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THE commencement of a new Volume imposes on the Proprietors and Editors of the LITERARY PANORAMA, the grateful task of expressing their acknowledgements for the support and encouragement, which it has received for upwards of ten years. During that eventful period, they reflect with pleasure that their journal has been the vehicle of more information connected with the domestic concerns and the national commerce of Britain, than any of its competitors for public favour. At the same time they can confidently appeal to their past labours in proof of their successful pains, in delineating the condition and resources of the great powers of the eastern and western hemispheres, and in furnishing early and important information relative to the transactions which have taken place in the theatre of Europe. But while these momentous topics have justly claimed their primary attention, it has been the aim of the editors to render the Literary Panorama, a valuable repository of information on every subject, whether connected with literature, the Fine or Useful Arts, Philanthropic Plans and Institutions, &c. &c. that can interest either the legislator or the private individual. To the success with which this department of the Literary Panorama has been conducted the Editors have on various occasions received the most satisfactory testimonials.

In looking forward to the future, they have no new promises to make, no new plans to develope. By their old Friends and Patrons, they trust the LITERARY Panorama will be found to evince the same priority and interest of information which characterize its former volumes. But, as this Address may fall into the hands of some, who may not be fully acquainted with its plan, the Editors and Proprietors beg respectfully to recapitulate its principal features.

The LITERARY PANORAMA, then, comprizes

1. A Monthly compendium of National Papers and Parliamentary Reports, illustrative of the History, Statistics, and Commerce of the British Empire.

II. An universal Epitome of interesting and useful Intelligence from all Quarters of the Globe.

III. A Review of Books,—not the productions of Britain only, but those of all civilized countries. For the improvement of this department, new and extensive arrangements have been made, by which we shall be enabled, in future, to give more ample notices of Foreign Literature, and, especially that of the Wes

tern world. Of the value of these arrangements, particularly as they respect the United States of America, the PRESENT NUMBER will enable our readers to judge, as it contains a variety of statistical and literary intelligence relative to that rising power, which bas not hitherto been laid before the British public.

IV. A Magazine of Varieties: the whole forming at the conclusion of the year

V. An Annual Register of Trade, Nuvigation, and Politics, to which posterity may with confidence refer.

On the minuter subdivisions of our work we do not think it necessary to expatiate. We therefore observe, that while our attention will be principally directed to the most important of the subjects just enumerated, we shall not neglect more light and more agreeable topics. We can be gay as well as geave : we can “shoot folly," as well as promote science. We reject nothing useful or pleasant, whether it come from the North or the South, rom ibe East or the West. The general reader and the Man of Letters,—the Merchant and the Manufacturer,—the Politician and the Philanthropist,—the Inquisitive in general, EACH will 6nd something suite ed to his taste, On these endeavours our pretensions to popularity and distinction have been founded and favourably received : persuaded that they will henceforth be more strongly supported and more completely justified, we presume respect_ fully to solicit the continuance and extension of Public Patronage, in behalf of our Journal,

As the LITERARY PANORAMA contains the most general Account of EUROPEAN Politics, COMMERCE, AND WHATEVER MERITS ATTENTION, it forms the most valuable present that can be sent to friends in Foreign Countries: Orders are received for it by all Booksellers, Stationers, Newsmen, Post-Office Agents, &c. &c.

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portunity of choice was placed in a OF MR. GRAHAM,

light so strong, and under circumstauces (One of the Commissioners sent by the United so peculiar, that the least instructed States of North America)

perceived an era of uncommon importOn the recent State of the Provinces in Spanish ance, not merely opening, but absolutely

opened, on their country. By this their South America.

relative situation was changed, and the Laid before the Congress of North America, by order bonds which had formed the streugth of of the President, November, 1818.)

their attachment were broken ; for the It was the boast of Spaniards, form- provinces of Spanish America held imerly, that the sun was always rising and mediately from the king. He was their setting on the dominions of Spain. They chief, their patron, their governor, withwere so extensive, and situated in parts out any intervening power. He delegaof the world so diversified and distant, ted his authority, and governed by that the revolution of day and night, as deputy; but his deputy represented the the earth rolled on its axis, brought pro- person of the sovereign, and the province after province, hourly, into the solar vinces were supposed to enjoy immedirays. Whether such possessions were ate access to the monarch. His laws deagreeable to the principles of nature and monstrate his regard; but to say that of natural politics, or whether they were they were always executed in the spirit not rather contraventions of those prin- of wisdom, or with the strictest inteciples, and therefore essentially tempo- grity, in provinces so distant, none will rary, was questioned, and could not but venture. To say that the persons sent be questioned, by reflecting minds.- from old Spain were always well chosen, But the matter was divested of all doubt that they had not bye-ends of their own and ambiguity, when Spain was seen to to serve, that they did not enter on their unite her endeavours to support the prin- employments in the spirit of adventure, ciples of revolution in North America. and did not conduct themselves in this Then was fixed the fate of her own co-spirit, when arrived at their several offices, lonies;—then was the foundation laid exceeds our power. for those events which later years have It is true, also, that natives of Old witnessed. By what hand the spring Spain were disposed to consider themmight be touched that should give im- selves as a superior race, as well by napulse to these principles, could not be ture as by country, to natives of New foreseen, and on this conjectures might Spain ; and as Spaniards are little fapary; but, when Spain was deprived of mons for “meekness of wisdom,” the ber kiog, by the machinations of Napo- parties respectively soon discovered that leon, and a new name was offered to the lihey had separate interests; and this disobedience of Spanish America, the op-Icovery gradually hardened into fixed Vol. IX. No. 53. Lit, Pan. N. S. Feb. 1.


opposition. In proportion as this con-dential agents to aim at this object, for viction became confirmed, the ties that the present. They are to state at full, and held the colonies to the parent state be- to magnisy, all the advantages “to be decame weaker; every day deducted a rived from throwing off the European thread from the cord of affection, while, yoke:”—“ the ecclesiastics are to perat the same time, loyalty experienced a suade the penitents, when they come to strain. Its means of enduring that confession, that the emperor Napoleon is strain gradually diminished ; and but for sent by God to chastise the tyranny of the habit of deference to the name of the monarchs, and that it is a mortal sin, king, the consequences would have been admitting of no pardon, to resist God's evident, long before the time at which will."-" They will tell the people (Inthey openly disclosed themselves. dians as well as Spaniards) that their

When Joseph Napoleon was placed, former monarch does not so much as by fraud, in the seat of the legitimate exist in his own government, but is in monarch, the moment was arrived for the power of the restorer of liberty investigating the nature of the supreme and the universal legislator, Napoleon." authority, and that of the obedience it These doctrines, as prolific seed, fell claimed. It was not due to Joseph. into ground already prepared. Can The Cortes were in opposition to Joseph: it occasion wonder, that the crop has but it was not due to the Cortes. The proved abundant ? Can it occasion woninterests of the colonies were supposed der, that the principles of Revolution to be in opposition to those of the Cor- being thus insidiously, but effectually tes. The merchants of Cadiz, if we may propagated, those who had received believe Mr. Walton,* swayed the Cortes, them, should act on them? And when aid the charm of loyalty dissolved, as once called into action, that their energy there was no king to keep it in action, should continne? And this, especially Neither Charles nor Ferdinand could in- as Spain had no power effectually to terpose ; and loyalty scorned to acknow- counteract them : and if in some places ledge the Usurper.

they might be checked, not even that It is worth our while to observe under minor success could be expected throughwhat pretences Joseph Napoleon endea- out countries so extensive, and provinces voured to delude Spanish America. so pumerous, as those of her American Having no force at his disposal, with dominions. which to establish his authority, as a substitute for that of the lawful sovereign, of progress, advancing towards maturity:

These provinces were in various states he offers these provinces “liberty !-independence !" | He directs his confia their sentiments on the .conduct of the

mother country, were conceived with Comp. Lit. Pan. N. S. Vol. I. p. 946. various degrees of force : their habits of + “The object which these agents are to aim intercourse with Old Spain were not all at, for the present, is no other, than that of equally fixed, nor equally frequent: neimanifesting to, and persuading the Creoles of Spanish America, that H. 1. and R. M. has ther had all the same causes of com. solely in view, the giving liberty to a people, plaint. Mucb, no doubt, depended on enslaved for so many years, without expecting the personal conduct of their governors any return for so great a boon, other than the and men in office; and much on the friendship of the natives, and the commerce character of those who stood forward to with the harbours of both Americas; that, to render_South America free and independent sanction resistance, and to assume the from Europe, His said Majesty offers all ibe principal posts in the newly-created necessary assistance of troops and warlike governments. We are not then to wonstores, baving agreed with the United States of der, if these provinces act with different Norih America, to accommodate him there. with.

degrees of vigour; with distinct views Copy of the Instructions given by the Usurper of things, and intentions of consequences;

JOSEPA NAPOLEON, to the Commissary, or with various proportions of confidence in principal Agent, appointed by him at Bal- each other's motives; and with alacrity timore (M. DESMOLARD) and to the others who, furnished with his Orders, have gone

or with reserve, according to the opinion to Spanish America, for the purpose of re- they have formed of the principal lead, volutionizing it.

ers, &c. &c.

On consulting the Map of South | They were sent to that part which was AMERICA, given in the first volume of supposed to be inost advanced towards a our New Series, the reader will perceive settled government, and most likely to that the Northern Provinces of that con- become a valuable connexion. tinent are separated from the Southern Among the most instructive papers to by a wide interval of country, and that which their inission has given occasion, the kingdom of Brazil lies between is a Report by Mr. Grabam, in which them. It is scarcely possible to suppose, he combines the intelligence he had that their interests can be common, collected, and gives his opinion with when their distance from each other is so great frankness and judgment of this great. Nor is it possible to imagine, paper we avail ourselves. The difficulty that the intervening power of Portugal, of obtaining correct iuformation from which touches on the north and on the the country visited by that gentleman south, should be wholly without effect; and his coadjutors, (as already observed) especially considering that the Queen of is our reason, and must be our vindicaPortugal is a Princess of Spain; and tion, if any be needful. that, in case of the decease of Ferdinand, The first thing that strikes us on peshe has, by descent, claims on the suc- rusing this statement is, the want of cession. It is but natural, that whatever unity among the provinces. Buenos of suppressed loyalty still lorks in the Ayres takes the lead: but Monte Video, bosoms of Spaniards towards their former with its adjacencies, on the opposite side sovereigns, should favour a Spanish of the river Plate, is jealous of the inpriocess who has done them po wrong ; tentions of that city, fears to submit to and whose children partake her rights its jurisdiction, and rather than coalesce, to their consideration, not to say their opposes arms to arms, and has defeated duty, and their allegiance.

the force sent to reduce it to obedience. Our readers will have observed, that Add to this, that the government of the PANORAMA has maintained a de Santa Fé, a town situated eighty or cided silence of the subject of. South ninety miles higher up the river, also reAmerica ; partly, because of the diffi- fuses to acknowledge the government of culty of obtaining correct accounts from Buenos Ayres, yet so much of the comthence; for we knew that agents were merce of the principal town as passes up employed to give false accounts to the the river centered in Santa Fé; that it public; but though our knowledge en- might have been supposed, the very abled us to detect their fallacies, we connexions existing between the two could not always elicit the real truth. places, would have ensured their combiNor should the difficulty be overlooked, nation and unity. This' jealousy of of forming that judgment on the whole, Buenos Ayres by her neighbours, who which might agree with the respective should best know her disposition, has an condition of the parts. That we were unpleasant aspect on her character, and not singular in this, appears from the consequently on that enterprize of which necessity felt by the government of the she is the head. From what does this United States of America to obtain au- aversion arise ?-If from a secret attachthentic information by means of com- ment to the former order of things, then missioned agents. That government de- we venture to suspect, that this sentisired to know the truth, but perceived ment is not wholly obliterated elsewhere: that the truth was not to be known by -if from a conviction, that however bethe usual means : it therefore sent out neficial the revolution may prove to the officers under public authority, and on metropolis, it would prove detrimental their representation, no doubt, it will to these provinces, that they might guide its conduct. But the reader is change masters for the worse, then it is Rot to suppose, that even these com- little honourable to the new government, missioners have obtained a general view which affects to take liberty for its basis. of the whole. Their Report refers to The same remark does not so strongly the South only; and it includes none of apply to Paraguay, because that prothe Equatorial, or Northern Provinces. vince was long subject to a very peculiar


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