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built more airy houses in more spacious dation ;-2. The Foundling Hospital, esstreets, and gradually refined into that tablished in the early part of the last state of elegance that now prevails. Hence century, and in which ihere constantly it happens, that in the ancient parts of most cities, the population is dense in appear to be upwards of 6000 foundlings'; proportion both to the number of houses the excellent arrangements of this instiand the space that they occupy; while in tution are detailed at considerable length, the more modern parts, the train of ser- and it is satisfactorily vindicated from the vants, ever attendant on opulence and exceptions of Mr. Malthus.—3. The Hiluxury, gives a population, great indeed bernian Society's School for Educating the in proportion to the number of houses, children of soldiers, five hundred of whom, but inconsiderable, if we regard the area upon the average, are constantly provided they occupy in extensive back grounds for. The economy and discipline of this and spacious streets. The population of

school are intended to be assimilated as Dublin was accordingly found to be most crowded within the walls of the ancient nearly as possible to the Asylum for the city, comprehending the parishes of st. children of our gallant soldiers at Chelsea. Werburgh, St. John, St. Michael, St. Ni.-4. The Hibernian Marine Society's cholas within, the eastern part of St. School, for the children of decayed seaAudeon, and the deanery of Christ church. men.-5. The House of Industry._O, This space, containing an area of nearly The Bedford Asylum for industrious forty-five acres English, had in 1682, ac- children.—7. Penitentiary for the Reform cording to Sir William Petty, 1145 houses, of young criminals of the male sex.–8. and in 1788, 1179 houses, and 15,683 inhabitants, which give an average of 349 Penitentiary for adult female convicts. souls nearly to an acre, and 13.3 to a 9. The Incorporated Society for promothouse The density of population how-ing English Protestant Schools.-10. The ever varies within this space, for in the Schools founded and endowed in the reign parish of St. Michael it amounts to 439 of Charles II. by the benevolent and souls to an acre, and almost 16 to a house. munificent Erasmns Smith, Esq.- And, Notwithstanding the unprecedented rise lastly, the Royal Hospital at Kilmainham, in the price of foreign timber, and the ap

which, in its design and object, is the same prehensions generally entertained of the effects which the union might have on the

as the noble monument of national gratiprosperity of this city, à considerable tude at Chelsea. number of houses have been built since The systems of education, domestic 1798, and its present population is not management, revenue, and expenditure short of 190,000 souls, though we cannot of these various excellent charities, are pretend to speak with any degree of pre- detailed with considerable minuteness ; cision on this subject, no survey having and as public attention has of late years latterly been made

been much directed to the Penitentiary We have not room to describe the squares, the Castle, and other public ster, we shall conclude an account of the

established at Millbank, near Westminedifices that adorn this splendid city; first volume of this work, with the folbut we cannot pass in silence its nume

lowing extracts relative to the Penitenrous and well-conducted charitable found

tiaries at Dublin. The ations, of which few capitals in Europe have, in proportion to their population, criminals of the 'Male Sex, was opened

PENITENTIARY, for the reform of young a greater number than Dublin bas at during the administration of his excelpresent.

lency Earl Hardwicke, in the year 1801, Nearly seventy schools, and other asy- for the

reception and reform of such young lums, are copionsly described in the criminals under the age of 15 as were course of this work, besides more than actually convicted, and under sentence of twenty medical hopitals, infirmaries, &c. transportation. But though such was the Of eleven of the most considerable of these original object of the institution, the majoample accounts are given in the first vo- rity of boys received into it have been of lume, viz. 1. The Blue Coat Hospital

, different descriptions ; namely, such as

were detected in acts of theft, and com. founded by King Charles II. for the edu- mitted in consequence thereof by magiscation of the children, sons or grandsons trates without trial; others strongly susof reduced free citizens, nearly two hun- pected of being engaged in vicious and dred of whom are constantly on this foun- criminal courses"; apprentices eloping

22

from their masters, and otherwise miscon Gross Produce of the Labour of Boys. ducting themselves. Some boys, appa Year ending 31st December 1811, rently in danger of being involved in cri

111 19 0. minal practices, have been received at the instance of their parents.

The Penitentiary for Adult Female Convicts,

From the annual returns made by the governors, Governors of the Dublin House of In

was placed under the direction of the there is ground for concluding that the course of discipline, instruction, and industry, on the 1st December, 1809. Its dustry, pursued in this establishment, has object is the reception and employment of been productive of salutary effects in tion: they are provided with bedsieads,

female convicts sentenced to transportamany instances; but as the mistaken lenity beds, sheets, and blankets, and receive of magistrates had frequently in former two meals daily of nutritive food. Those years induced them to discharge the per: who are capable of industry, are usefully sons so committed, before a sufficient employed in making barrack bedding, and time had elapsed to work a complete receive one-half of the profits of their reform, there is reason to fear that the labour. Since 1st December, 1809, 103 institution had, in consequence of this interference, not been productive of all the have been reformed, and pardoned by his

convicts have been admitted, of whom 26 benefits to society which might otherwise Grace the Lord-Lieutenant, 12 removed have resulted from it. This inconvenience to the infirinary in the House of industry: is however no longer complained of, and remanded to Newgate as incorrigible, 2 the magistrates at present do not discharge died, 3 discharged in consequence of the any boy, without the consent and appro- time of their confinement having expired, bation of the governors.

55 remain in the house.- Total 103. About sixteen boys generally are per.

The present State. is as follows : manently on the day-school list; and

Number of female convicts, whenever a boy is unemployed at his

5th Jan. 1812

55 trade, he is sent to school to receive

Children of ditto, under two instruction. There is also a Sunday school holden, at which all the boys attend. A

years of age.

2

57 clergyman, called “ Clerical Visitor," has the superintendence of this penitentiary,

Employed at weaving ...

Needle work 27 with an annual salary of 1201.

In the infirmary The state of manufactures and industry,

As nurses

2 and the general state of the institution,

Children of Convicts

2 will appear from the annexed report.

56 Since its formation in 1801, to 3.181 Dec. 1811, were admitted.

Gross Amount of Labour of Female Convicts, Young Convicts sentenced to Fortwelve months, ending 31st Dec. 1811, transportation ...... .... 69

£424 5s, d. Young criminals committed by: These penitentiaries at present occupy magistrates

518

buildings belonging to the police of the

-587 City of Dublin, and are situated in SmithOf those have been appren-, field, at some distance from the House of ticed to trades . .

50 Industry; the temporary use of which has Pardoned by the Lord Lieute been given to the governors for this purpose: nant .....

22 this department however is to be greatly Enlisted in the army and navy enlarged, and additional ground has been

by his Excellency's per purchased, on which the necessary buildings mission....

.... 99 are to be erected without delay, on a plan Discharged by order of magis prepared by Mr. Francis Johnson, and trates..

• 264

approved of by government. The surroundTransferred to the House of

ing wall of this extensive edifice, which Industry for good conduct 63

will be 40 feet high and 30 from the interior Died:

5 buildings, will enclose an area of nearly 51 Escaped

16 Remained in the penitentiary 68

English acres, presenting a front of 707

feet to Grange Gormon-lane, with a depth

-587 of 342 feet, and so constructed, that guards State of Employment in the Penitentiary. stationed at a very few points on its slimmit, Weavers......

will command the entire circumference. ExWinders

SO clusive of apartments for the proper officers, Shoemakers

12 board-room, chapels for divine service, inBoys taught to read and

firmaries, kitchens, &c. this edifice, which ...... 8

consists of three stories, will contain spa68 cious workshops cells for solitary confine

18

write only

ment, with airing-grounds for 125 males causes him to be conveyed to Charenton, and as many females, who are to be all the principal public establishment near convicts under sentence of transportation; Paris, for insane persons.

Here the the sexes will be perfectly separated, the convicts divided into four classes, each of author lays the scene of his adventures ; which will have its distinct and separate

and some of the supposed inbabitants airing ground, and the apartments of the of this place are his dramatis personæ. keepers are so situated as to command an In the imaginary dialogues with them, uninterrupted view of the work-shops under the author gives a view of the political their respective inspection, The situation state of France, of its parties, of the is elevated and airy, open on the north natural tendency of the age to the geto the country, and on the south overlooking the city; and through the ground ultimate object of civilization in ils si

neral interests of mankind, and of the runs the stream called the Bradogue, with a lively course in a channel

6 feet wide by len

lent progress towards universal good. 7 feet ligh, and covered with a substantial The dialogues are sustained with much arch, a circumstance of much importance, vigour of fancy, but are too long to as its water may be occasionally diverted admit of any one being extracted entire ; by means of sluices to cleanse the sewers and a few detached passages would not, Decessary in so extensive a building.

we think, do justice to the ingenious (To be Continued.)

author. In the course of his residence

at Charenton, Monsieur Joseph begins Charenton ; or the follies of the Age: a

to imagine himself infected with the Philosophical Romance. By M. de Lour sits down to write his " Hallucinations."

malady of the place; and accordingly doueix. Translated from the French, As the chapter, thụs intitled, appears 8vo. 7s. 60. Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, to contain the author's deliberate opiLondon, 1818.

nions relative to the existing state of The French press is continually teem- politics and parties of France, and as ing with a variety of literary works, by

we think it gives, in a small compass, a men of talents, and upon all subjects,

more accurate and temperate view of which, for the momeut, amuse and are

them, than we have hitherto seen, we admired. Few of them are sufficiently

shall extract his observations on Parties interesting to foreigners to be trans- in general, aud ou the conduct and po

litics of two of the most active of thell, lated; yet some pass unnoticed, which, both for their information and style de viz. The Ullras and Liberals. serve attention, and would gratify the

OF PARTIES. general reader. Of this description is

It is no problematical remarli, that a ihe volume now under consideration, fact, however unjust, however absurd it which we think likely to interest the may be, cannot triumph for ever so short attention of the British Public: for, time on the earth without establishing a not only at this period, but at all times, conseguent interest. in an historical as well as relative point

Thus, in 1790, insurrection destroyed of view, the affairs of France must be of feodality, the interest of feodality nevertheimportance to all civilized nations, and less survives, and the interest of insurrection especially to Great Britain.

takes root. Bonaparte destroys insurrec

tion, but the interest of insurrection sur. Tbis work, which comes from the pen vives, and the interest of usurpation takes of a writer greatly esteemed in his own root. In 1814 the legitimate government country, is conceived with much inge- triumphis, but the interest of usurpation nuity; and the narrative, though short, survives. is very agreeable. A young man, here All these interests exist concurrently, called Monsieur Joseph, the son of a

and form parties. These parties are dewholesale dealer at Paris, after spending signated by a sort of nick names, which the several years in Germany, returns to the public bas stamped upon them without

their leave. Sucb as are in the interest of paternal roof, so entirely absorbed in feodality are called Ultras, those in the inmental speculations, and exhibits so terest of insurrection are called Jacobins, many marks of hypochondria ; that his those in the interest of usurpation are called father, by the advice of a physieian, Bone partists.

Of the ULTRAS.

In 1818, the electors, through hatred of It is said that there cannot be Ultra. the men in the interest of usurpation, threw royalists, as one cannot love the king too themselves into the arms of the federal much. This would be true if by Ultras party : and the Chamber of Deputies was was understood those who carried their love composed of Ultras. From that momeut for the king to excess; but this name is the roofs of the hall daily resounded with given to those who have passed royalty, declarations in favour of the ancient social who are beyond it. Now as it is indisputable system: a thousand arguments were adthat when we are passed a place, we are

vanced against the sale of corporate prono longer in that place, so when one has perty, against the sale of the state forests, passed or gone beyond royalty, one is no against the fiscal system, against all the relonger royalist.-- For example :

sults of centralization, in favour of the The day after the dissolution of the distinct incorporation and independence of Chamber of 1815, I met a titled person the clergy, in favour of the old landed syswhom I bad known during the three tem, in favour of every thing tending to the months, when the same wishes the same renewal of local interests. All the prodangers, the same efforts, united all the posed laws that had no tendency to estabfriends of legitimate loyalty. This

person

Jish such interests did not pass, why ?-bedrew a most frightful picture of public af cause the Chamber of 1815 wished to UNDO fairs to me; according to him La Vendée The Revolution, aud because the object was rising, the south was in arms, the Ja- of the Revolution, taking the word in its cobins were talking of deposing the king. largest acceptation, is the centralization and the ministers, in concert with them, and unity of interests: from that moment had gained the federates of the Faubourgs. all things, and all men, that stand in the In short, the throne was to be overturued way of the re-establishment of the ancient in less than eight days. If that be the case, social system were fiercely attacked.said I to him, it only remains for us to buy There were great shouts for purifying the swords and large white cockades, and go administration, the army, the courts of and be killed on the staircase of the palace. justice; from that moment the government “ I'll not wear the white cockade again," ceased to adrance, or rather began to retroreplied he, “ till it shall please God to take grade, because it was hurried into a conour good king to himself."? Was this man trary direction to the operation of civilizaa royalist ?

tion, and because, instead of making a More than once has the interest of feo progress towards the results of the good dality been armed in France against roy- principle, it was returning towards the alty: they who are Ultras now would have results of the good principle, it was returnbeen Leaguers in the time of Henry III; ing towards the interests of fact, towards those who were then Leaguers would be institutions sprung from feodal usurpation Ultras. Has not the Viscount de B. declared and the federal league, all children of bad in a late publication that he would have principle. The dissolution of the Chamber joined the League, if he had been alive of 1815 was therefore indispensably necesunder Henry IV ?

sary, and then the government began again If you ask an Ultra what he wants, he to advance. will tell you what he does not want.- Of the politics of the Ultras.—The Ultras Why? Because the man who is governed have advantages in their position which by an interest is impelled by a secret force determine their politics. They were overwhich with him takes the place of judg. turned by insurrection at the same time as ment and reason, and only shows him ob- royalty; they were exposed to every kind stacles without indicating to him the ulte- of persecution, to the most infamous spolirior object. Thus, he does not want Mr. ations: they had for enemies the enemies Such-a-one to be in place, because Mr. of social order, men who profaned churches, Such-a-one is an advocate for the equality erected altars to crime, and devoted virtue of rights, and it will be impossible to ad- to the scaffold. Their blood gloriously vance as long as Mr. Such-a-one is in power. mingled with the blood of martyrs and of He does not want Mr. Such-a-one to kings. United by a common persecution remain in France, because Mr. Such-a-one, with royalty and religion, the world has who is an enemy to royalty, is still a been accustomed to confound them with greater enemy to feodality.

all that is august and sacred. The preju. But to come at the knowledge of the dice in regard to them being such as to object of this party, remove for a moment make one forget that they had a distinct the obstacles they point to you, and ob- individual interest in opposing insurrection, serve them advance, you will soon see it must appear strange to men who exist in whither they tend.

a middle region of ideas, that the pobles

t having done every thing for the king, the, a weight to their political character; bu king should not do everything for them; all the barm they can do to the govern that loving lost their rights by the same ment is reduced to harassing them: laving blow which destroyed the rights of royalty, against them the age, which they cannot they should not resume them when royally prevent from advancing, they are forced to resumes it own.

follow its progress to harass it; so that Allihis may furuish the party with many hey are themselves going further from the argumenis which will not be without pomt to which they want to bring back weight in the opinion of the multitude; society; and so we have seen their first but though the vnigar can perceive only writers entering into all the constitutional this lower king of justice, there is a bigher principles, and arming themselves with the species of Justice which alone ought to in-charter to attack a government suitable to fluence kings.

the times; the last resource of a party not From the situation of the Ultras, it be strong enough to attack its enemy in front, comes their policy to put ou the cloke of and whicli, in abandoning its entrenchroyalism to combat with men and things ments, has made its existence dependent opposed to their party: it is for the king's on the existence of the laws of exceptions interest therefore that they doom the which serve as a pretext for its attacks. French of the new system to exile; it is The secret wish of the Ultras is to make through royalism that they ask power, en. themselves masters of the administrations, ployments, and hanours for themselves in order to influence the elections, and have only; in short, it is for love of the king the whole legislative power; differing in ihat they attack the king's government, this from the Jacobins, who desire to have Jabour to turn public opinion against it, power over the elections for the purpose of do their utmost io make all the works of turning out the Ministers, and composing wisdom appear unjust and prejudicial 10 the administration according to their own the state; and as it is difficui 10 reconcile views. such efforts with the respect they profess The saying, trivial as it is, Go out of that for the sovereign, they affect to make no place that I may go into it, is the motto of mention of the king's name in their public all parties. accusations, but to designate only his mi.

In the preceding observations it is nisters; a political foolery, which they the more readily adopt, as in fact it is not the proper we should apprize our readers, person of the monarch which is in their that the author speaks only of those way, but his government, that is to say, Ultras who form an opposition party his ministers; and when they find in their acting against the government of the conduct nothing to ground their animosity King of France; and whose numbers upon, they impute secret views to them, a are diminishing daily. resource ever ready for accusers who have The Liberals are a junction of the no other,

Jacobins and Bonapartists; and their One of the most usual practices of this party consists in confounding, in the mere

political principles and conduct are thus acceptation of the word Revolution, the developed by our author. crimes, follies, and misfortunes that

In France, says he, we too easily suffer spruug from the insurrection of 99 with parties to usurp words to which notions of institutions which time has unfolded, wbieh public good are affixed: we know how the nineteenth century has adopted, and dearly we have paid for the words national, which the charter has consecrated: thus, patriót, &c. &c. on the banners of the with them, the Septembriser and the Con- nonsters who destroyed the nation and stitutional Royalist; he who killed the king ruin the country; and we are not yet aware and he who would lay down his life in de what the word liberal, on the banners of fending him, are equally Revolutionists;

men in the interest of fact, will cost us. If the man who overthrew, and the man who is to this deplorable easiness we must im. is endeavouring to re-establish monarchy, pute the real corruptiou into which our are both Jacobins; and as Revolutionists political language has fallen. Is there a word and Jacobins are beings not very estimable, that has among us determinate selse, and we must abjure the improvements of the which, in certain months, siguifies preage we live in, or be silent, if we wish cisely the contrary of the signification given not to be blackened in the drawing-rooms in our old dictionaries? The word philowhere the Ultras prevail.

sophy formerly signified the love of wisdom ; The ministry fear the Ultras, and with it has served among us moderns as a pro some reason, for the Ultras are honourable totype of every kind of extravagauce, and persons, and their personal character gives may now almost be construed the love of Vol. IX. No:53, Lit. Pan. N. S. Feb, 1.!

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