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We however find, that an engine can travel at a rate of speed quite sufficient for the purposes of common intercourse, and certainly quite equal to that which is at present effected by other modes, with almost the most economical load; and, therefore, if there are not a sufficient number of passengers, the load of the engine can be completed with goods.

If the contrast between the two modes is not, therefore, made out with passengers alone, in cases where the intercourse is less than between Liverpool and Manchester, the quantity of goods which the engine is capable of conveying, in addition to, and without any inconvenience to the passengers, will fully bear out the comparison.

This brings us to the conclusion, that in most, if not in every case, when the conveyance of passengers is to constitute part of the traffic, they must, in order to effect the most economical result, form part of the general load of an engine, in common with the goods or merchandize; and, therefore, that every species of transit must be effected at the same rate of speed.

This is a very important change in the features of Rail-road conveyance, the result of the late improvements in locomotive engines, whereby they are capable, not only of taking a useful load, but, perhaps, the most economical load of which their nature is susceptible, at that rate of speed, which enables them to embrace the conveyance of passengers at a rate of speed greater than has ever yet been attained by any other practicable mode of conveyance.

Adverting again to the comparison of horses and locomotive engines, at greater rates of speed, we found that, with a load of 120 passengers, one engine was doing the work of 240 horses, upon a turnpike road. We have before said, the relative resistance upon the common and Rail-roads, was as 1:75; and, therefore, 32 horses would, on a Rail-way, do the work of 240 horses on a turnpike, reducing the relative performance of locomotive engines and horses to 32: 1. But we must observe, that 120 passengers, with the carriages, will not be equal to 12 tons, or about one-third of the load of an engine travelling at that rate; and, therefore, 32 × 3 = 96 horses, which is nearly the former result, shewn in Table XII.

The least performance of a locomotive engine, will be equal to that of 18 horses, supposing that an average velocity of 12 miles, for 8 hours a-day, be attained. Much of this will depend upon the length of the Railway, and the nature of the traffic in which they are employed; in short lines of road, where the delays in changing, &c., produce considerable stops, this performance will be diminished: but still their performance will equal that of a considerable number of horses. The relative cost will, of course, depend much upon the situation of the district in which they are used, with respect to the price of fuel, and other circumstances; and their performances, upon the length and features of the Rail-road on which they are made to travel. In a general way, perhaps, at the rate of speed above assigned, we may state the cost of one locomotive engine, equal to that of four horses and their attendants. So long, therefore, as the performance of a locomotive engine exceeds that of four horses, the economy of transit will be in favour of engines; and when the length of the Railway, and the nature of the traffic, will allow of a maximum performance, then their relative utility, compared with horses, will be as 4: 1.—pp.


When it becomes a subject of discussion which of the two modes is to be adopted, it assumes rather a different shape than when a Rail-road, the transit on which is performed by horses, is to enter into competition with a Canal already formed. In the latter case, the Canal proprietor commences with considerable advantage, by the additional quantity of goods which a horse can drag at a slow pace upon a Canal, where, perhaps, a little loss of time may be no object; and the Canal proprietor may, even with his great investment of capital, by reducing his rates of tonnage extremely low, be enabled to compete successfully with a Rail


For although a horse may, when travelling at the rate of four or six miles an hour, convey a greater quantity of goods upon a Rail-way than when employed in dragging goods at the same velocity upon a Canal; yet still a horse cannot drag more goods at the rate of four miles an hour upon a Rail-way, than he can at two miles an hour upon a Canal; for in no case does the greatest quantity of work, that a horse can do, at the most beneficial pace on a Canal, reach below three times that which a horse can do at any pace upon a Rail-road.

For the conveyance of passengers, or where the transit of any species of goods may require a celerity of four miles an hour, then Rail-ways become, unquestionably, more economical than Canals; but if the question be the abstract performance, or quantity of goods to be transported from one place to another, without reference to speed; then the quantity of work done by a horse, on a Canal, will always be three times that which he is capable of doing on a Rail-way. The comparative expense, arising from the extra interest of capital, and the annual charges and maintenance of a Canal, may reduce this proportionate performance near to an equality; or, if the one compensate for the other, then, perhaps, the less investment of capital in a Rail-road, and the greater certainty of transit, may make it superior to a Canal. But, unless the disparity of cost is great between a Rail-road entering into competition with an existing Canal; or unless some extraordinary circumstances in the nature of the traffic occur, it may be difficult to say, when horses are the motive power on each, which is superior.

There is one very important property in a Rail-way, which gives it a great advantage over a Canal, viz. the range of undulation which its nature permits; a straighter and shorter line can mostly be made between one place and another, which, from the necessity of having Canals always perfectly level, or, at least, that level only broken at certain intervals, by the occurrence of rocks, occasions, frequently, a difference in distance of considerable magnitude; and this, in many instances, may diminish the comparative cost of transporting goods, and give a superiority to Railroads.

And again, in many cases, where the principal part of the goods are to be conveyed in one direction; by a proper inclination of the Rail-way, the weight of goods conveyed, or quantity of work done, may, in some instances, be considerably augmented, without presenting a greater average resistance than previously stated, when the relative performance upon Railroads will be proportionably increased. We have a very striking proof of this in Table V., of the weight which a horse can drag, upon certain inclinations of road, when the train is descending. On 1 in 250, the gross

weight is 28.44 tons, an increase of performance in the ratio of 28.44: 12, which cannot be taken advantage of by a Canal; as in that case, locks would be required, which would diminish, rather than increase the performance.

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Having thus given a few hasty remarks on the comparison of Railroads with Canals, in the use of animal power, we shall now give a brief comparison between the use of mechanical power on Rail-roads, and animal power on Canals; and here, as in every other case, where the two species of action come into competition, we shall find the mechanical power outstrip the animal, in general economy.'-pp. 460-463.

To give a faithful catalogue even of all the distinct questions of mechanics which are here treated of, and elucidated by experiments and tables, would be impossible, consistently with the due distribution of our space. We must, therefore, in justice, refer the reader to the work itself, strongly assuring him, that whether he be a man of science, or one totally unacquainted with its technical difficulties, he will here receive instruction and pleasure in a degree which we have seldom seen united before. The style is simple, unaffected, and perspicuous, and such altogether as befits a subject worthy to engage the attention of persons of good sense and sound understanding.

ART. X-Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Straits, to co-operate with the Polar Expedition; performed in His Majesty's Ship Blossom, under the command of Captain F. W. Beechey, R. N. F.R.S., &c., in the years 1825-26-27-28. Published by Authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 4to. 2 parts. pp. 742. London Colburn and Bentley. 1831.

WHEN Captains Parry and Franklin, in the year 1824, proceeded on their respective expeditions to the north, it was calculated that by the time either of them would arrive at the open sea in Behring's Strait, he would be completely exhausted of provisions and stores. To prevent the consequences of such an event, the Blossom, of 26 guns, was fitted out, and on the 12th of January, 1825, that vessel sailed, under the command of Captain Beechey, for the above destination.

The Blossom weighed from Spithead, and proceeded to Rio Janeiro, whence the expedition sailed for the Pacific. The coast of Chili afforded materials for some very interesting observations. Captain Beechey remarks, that in the Pacific in particular, the navigator should be attentive to the presence or absence of birds, since he has generally found that they indicate the neighbourhood of islands, and particularly islands of coral formation and uninhabited. The truth of this observation was attested shortly after the vessel left the Chilian coast, for she was entirely abandoned by the birds at first, but their re-appearance induced the ship's crew to look out for land, and they soon discerned, some

miles distant, the island of Sala-y-Gomez. They narrowly examined, as far as they could do with their telescopes, under the lee of the island, but without any particular result; and, the circumstance of a volcanic pebble being found in the stomach of a pelican that was shot, led to a conjecture as to the geological constituents of the island.

Captain Beechey was totally unable to find out the island called Washington and Coffin, said to lie westward to the above island; and it is no strange thing that he failed to see what now appears to have never had any existence outside the lively imagination of the American Captain who discovered it. The Blossom bore up for the northern shore of Easter Island, which part of it not having been surveyed by La Perouse, and having been but partially inspected by Cook, Captain Beechey was determined to thoroughly examine. The description of the sequel must be given in the Captain's own animated language.

'As we approached, we observed numerous small craters rising above the low land, and near the north-east extremity, one of considerable extent, with a deep chasm in its eastern side. None of these were in action, nor indeed did they appear to have been so for a long time, as, with the exception of the one above-mentioned, they were covered with verdure. The N. E. promontory, already noticed as having two small hillocks upon it, was composed of horizontal strata, apparently of volcanic origin; and near it, some patches of earth, sloping down to the cliff, were supposed to consist of red scoriæ. The hills, and exposed parts of the earth, were overgrown with a short burnt-up grass, which gave the surface a monotonous and arid aspect; but the valleys were well cultivated, and showed that the island requires only a due proportion of moisture and labour to produce a luxuriant vegetation.

Passing along the northern shore, we saw several of those extensive habitations which M. La Perouse has described, situated in a valley, surrounded by groves of banana trees and other patches of cultivation. The larger huts were placed near the wood, and the smaller ones close together outside them. Nearer the sea-shore, which here forms a bay, was a morai, surmounted by four images standing upon a long low platform, precisely answering the description and representations of one given by Perouse, and also an immense inclosure of stones and several large piles, which, as well as the images, were capped with something white, a circumstance noticed both by Captain Cook and M. Perouse.

The greatest attention appeared to be paid to the cultivation of the soil. Such places as were not immediately exposed to the scorching rays of the sun were laid out in oblong strips, taking the direction of the ravines; and furrows were ploughed at right angles to them, for the middle of the small bay just mentioned, there was an extinguished crater, the side of which fronting the sea had fallen in. The natives availing themselves of this natural reservoir for moisture, in which other parts of the island are so deficient, had cultivated the soil in its centre, and reared a grove of banana trees, which, as we passed, had a very pleasing effect. The natives lighted fires, and followed the ship along the coast, their

numbers increasing at every step. Some had a white cloth thrown loosely over their shoulders, but by far the greater number were naked, with the exception of the maro.

When the ship had arrived off the N. W. point of the island, she was hove to for the purpose of taking observations; and a boat was lowered to examine the bays, and obtain soundings near the shore. Immediately she put off, the natives collected about the place where they supposed she would land. The sea broke heavily upon the rocks, and some of them apprehending the boat would be damaged, waved their cloaks to caution her against making the attempt to land; while others, eager to reach her, plunged into the sea and so surrounded her, that she was obliged to put about to get rid of them. They all showed a friendly disposition, and we began to hope that they had forgotten the unpardonable conduct of the American master, who carried several of the islanders away by force, to colonize Masafuera.

Immediately the noon observation was obtained, we ran along the western side of the island, towards the bay in which Cook and Perouse had both anchored. The natives, as before, followed along the coast, and lighted fires in different directions, the largest of which was opposite the landing-place. With a view to ascertain the feelings of the inhabitants, and, if possible, to establish an amicable intercourse with them, I desired Lieutenant Peard to proceed with two boats to the shore, and by presents and kindness to endeavour to conciliate the people, and to bring off what fruit and vegetables he could. Lieutenant Wainwright was directed to accompany him; and, though I did not apprehend any hostility, yet, as a precautionary measure, I armed the boats, and placed two marines in each; their strength was further increased by several of the officers, and the naturalist. Thus equipped, they rowed to the landing-place, in Cook's Bay, while the ship remained at a short distance. The islanders were collected in great numbers, and were seen running to and fro exhibiting symptoms of expectation and delight. Some few, however, were observed throwing large stones at a mark behind a bank erected near the beach.

'As the boats appproached, the anxiety of the natives was manifested by shouts, which overpowered the voices of the officers: and our boats, before they gained the beach, were surrounded by hundreds of swimmers, clinging to the gunwale, the stern, and the rudder, until they became unmanageable. They all appeared to be friendly disposed, and none came empty-handed. Bananas, yams, potatoes, sugar-cane, nets, idols, &c. were offered for sale, and some were even thrown into the boat, leaving their visitors to make what return they chose. Among the swimmers there were a great many females, who were equally or more anxious to get into the boats than the men, and made use of every persuasion to induce the crew to admit them. But to have acceded to their entreaties would have encumbered the party, and subjected them to depredations. As it was, the boats were so weighed down by persons clinging to them, that for personal safety the crew were compelled to have recourse to sticks to keep them off, at which none of the natives took offence, but regained their position the instant the attention of the persons in the boat was called to some other object. Just within the gunwale there were many small things which were highly prized by the swimmers; and the boats being brought low in the water by the crowds hanging to them,

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