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communicated to us, of an individual | Society's method of teaching, however, who imported from this country two is advancing steadily. A model school bulls of the Hereford and Teeswater has been established at New York, breeds, each of which was sold for the where the plan of tuition has for some som of two thou sand dollars. In the time been attempted under the direcvicinity of Philadelphia the Alderney tion of a master sent from England by breed is in pefection.
that society. And the arrival of Mr. For the conveyance of the produce of Joseph Lancaster in America, is there the various States, excellent turnpike- considered as fortning a new era in its roads are forming in every direction ; history. In the winter of 1817, the our readers need not be told, that, State of Pensylvania set a noble exthough the invention of the steam en ample to the rest of the Union, by pasgine is not of American origin, yet its sing a law to establish schools upon
his application to the propulsion of vessels system throughout that State ; and at was first made by an American, (Mr. this time, Mr. L. is actually engaged Fultou); and that most, if not all their by the directors of the public schools great rivers are navigatəd with facility for the city and county of Philarlelphia, and dispatch by means of steam-boats. personally to superintend a large modelIu order to complete the line of inter- school now building, in which an exnal navigation, various schemes have ample will be given to the Union of his been proposed for connecting the lakes plan of procedure. Ample funds are and rivers of the United States by provided by the State, in order to demeans of canals. The spirit of inter-fray the expenses. nal improvement in this respect is uni Correspondent with the progress of vrsal. "The State of New York, in par- education is the taste for reading, estiecular, is engaged in one grand opera-pecially in the great towns of the portion; the construction of a canal to form thern and middle States. In America a junction of Lake Erie with the waters all are politicians, and almost every man of Hudson River. Eighty miles of it is either a federalist or a democrat. The (we believe the whole length is between eagerness of the people for news far two and three hundred miles) were to surpasses even that of our own country; be completed by the end of last year; and we believe we are not incorrect in and five thousand men, with fifteen stating that nearly four hundred pahundred horses are at work upon this pers minister to this voracious appenoble undertaking. And the canal be- tite for novelty, which is gratified by tween the rivers Chesapeak and Dela- the great cheapness of these vehicles ware is expected to be finished in the of intelligence. Independently of recourse of the present year.
prints of several English Journals of Education, though in many places the highest character, nearly thirty pestill defective, is fast spreading through-riodical publications announce, for the out the Union. Its theory is British, most part every month, the progress of though without the solidity of enquiry science and general literature. and variety of assistance, which are The reading of the Americans is, offered in this country by professors, with few exceptions, English; the and authors who have treated on the high price of paper, labour, and taxes various branches of science. Colleges in this country has been very favourable and schools however, are multiplying in to the reprinting of English works in every direction. The system of tuition America. Every English production of invented by Pestalozzi, at Berne, in celebrity whatever its size may be, is Switzerland, was transplanted to Phila- there immediately re-printed, and sold delphia, some years since, by Joseph for one-fourth of its original price Neef, formerly a co-adjutor of Pesta British Novels and Poetry are the falozzi's. At first, it promised the hap-vorite objects of perusal; and while we piest success; but, from some cause or now write, a Philadelphia bookseller's other, it fell to the ground, and the es- prospectus lies before us, announcing tablishment was destroyed. The Lan-are-print of Lady Morgan's “ France" casterian, or British and Foreign School in one volume 8vo, for two dollars and
a half, with a notice that “ the above published an "HistoricalSketch of Opinedition contains the French words and ions on the Atonement from the Incarnaphrases as in the London, with an tionof Christ to the present time,” inone English translation of each in the page volume, 8vo. which contains a detailed where it occurs." The same book- exposition of the doctrine of the Coveseller has announced, “ the first Ame- nanters, among whom he is a minister. rican-edition of Dr. Johnson's Diction- The Rev. Dr. Wharton, of Burlington, ary, in two volumes, 4to, or four vo- (New Jersey) has published a “View of lumes 8vo. with the addition of the the Controversy between the ProtesStandard of Pronunciation in Walker's tant and Roman Catholic Churches," Critical Pronouncing Dictionary." We 8vo. This gentleman, we believe was forcannot but wish that this, or some other merly a Catholic priest, and chaplain to work had been undertaken earlier, as a Roman Catholic congregation at Worit would, perhaps, have prevented the cester in Worcester in this country. He intrusion of those Americanisms, which is said to be both an able controversialat first render it difficult to an English- ist, and an elegant writer. The system man to converse with a native-born of divinity composed by the late Dr. American. Each of the large Cyclo- Dwight, it will be sufficient here barely pædias of this country is reprinting, to mention, as it is on the eve of reeither at New York or Philadelphia, at publication in this city. In short, so the expense of one or two opulent booknumerous, are the theological producsellers of those cities. And the esta- tions of the United States, that they blishment for several years past of give full employment to a
6 Quarerly book fairs, similar to those of Frank- Theological Review,” edited at Philaford and Leipsic, (which are alternately delphia, hy the Rev. Ezra Stiles Ely. held at New York and Philadelphia) lo connexion with theological literature, has greatly tended to facilitate the circu- we may add that Professor Griesbach's lation of books. We are not ac- critical edition of the New Testantent quainted with the actual number of (Leipsic, 1805) has been reprinted at volumes annually published in those Cambridge, in New England, in two cities; but we know that, four years handsome volumes 8vo. at the press of ago, the books, printed annually at Pbi- Messrs. Wells and Hilliard. The typodelphia alone, amounted to 500,000. graphy of the large paper copies is
The original productions of the Ame- truly beautiful, and is not unworthy of ricans, however, are comparatively few, any European printer. Medicine, Law, the Geology and To In the benevolent work of circulating pography of the United States, and es- the scriptures “ through every nation, pecially Divinity, form the principal kindred, and language,” the American subjects of transatlantic literature. Much Bible Society has shewa itself to be an controversial discussion, indeed, has able and active associate of the parent been carried on in the United States dur- British and Foreign Bible Society. ing the last 2 or 3 years. In the state of “ The formation of this society (to use Massachussetts, Unitarianism is the pre- the language of its committee) was valent doctrine, which has been attacked hailed as a great and glorious era in with great warmth. In Philadelphia Dr. the history of the country: and its White, Bishop of the Protestant Epis- means of accomplishing the important copal church in the commonwealth of end of its formation, have been inPennsylvania, has published “ Coinpancreased with more than ordinary rarative Views of the Controversy, betwees pidity.” In justification of this statethe Calvanists and Arminians.” which went, it may be observed, that at the are written with great vigour and ability. close of its first year, (May 1817) it The reverend author opposes the for- numbered mure than eighty auxillia. mer denomination of Christians, but New societies are consequently formwith singular candour and mildness; buting, and the number naw in existence, bis work is not entirely free from Ame we believe, considerably exceeds two ricanisms. The Rev, J. R. Wilson has hundred. It may be proper to add, that
the treasurer of the American National | tise on the Belles lettres has made its Society publishes the amounts of his appearance, from the pen of Mr. Adans, receipts every month, and that they in 2 volumes, Svo. And their standard are ihree, four, and sometimes five works in poetry are very few. “ The thousand dollars per month.
Columbiad” of Mr. Barlow, reprinted : Various neat editions of the Roman in this country a few years since, Classics, which of course follow the though not destitute of some fine pas. most correct text of European editors, sages, is, upon the whole, a heavy prosufficiently attest the growing attention duction. The late Dr. Dwight's poems of the Americans to classical literature; entitled “ Greenfield Hill,” and “ The and their late reprint of Ernesti's edi. Conquest of Canaan,” are very superior tion of Cicero's Works, in 20 volumes, productions. Both of them, we believe, 12.no. is highly creditable for its accu- have been reprinied in this coustry; racy and neatness. But amid the multi- and of the laiter, our readers may see a farious productions of the American fine passage in the seventh volume of press, it is not a little singular that no Mr. Campbell's recent work intitled authentic statistical work relative to the Specimens of the British Poets." Upion has hitherto issued from it. Mr. The only recent productions of the AmeBristed, an Englishman by birth, (who rican Muse, which we have seen, are since his residence at New York, has Mr. Pierpoint's “ Airs of Palestine," become a barrister there) has pub- which contain some exquisite passages. lished a book, which he calls « the and the “ Backwoodsman," of Mr. Resourses of the United States," and Paulsen who holds a high rank among which has been reprinted in this city. the native bards of America. Of these, Some good ideas as it unquestionably as well as of some other works noticed dnes contain; but it is replete with in the course of this article, we shall mistakes, and in every page there is endeavour to procure copies, and hope abundant evidence of the greatest neg-at no great distance of time to present ligence in the collection of facts. We analyses of theni to our readers. had intended to have given our readers We cannot close this article without an analysis of the London edition; but noticing the efforts making in America it is so little worth it, that this brief no- for civilizing the original inbabitants, tice will be abundantly sufficient. We or native Indians, as they are usually will only add, that Mr. Bristed's termed, and also for the benefit of the blunders have been severely exposed in African negroes. The benevolent work several American Journals, and parti- of civilizing the former originated with cularly in the Analectic Magazine pub- the Philanthropic Society of Friends, lished at Philadelphia, and the North but of late years it has been taken up American Review edited at Boston, to by the American Government, and is which the most distinguished literary now proceeding steadily and successcharacters of the Union contribute their fully under agents appointed by it. assistance.
With respect to the African Negroes, In the belles lettres, the Americans the import traffic in whom the Amehave given but few specimens of native rican Government followed the example talent; nor is this at all to be wonder- of Great Britain in prohibiting, several ed at. The United States are even yet societies have been formed in their bebut an infant independent power; and balf in various States of the Union. with exception of the oldest set. The object of these benevolent institled parts which we believe are usually tutions is, to educate African youth in terined Old America, the inhabitants of a knowledge of the scriptures in their the more recently settled districts are original languages and in general scitoo fully occupied in the necessary arts ence; and, thus instructed, to send of life, to be able to spare time for them forth, as missionaries, to carry lighter pursuits ; politics, however, al- the word of life to not fewer than fifty ways excepted. Hence it is only with millions of Africans, of whom twenty in the last year that an original trea- millions are computed to be of the pro
por Negro race. The institutions, proceeding to complefe, when his lawhich we are now noticing, are yet but mented death also consigned it to Mr. in their infancy; but from the wisdom Walsh, when scarely half the work was with which they appear to be conduct finished. By the laiter Gentleman thereed, and from the sober piety of the dis- fore it has been completed, who has tinguished individuals who have pro-honourably stated the proportions exejected them, we are warranted to augur, cuted by bis predecessors. in progress of time, the happiest re Besides a sketch of the exemplary sults to that lony enslaved and much life and public labours of the Rev. James injured part of mankind.
Whitelaw, who fell a victim to the un
wearied discharge of his ministerial duHistory of the City of Dublin, from ties, the first volume (to which we shall the earliest accounts to the present time: at present invite our readers' attention),
contains a brief introductory account of containing its Annals, Antiquities, Ec
the reduction of Ireland in the reign of clesiastical History and Charters, &c. King Henry II., together with a Chrono&c. &c. By the late J. Warburton, De logical List of the Lords-Lieutenants and puty Keeper of the Records in Birming. other Chief Governors, from that period liam Tower : the late Rev.J. Whitelaw, to the present time. To this surceeds the M. R. 1. A. and the Rev. Robert Walslı, antient history of the City of Dublin and M. R. I. A. with numerous plates, plans, its Castle, franchises, &c. &c. interand maps, 4to. two vols. 51. 5s. Large spersed with extracts from numerous doPaper, sl. 8s. Cadell and Davies, Loucuments and charters: next follows a don. 1813.
history of the Archiepiscopal See and its
Bishops, and of the religious houses This work supplies an important chasin which existed previously to the Reformain the topography of the British Empire. I tion. The modern history of Dublin is then From a variety of causes, Ireland, until presented to us, comprising a copious and within these few years, was almost a terra interesting account of the city, its bay, incognita to the generality of readers; and barbour; its situation, extent, and and though the recent works of Mr. population; its public edifices, both civil Wakefield, Mr. Curwen, (of whose va-l and ecclesiastical; its seminaries; and viluable labours we gave an occount in our rious benevole:t institutions. last volume), and a few other Writers, In a volume presenting so great a vahave contributed to make known its riety of important and interesting topics political state and resources, yet the it is difficult to select. We apprehend, paucity of the native historians and 10- however, that we shall gratify our readers pographers has been such, that we are now, for the first time since the com- modern state of the Metropolis of the
most by giving them some idea of the mencement of our labours, called to give Sister Island. an analysis of a history of the City of Dublin, the capital of Ireland, in popuDublin, executed with the skill and abi- lation and extent the second city of the lity which its importance requires. British empire, and probably the seventh
The work now under our consideration in Europe", is situate on the river Anna was originally undertaken by Mr. War- Liffey, and at a small distance from its burton, Deputy Keeper of the Records mouth, to which it will probably, at no of Birmingham Tower, in the Castle of very distant period, extend': it stands nearDublin, and the Rev. James Whitelaw, immense plain, stretching considerably
ly in the south eastern extremity of an Vicar of St. Catherine's in that City. above one hundred English miles across For its antient history Mr. Warburton the island from sea to sea, in some parts furnished such documents, as, from his diversified with gentle eminences, but no employment, he had access to ; and it where interrupted by mountains : boundwas proposed to Mr. Whitelaw, to me- ed on the east by the Irish sea, where it thodize and arrange them, and to add an
rises into the elevated peninsula of Howth, account of modern Dublin. The death of Mr. Warburton consigned to Mr. White-extent and population, are London, Paris, Con
* The European cities that exceed Dublin in. law an unfinished account, which he was stantinople, Vienna, Moscow, and Naples.
this plain terminates westward at the bay , Kippure, one of the eminences of the of Galway, and the lofty mountains that southern mass, which, though nothing tower over the great lakes of Mask and more than a mountain torrent, is, of great Corrib; and its greatest breadth, may be importance to the capital. The other considered as extending nearly fifty miles streams which pay theirtribute to the Liffey from that mass of mountains occupying are inconsiderable; that which watering the confines of the counties of Dublin and the vicinity of Finglas, visits Glasnevin and Wicklow, about four miles south of this Ballybough, seems at present to have no city, to the mountains of Carlingford and distinctive appellation, though formerly the Fewes on the confines of Lowth and called the Tukan or Tolekan; and the Armagh, which with Sliew and Donard, stream passing by Kilmainham, was for. the loftiest summit of the mountains of merly called the Cammock, a name at Mourne in Downe, though distant about present equally forgotten. sixty English miles, are frequently visible The Castle of Dublin, the viceregal from the vicinity of Dublin; a circum- residence, and nearly the central point stance, however, which is almest an uno of Dublin, is in 53° 20' 38" north latitude, erring indication of approaching rain. and in 6° 17' 29" west longitude, from Over that mass of mountains south of Dub- the meridian of Greenwich. lin, and which is not distinguished by Dublin covers an area of about 1264 any general appellation, in clear weather, English acres, on which stood in the year others still more elevated are visible, of 1798, 14,854 inhabited, with 1202 waste which the most remarkable is the conical houses, containing a population of 170,805 mountain, called from its form the Great souls, or 11.5 nearly to an inhabited Sugar-loaf.
house. From the south side of this mass issues The Liffey divides the city into two un. the river Liffey, which, encreased by the equal parts; the southern division, conKing's river, of nearly equal magnitude, taining nearly 785 acres and 112,497 souls, and running with a rapid stream through a and the northern only 478 acres and region of mountains and bogs, enters this 58,308 souls. plain, through which it fows with a course so circuitous that though it runs nearly 71 waste ground, and 36 covered by the
Of the above area, nearly 146 acres were English miles, including its numerous
Liffey, so that the total area of Dublin, windings, yet the distance from its source to its mouth in the bay of Dublin does not and the average population of each acre
occupied by buildings, was 1,117 acres, exceed ten miles: in the upper part of its
153 souls. course it forms a beautiful cascade, where the torrent is precipitated into a gloomy
To the above total, viz. 170,805 abyss called Pul-a-fooka, or the Devil's We must add for Spring-garden, hole. In Kildareits innumerable siniosities
a suburb beyond the circular
road are richly wooded; and entering the coun.
1,286 ty of Dublin, it approaches the capital
For the Garrison, about
400 through a deep glen, whose lofty, and in Royal Hospital
558 some parts precipitous banks, present the Foundling Hospital
155 most interesting scenery to the eye of the St. Patrick's Hospital traveller: the tide, which carries vessels of
House of Industry
529 burden up to the city, just reaches its | Trinity College western edge, where a fall prevents further ascent, which circumstance, with its Total population of Dublin in
182,370 frequent shallows and rapids, renders it,
1798. though in many parts deep and gentle, The density of population, lowever, totally useless in extending inland navi- varies exceedingly, not only in Dublin, gation from the capital : it is subject to but in all cities that can boast of any conHouds, which sometimes rise to a danger-siderable degree of antiquity. Our anous height, overflow its banks to a con- cestors, in times of turbulence and confusiderable distance, frequently carry away sion, more anxious for security than stuthe bridges that cross it, and meeting the dious of convenience and elegance, crowdascending tide, sometimes lay the city ed their habitations together, so as not to quays under water: in summer, however, occupy a space too large for the purposes it is reduced to an inconsiderable stream, of defence. As domestic tranquillity bewhich on the recess of the tide presents to came better secured, they gradually exthe spectator a channel nearly empty, and tended their quarters; persons of wealth at once disgusting to the sight and smell : and condition abandoned their former at its mouth it receives the Dodder from residence to the poorer class of citizens,