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very low condition. When St. Bernard came hither in the time of the Bishop Gui de Merlen, deposed by the Pope in 1143, he bitterly deplored the dissensions of the clergy and laity, the debauchery and gaming common to both, and the depraved habits of the women of all classes. In his farewell letter of abdication, Boniface himself declared: 'I can neither heal Babylon nor restore health to a corrupt body in which there is nothing holy from the sole of the feet to the crown of the head.'

Troubles now arose between the adherents of John of Cossonay and those of Philip of Savoy, candidates for the episcopal seat. The former, at the head of his knights and vassals, seized the Bishop's residence, and was received by the inhabitants of the Bourg with hearty acclamations; but the inhabitants of the Cité determined to repel the aggression. Assisted by the Sieur de Faucigny, they besieged the Bourg in such a hot manner that the streets between the upper and the lower town were reduced to ashes.

At this supreme moment, and amid this carnage and desolation, a thousand men from Berne, Morat, and Avenches arrived to succour the Bourg, and proceeded to attack the Cité by the Gate of St. Maire.

Then Peter of Savoy, at the head of six thousand men, hurrying to the rescue of his brother Philip, appeared upon the scene, took the Bourg, and carried into the town fire, pillage, and slaughter. If M. de Gingins be correct, the old walls of St. Francis and of La Grotte must have looked on horrors that day whose blood-stains could not be washed out by all the rains that have beaten on them for six centuries. As there is an end to everything, so there was an end to this, and peace was concluded between the combatants at Evian, across the lake, in 1244.

It is too long a story to relate all the romantic adventures of Peter of Savoy, or to define the gradual approach to absolute power in the Pays de Vaud of the second founder of the Castle of Chillon, called the Little Charlemagne. But it does not require a great stretch of imagination to believe that the monas- s tery of St. Francis, and La Grotte if in existence, were familiar 11 to the former Prior of Aosta, and that its sounding corian echoed his steel-clad steps on more than one occasion. p. 63.

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The forces of Rodolph of Hapsburg, first emperor of his name, having invaded the Pays de Vaud and besieged Chillonsays M. Cibrario ("Storia di Savoia,' 1852)—were suddenly assailed and defeated by Peter of Savoy, who had hastened from England on news of their approach. Peter pushed on to Berne, where he received the homage of its seigniors, and was acknowledged as the 'Imperial Protector.' Peace was thereupon declared, and soon afterwards, in the midst of his glory, in 1268, Peter was gathered to his fathers.

Peter of Savoy was the first who took into his service a troop of mercenaries, which was composed of Italians, Englishmen, and Savoyards. In the early part of his career he was extremely violent; but later he strove to change the rude habits of the time, and to mitigate its barbarous modes of punishment. At this period, theft and abuse were punished by a pecuniary fine, and if the condemned was without money his hand, nose, or ear was cut off. Peter did away with these usages; and he protected the peasantry, widows and orphans.

He received his vassals in the great hall of the Castle of Chillon, where they beheld their own arms honourably arranged around those of Savoy. The horn announced the feast. The ladies arrived with emblazoned robes, and the chaplain read the prayer before the repast from a magnificent volume bound in gold and violet.

After the banquet, the buffoons and the minstrels began their performances before the Prince, and the time passed in joyous mirth. At this period the bourgeoisie dwelt in wooden houses covered with straw. They created a police force, and they fixed the price of everything. Strangers could only buy after the townsmen had finished purchasing. Agriculture was very backward, and nearly all the land was in pasturage.

The country was inhabited by two classes : those whose holdings were subject to the payment of ground rents, and those liable to talliage.

In October, 1275, Lausanne was filled by an immense concourse of people from all parts to witness the dedication to the Virgin of her restored cathedral. Pope Gregory X. had come from the Council of Lyons, over which he had presided, accompanied

| Vulliemin, Canton de Vaud, p. 163.

by seven cardinals, seventeen bishops, a great number of abbots, and a crowd of ecclesiastics of various orders, and was surrounded by the clergy of the diocese of Lausanne and its neighbours.

Rodolph of Hapsburg also hastened thither with his wife, the Empress Anne, and their five sons and three daughters, and with a brilliant suite, including seven dukes or reigning princes, fifteen counts, great vassals of the empire, and a multitude of barons.

On the 19th of the month the ceremonies were celebrated in the cathedral with all the pomp of the Romish ritual, and amid all the splendours of the imperial cortège.

The grand Sovereign Pontiff, says the original Latin Act of Consecration, having dedicated the church to the Blessed Virgin Mary-Notre Dame de Lausanne—anointed the high altar, and placed thereon the following relics: A piece of the Cross of the Saviour, some hair of the Blessed Virgin, a rib of the Blessed Mary Magdalen, a rib of the Blessed St. Laurence, pieces of the Sepulchres of our Saviour and the Holy Virgin, a portion of the Holy Manger, and part of the Cross of St. Andrew.

At the same time the grand Sovereign Pontiff granted indulgences and absolution for one year and forty days to all who visited the Cathedral of Lausanne and there confessed their sins.

The following day there was an equally solemn rite in the same place. The Emperor took between the hands of the Pope the oath of fidelity to the Church, and delivered to him a diploma, wherein he promised to return to him certain provinces, to defend his rights in the kingdom of Sicily, and to take part in the Crusades if it should become necessary.

We may be sure that the monastery of St. Francis and La Grotte sheltered many illustrious personages, perhaps the Emperor himself, during these fêtes, which were so magnificent that the Emperor expended for his costume alone a sum equal to the entire revenue of the richest baron of that epoch.

As marking the extravagance of the times, we are told by Verdeil that the abbot of St. Gaul, in order to defray his expenses at Lausanne during these festivals, was obliged to sell to the House of Hapsburg the fiefs of his rich seigniory of Gruningen.

i Original Act of Consecration in Latin, Mém. et Doc., tome vii. p. 60. 2 Original Oath of the Emperor in Latin, Mém. et Doc., tome vii. p. 63.

We may with certainty associate the monastery of St. Francis and La Grotte with historical events and personages after the year 1258, the date adopted by M, Ernest Chavannes as that of their foundation. M. Chavannes, with the accuracy which distinguishes his historical investigations, has cited to me in support of his position two documents in the archives of Lausanne. The first states that on January 23, 1256, Pope Alexander IV. ordered the Bishop of Lausanne to aid the Friars Minor of St. Francis in their plan of establishing themselves at Lausanne. The second, dated November 4, 1258, is a deed of gift from Pierre Dapifer and Jaquetta his wife, conveying to the Franciscans of Burgundy a piece of land near the city moat and outside the gate of Condamine (as the Gate of Rive or Ouchy was originally called), for the good of the souls of the pious givers."


The city of Lausanne, as we learn from the will of Pierre Franconis the elder ? (1280), had risen from its ashes, and the sites of its burned wooden houses were covered with massive stone edifices. Thus the appalling conflagration which had seemed a great misfortune resulted in a happy development of the town. The waste spaces were filled up, and the straggling series of villages became a beautiful and compact city, enriched by the continuous stream of strangers, and the perpetual pilgrimages to its holy shrine.

It was at this time that the municipal affairs of the whole city began to enter upon a new career of consolidation, and that the Rue de Bourg and the Place of St. Francis commenced to gain their distinguishing features.

The inhabitants of this quarter now dwelt in spacious houses, adorned with ample fireplaces, and had handsome

i Note of M. Ernest Chavannes to the author, May 22, 1880.

2 Olivier, ii. 638 (Lausanne, 1841); A.D. 1280, MSS. Ruchat, Bibl. Bridel, Bibliothèque Cantonale de Lausanne.

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