« FöregåendeFortsätt »
TOWARDS the end of the eighth century Lausanne enjoyed high renown and many privileges, her bishop, Udalrich, being closely allied to the Emperor of the West. He was the son of Hildebrand, Duke of Swabia, and twin brother of the beautiful Hildegarde, second wife of Charlemagne.
As long as his sister lived, Udalrich enjoyed the greatest authority at Court. But after her death in 783, he fell into disgrace, and was deprived of the greater portion of his dignities. He sought in vain to justify himself against a host of false accusations, and all seemed lost, when the Emperor's jester took upon himself one day to cry throughout the palace : Poor Udalrich! Poor bishop of Lausanne! Now that thy sister is dead, thou hast lost all thy dignities from the east to the west !' Charlemagne heard this indirect reproach, and could not refrain from tears. He at once restored his brother-in-law to his confidence and friendship, and re-established him in his former honours.
In 1011, the last King of Transjuran Burgundy, Rudolph the Lazy, gave to the spiritual head of the diocese the whole county of Vaud.
Sixty-five or sixty-six years later, Henry IV., Emperor of Germany, made his famous pilgrimage to Italy, and submitted to the greatest indignity from Pope Gregory VII., in order to rid himself from the excommunication of the Holy See. The memory of this historical journey has been revived in the recent discussions of the German Parliament, and has given rise to the now well-known phrase, “ To go to Canossa.'
In 1079, by a charter dated at Spire, Henry confirmed the preceding gift, and added many other important domains to the
| Martignier and de Crousaz, 482; Verdeil, i. 54. It is often difficult to ascertain the exact dates of events in the history of the Canton of Vaud. Thus, in this instance, Martignier gives the date as 1011; and so does Verdeil, who, after setting out in extenso the deed of gift by Rudolph III. to the Bishop of Lausanne, at p. 54, dated VIII. of the Calends of September 1011, gives the date, at p. 77 of the same volume, as 1015. Daguet, in his History (i. 93), assigns this donation to the year 1001, but does not cite the original act. (See also Mém. et Doc. VII. x.) VOL. I.
diocese of Lausanne; and, five years after, he made his famous visit to Vevey, where he granted various other privileges.
It must be confessed that Burchard, the then Bishop of Lausanne, richly merited these generous favours; for his knightly form was to be seen upon every battlefield, bearing aloft before the Emperor the sacred lance of Constantine, until that fatal Christmas Eve at Gleichen, when, falling by his sovereign's side, he literally sealed his devotion with his life's blood.
As early as 1036, Bishop Hugues published the “Trêve de Dieu,' and proposed that all wars should cease during certain periods of the year. The council which he summoned to take this question into consideration assembled at Montrion, near Lausanne, which became the home of Voltaire seven hundred years afterwards.2 In the preceding century Queen Bertha had seconded in all directions the pacific activity of the Church. She established roads, encouraged drainage on a large scale, planted vineyards, and protected poor serfs. She founded monasteries-asylums for prayer and work. The lines of her fortifications stretched from the Alps to the Jura. Liberty was born under her rule, and the Roman tongue, which M. Valliemin calls the graceful and naïve daughter of the Latin, came into general use.
1 Verdeil, i. 67, and Vulliemin, i. 78, affirm that Henry went to Vevey on his way to Italy in 1076 ; but Baron de Gingins in The Avouerie of Vevey' (Mém. et Doc. XVIII., 15 of the Mémoire), says in a note : "On the occasion of his first expedition in the winter of 1077 the Emperor passed by the Tarentaise and the Little St. Bernard, and not through the Valais and the Great St. Bernard, as is commonly stated, taking Civis, Cevins, for Vivis, Vevey.' In the text he says: 'It was on his return from his second expedition beyond the Alps, and after having received at Rome the imperial crown (1084), that Henry IV. passed the Great St. Bernard, and arrived, in the first days of September of 1088, at Vevey, where he sojourned. He was accompanied by the Bishop of Sion, Ermenfroy, his chancellor, and Burchard, Bishop of Lausanne. It was in this little town, and in presence of these two prelates, that the Emperor caused to be despatched a charter by which he restored the Priory of Lutry to the Abbot of Savigny in Lyonnais, from whom it had been taken by the antiCæsar Rodolph.' Verdeil's authority is Baron de Gingins himself, in his Mémoire sur le Rectorat de Bourgogne, published as early as 1838 in the first volume of the Mémoires of the Society of History of Roman Switzerland, which fact renders the subsequent correction by Baron de Gingins himself all the more trustworthy.
2 Daguet, i. 102; Vulliemin, Histoire de la Confédération Suisse, i, 75. Verdeil, i. 63, gives 1038 as the date, and Vulliemin in Le Canton de Vaud gives 1033. The date of the Trêve de Dieu 'does not appear anywhere exactly. Daguet says 1036. De Gingins, in his work on the Rectorate of Burgundy, published in 1838 (Mêm. et Doc., tome i, p. 20), says 1037 to 1038, at Romont; though in the notes which he made with M. Forel, President of the Society for the publication of the Cartulary of Lausanne, he corrects the name of the place to Montrion. Bridel, Conservateur Suisse, v. 268, in mentioning the subject, gives no date, and in vol. xii. p. 96 places it in the Chronicle of the Cartulary of Lausanne just after 1032, and immediately before 1033. In the Cartulary (Mém. et Doc. vi. 38) the date does not appear; the fact being mentioned with several others in the summary of Bishop Hugues's episcopate ; but it appears at p. 10 that the Bishop died in 1036 (August 31), though at p. 38 it would seem to have been 1038, since he is said to have become bishop in 1019, and to have governed nineteen years. Martignier is the most precise. He says in the autumn of 1036 or the spring of 1037.
Bertha is looked upon as the author of the first franchises of the country, and the good mother of its populations. They think they still behold her on the hillsides of Lavaux, carrying a basket of treasures and pouring them out upon the province.
In the porches of the churches which sprang into being at the beginning of the Middle Ages were to be seen sculptures representing the Virgin spinning. The good Queen realised the force of the example; for she went on horseback from hamlet to hamlet, distaff in hand, teaching her people the value of industry. Payerne religiously preserves her saddle and bridle, and the walls of the venerable abbey church still contain the representation of her peaceful occupation, with this inscription: 'Bertha humilis regina.'
The proverbial expression, 'in the days when Bertha spun,' recalls a pretty anecdote of the royal spinster preserved in the Journal of St. Romuald. Bertha met, one day, near Orbe, a young girl who was spinning while she tended a few lambs, and sent her a rich gift to reward her diligence. The following day, several noble ladies appeared at Court with distaffs ; but the Queen gave them no presents, and merely said: The peasant girl came first, and, like Jacob, she has taken away my benediction.'
Queen Bertha gave the town of Payerne, with all its dependencies, to St. Mayeul, Abbot of Cluny, and the act of foundation, commonly known as the will of Queen Bertha, was signed by her in the city of Lausanne on Tuesday, April 1, in the twenty-fourth year of the reign of her son Conrad, surnamed the Peaceful, King of Transjuran Burgundy, who succeeded to the throne in 937, when scarcely ten years of age. He was
| Vevey et les Alpes Vaudoises, by Eugène Duffoug-Favre, citing Vulliemin. Article on Mont Pélerin, p. 14. Vevey, 1844.
recognised by his vassals, and crowned in the church of St. Maire at Lausanne.
Although no apparent monument marked the place where Bertha was supposed to be buried, tradition had uninterruptedly declared that her last resting-place was under the arch of the tower of St. Michael at Payerne. In accordance with this legend excavations were begun, October 15, 1817, and the royal remains were found in a stately sarcophagus of stone similar to that used in building the church founded by this good sovereign. The relics were replaced in this sarcophagus with befitting honours, with an inscription on the black marble tablet above them, of which the following is a translation :
KING OF LITTLE BURGUNDY.
AND HER DISTAFF AN EXAMPLE:
SHE OPENED ROADS;
SHE NOURISHED THE POOR,
AFTER IX CENTURIES,
SHE WAS INTERRED,
TOWARD THEIR FATHERS,
The fame of this beloved Queen has drawn around her many of the beautiful pre-Christian as well as Christian fables, insomuch that some sceptics have even made her a mythological figure. Bertha, during the lifetime of her husband, Rodolph II., dwelt by turns at Soleure, Payerne, St. Maurice, Orbe, the château of Chavornay, and Lausanne. She restored the ancient Roman way in the Munsterthall. She established new vineyards along the shores of the lakes.
She granted various exemptions to the colonists, who increased the value of
Martignier and de Crousaz, 728 (article signed • Ernest Chavannes'). Conservateur Suisse, iii.
the hillsides near her castle of Chavornay and the ancient town of Orbe.
But one of the most important services rendered by this good woman was the defence of her people against the Saracens, who came from Italy by Mount St. Bernard, and, entering the Transjuran kingdom, seized and fortified the mountain passages and some towns, Avenches among them, of which they became masters in 938. The horror inspired by these foreign bordes is preserved not only in the popular traditions of Roman Switzerland, but also in the contemporary writings of Luitprand and Frodoard. Their boulevards were the summits of the Alps,' where Hugues, King of Italy, maintained them upon condition that they would close the passage of the Peninsula against Beranger, his rival. For a moment it was feared that this band might fix itself definitely in the Valais ; for they began to ally themselves with the women of the country, and even to cultivate lands, which did not, however, interfere with their principal occupation of robbing and murdering unfortunate travellers. The number of Christians they killed, says Luitprand, was so great that He alone who inscribed their names in the Book of Life could form an idea of it. The capture and sufferings, and the subsequent relief and preaching of St. Mayeul, abbot of Cluny, aroused both people and princes, and resulted finally in the expulsion of these barbarians from Helvetia towards the end of the tenth century (975)."
Souvenirs of the Saracens attach to many places in Roman Switzerland. There is the Fossé des Sarrasins, near Bière; a mound near La Sarra, called the Hill of the Moor (Maurmont); and a fountain above Lutry, which an ancient charter entitles Morrish Fountain (Mauro-fonte). Their unwelcome sojourn at Avenches is commemorated in the Wall of the Saracens, and by the head of a Moor in the city arms. In the Grisons, the families of Morlot and Mæringen preserve the heads of Moors in their escutcheons, while that of Moor carries one on a gold field, and a demi-Moor as a crest.
In Savoy, local traditions attach the Saracen name to all ruins and legends whose origin is uncertain. Their memory is
| Martignier and de Crousaz, p. 828 (article signed ‘A. Baron '); Verdeil, i. 48.