The city of Saula-Fé, and a small district these bave been followed by the individual in- of country arouud it, also refuses to acknowterest of different generals; and have been ledge the authority of the Goverument of followed by events calculated to produce a Buenos-Ayres. still greater alienation; and although several In Paraguay the events of the revolution
have differed from those in auy other pro were its strongest advocates. It is generally vince, as the inhabitants of that country have admitted, however, that some changes for the uniformly resisted the efforts of the other pro- better have been made. Much care seems to viaces to unite them. After having aided the be taken to educate the rising generation, and Spanish authorities placed over them, to repel a as those who are now coming on the thealre of military force which had been sent to over action have grown up since the commencethrow them, they themselves expelled from their ment of the revolution, and have had the adcouotry these authorities, and established a vantages of the light thrown in by it, it is fair Government of their own, totally unconnected to suppose that they will he better prepared to with that of the other provinces, with whom support and administer a free government than they manifest an unwillingness to keep up those whose habits were formed under the co.even a commercial intercourse. This has gi- lonial government of Spain. ven rise to a suspicion in the minds of some
The commerce and manufactures of the that there is a secret predilection among them country have grown beyond its agriculture. for the ancient order of things. But from what Various causes, however, have contributed to is said of their cold and calculating character lessen some branches of manufacture since the —from the safe position of their country, and revolution, but commerce is understood to its capacity to supply its own wants, it is pro- bave been increased by it. A much greater bable that their object is to husband their re variety and quantity of foreign goods are imsources, and profit by the exertions of others, ported, and a greater demand is opened for the without giving their own in aid of them ; and productions of the country. The city of possibly, in case of ultimate failure, to place Buenos-Ayres is the seat of this commerce. their conduct in a less objectionable point of From it, foreign and some domestic goods, are view before the Government of Spain. What spread through the interior, as far as Chili ever may have been their motives, they have and Upper Peru, and, in return, the various hitherto contrived to escape in a great measure productions are drawn to it. This trade is the evils of war.
carried on principally by land, as is that beTheir resources, in men and money, are tween the different provinces, though some said to be considerable, and no country is small portion of it finds its way up and down more independent of foreign supplies.
the large rivers from the La Plata, which is Their conduct furnishes a striking contrast itself not so much a river as a great bay. The to that of the people of Buenos-Ayres, who eu abundance of cattle, horses, and mules, and tered into the revolution with unbounded zeal
of some other animals peculiar to the country, and energy, and ever have been ready to meet
which are used io the mountainous regions of the difficulties of so great an undertaking: Peru, furnish facilities for transportation not This circunstance connected with their local to be found in any other country so little imsituation, greater resources, and more general proved; hence the price of transportation is information, and perhaps the fact of their very low, and the internal trade greater than having been the first to get power into their it otherwise would be, though it had been mahands, have had the effect to give them a con- terially lessened in some important branches trolling influence over the revolutionary go by the war with Peru, and the system adopted veroment, which has not failed to excite, in in Paraguay. some degree, the jealousy of the other provinces, and amongst themselves a feeling of in the hands of the British, though ihe United
The export and import trade is principally superiority little calculated to allay their jea- States and other nations participate in it to a lopsy. Great evils were at one time apprehend- certain degree. It is depended on as the great ed from this state of things; but the Congress
source of revenue to the State; hence they which met at Tucuman, in March, 1816, composed of depoties from the several provinces high, and to lay them upon both imports and
have been tempted to make the duties very theo united, assumed the sovereigo power of the country, boldly declared its absolute inde exports, with the exception of lumber and mi.
litary stores. This circumstance, congected pendence, and adopted a provisional form of go with the fact that payment is demanded at the veroment, which is understood to bave the ef. custom-house before the goods are delivered, fect of allaying disseusions, and of introducing has led to a regular system of smuggling, which a more regular administration of public affairs. is said to be carried to great excess, and doubt
It will be seen from the documents in your less occasions the official returns to fall short possession, that this provisional coustitution of the actual amount of the trade. This may recognizes many of the principles of free go be the reason why they were not given to us. veromeot: but with such drawbacks are little The articles imported are almost every variety calculated to enforce them in practice. Great of European and East India goods, prisici. allowances are doubtless to be made for the pally from England; rum, sugar, coffee, toeircumstances of the times, and the danger and baccy, cotton, and timber from Brazil; lumber difficulty of tearing up ancient institutions, or of almost every description, cod-fish, furniture, of adapting new principles to them. But, gin, and some smaller articles, from the United after due allowance for all these considerations, States, together with the military stores; which it did not appear to me that so much had been however, find their way iuto this country di. done for the cause of civil liberty as might rectly from Europe, and are thus furnished at have been expected, or that those in power a cheaper rate than we can sell them. The
principal articles of export are taken from the republican character than probably would have various animals of the country, teme and wild, been given to it in more quiet and peaceful frum the ox to the chinchilla; copper from times. There is danger too, as ibe power Chili, and some of the precious metais, drawn of forming and adopting the constitution is principally from Peru; but as gold is worth 17 placed in the hauds of a few, tbat the rights dollars the oz, and passed by tale at that rate, and privileges of the people may not be so well very little of it is exported; hence the currency understood or attended to as they would have of the country is gold; for they have no paper been had the people themselves had a more money. The “ Libranzas," or bills of credit, immediate agency in the affair. It is not to issued by the Government, are, however, an be doubted, however, that it will at least have article of traffic among the merchants, as they a republican form, and be bottomed upon the are received in payment of one half of the principles of independence, which is contended duties. No distinction is made ju favour of for by all descriptions of politicians in the the trade of any nation, save only that the country who have taken part in the revolution, British mercbants have some peculiar facilities and will, it is helieved, be supported by them, granted them in relation to their letters, which in any event, to the last extremity. are an object of taxation, at least so far as ap Their means of defence, of which they are plies to those sent out of the country. fully aware, are, in proportion to their pum
In the official statements given to us, to bers, greater perhaps than those of almost any which I beg leave generally to refer for iufor- of the war Lave strengthened the general de
other people, and the duration and the events mation as to the foreign relations, the pro-termination never to submit to Spain. This ductions, military and naval force, revenue, determination rests upon the recollection of and population, the latter is stated at 1,300,000 former sufferings and deprivations ; upon a exclusive of Indians. This is understood as comprehending the population of all the pro
consciousness of their ability to defend and vinces; but, as some of them are not under that, in case of submission on any terms, they
to govern themselves; and upon a conviction the Government at Buenos Ayres, I have would, sooner or later, be made to feel the thought it proper to annex the several estimates I have collected of the population of considerations doubtless have the most weight
vengeance of the mother country. These each province, as they may serve to give some
upou those who have taken a leading part. general information on that point. The most They, of course, use all their influence to enimmediate difficulty felt by the Government, force them, and thus to keep up the spirit of whilst we were in the country, seemed to arise. the revolution. In this they have probably from the want of money; for, though the bad the less difficulty, as although the sufferdebt was small, their credit was low. It had ings of the people have been great, particu. not been found practicable to adopt a system larly in military service, and in raising contriof finance adequate to the exigencies of the butions necessary for that service, yet the in. times, though it would seem, from the statements given to us, that the revenue of the last with it that train of followers who filled up
cubus of Spanish power being thrown off, and year exceeded the expences. The important almost every avenue to wealth and conse events of the present year in Chili, of which quence, the higher classes have been awakened you are informed, will doubtless have the effect to raise the credit of the country, and to lessen enjoy. They have seen their commerce freed
to a sense of advantages they did not before the pressure upon it, at least for a time, and from legal restraints, their articles of export will probably leave the Government more at
become more valuable, their supplies furnishleisure to altend to its internal affairs.
ed at a lower rate, and all the offices of GoWhen we came away, it was understood that verament, or other employments, laid open to a committee of the Congress was engaged in them as fair objects of competition. The drafting a new constitution, the power of lower classes have found their labour more in forining and adopting it being exclusively vest demand, and better paid for; and their im. ed in the Congress. Whether it will assume portance in society greater than it formerly was. a federal or a national character, is somewbat They are yet, however, from their indolence, doubtsul, as there are evidently two parties in geteral want of education, and the great mixthe country, whose views in this respect are ture of " casts" among them, io a degraded very different, and it is believed that they are state, but litile felt in the affairs of tbe Govern. both represented in the Congress. The ove
ment. The stimulus now given will operate party is in favour of a consolidated or national to produce a change in them for the better, govers meat; the other wishes for a federal and, it is to be presumed, will gradually have government, somewhat upon the principles of its effect, as their docility, iutelligence, and that of the United States. The probability activity, when called into service, give eviseems to be, that, although there might be a dence that they are not deficient in natural or a majority of the people in the province ge- physical powers. nerally ju favour of the federal system, it Labour, as it becomes more general, will would not be adopted upon the ground that it become less irksome to individuals, and the was not so well calculated as a national go. gradual acquisition of property which must vernment to provide for the common defence, necessarily result from it in such a country, the great object wow io view. The same ge- under a good Government, will doubtless proneral reason may be urged, perhaps, for giving duce the happy effects there wbich it has unito the latter, should it be adopied, less of a l formly produced elsewhere, and more espe