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ART. XI.-The Tour of the Holy Land, &c. By the Rev. Robert Morehead, D.D., &c., 12mo. Edinburgh Oliver and Boyd.


In this brief but spirited compilation, the reverend editor, who does not pretend to be a traveller, has collected together some of the most touching descriptions that can be found in our literature, of all those scenes and places in the Holy Land, which are endeared to our memories by associations of the deepest and most durable interest. The account of this sacred region is carried on by means of a dialogue in which three characters take part—a plan, of the value and convenience of which we have here a very happy illustration, since it gives the author an opportunity of indulging in a variety of reflections, and views, which would scarcely be consistent with, and certainly not very pleasing if found embodied in, a formal narrative. Much novelty, we should say, is thrown on the description of those well-known scenes from a MS. journal of a gentleman who had written it as he passed over them. An Appendix is added, containing extracts from another Journal kept by a friend of the author, and containing notes of a Journey made through Syria in 1828. Taken altogether, we regard this little work as a curiosity not less valuable than it is engaging.

ART. XII.-An Outline of Sematology: or an Essay towards establishing a new Theory of Grammar, Logic, and Rhetoric. 8vo. London: 1831.

If we were to judge of the theory

propounded in this anonymous volume, by the manner in which its nature and details are explained, we should be inclined to decide very favourably indeed from the perspicuity and ease that mark the exposition of a very complicated and metaphysical subject. By the term Sematology, our author understands the signs, which, for the most part, consist of words, and which become the media of our acquiring knowledge from one another. These

signs, or more plainly, the artificial language which they unite to form, is peculiar to man; it is a creation of his own; it is a distinct thing from, or rather it is an improvement on, that instinct to utter sounds, which we derive from nature. Words then are not, strictly speaking, the signs of knowledge, but they are the means or instruments which the mind seeks to assist its own operations, and by which it is excited to think and to obtain knowledge. Upon this foundation the author proceeds to develop his system in three divisions or branches, and headed respectively, Gramınar, Logic, and Rhetoric. The first chapter, that on Grammar, is marked by the strongest evidences of an acute and profound mind: the whole subject of the functions of words and the modifications they undergo in adapting themselves to sentences, is treated in a most curious and interesting manner. The second chapter is devoted to Logic, or that part of Sematology which means the proper application of words as instruments in the investigation of truth. It would be impossible for any reasonable person to read the arguments of the author, in support of his restricted definition of the word Logic, without feeling that they

were unanswerable. The concluding chapter-that on Rhetoricpresents the Rhetorical art as formerly it was considered,-an art showing the right application of words, with a view to convince or persuade, but which still is inseparably connected with the fundamental theory here laid down, namely, that he who exercises the art of Rhetoric, rightly understood, does no more than skilfully avail himself of the knowledge and experience acquired by his audience, in order to lead them by signs or words to obtain fresh information.

Considered as a mere display of philosophical reasoning, we think this book every way worthy of the attention of the learned world; but we are sure that even general readers will be induced to turn to its when we state that the estapages, blishment of the principles which it contains, and an universal acknowledgment of their truth, must bring about a very decided practical improvement in our existing systems of education.

ART. XIII.-The Family Classical Library, or English Translations of the most valuable Greek and Latin Classics, with highly finished Engravings of the Authors.

Nos. I. to XVI. London. A.
J. Valpy. 1830.

We have abstained from offering any opinion on the merits of the Classical Library, until the course of publication should have supplied us with a sufficient quantity of materials to authorise us in pronouncing an impartial judgment both on the plan and the execution of the work. The sixteen volumes, which are now before the public, appear to us to constitute a reasonable amount of such materials; and, drawing our conclusions as to the whole enter

prise, from a careful examination of this large specimen, we do not hesitate to declare our conviction that a more important or a more interesting accession than this Library to our national literature, has not taken place in modern times. If we only consider, for a moment, how few the number is of those persons amongst us whose good fortune it is to be so thoroughly acquainted with the languages of Greece and Rome, as that they can understand them with the same facility as their mother tongue: if we remember that it is but a few even of those who have learned and have devoted time to the acquisition of Greek and Latin, that can be said to enjoy this happy familiarity with those ancient languages:-if we only consider these facts, for an instant, we shall, then, have some adequate notion of the vast proportion of our community which is shut oututterly banned, as if by a decree of fate from all knowledge of the that sacred repository, classics which, from the dawn of civilization, has furnished its models to every country where mind has raised its imperishable trophies, or fancy elaborated its most beautiful creations. The evil which is here alluded to has never been, in our judgment, sufficiently estimated;

and even the occasional translations of Greek or Latin authors, which would seem to spring out of something like an acknowledgment of the grievance, can, in most instances, be traced to a mere desire of facilitating the labours of the schoolboy. Indeed, no serious or well-arranged plan has been proposed, before this time, for placing the treasures of the classic writers in the hands of readers who were unacquainted with the original language in which they wrote. How easily such a plan could be accomplished-how admirably it could be executed-with

what a well-founded assurance it might be undertaken, of producing good of every kind-solid instruction with the most ennobling delight-the volumes before us are at once the example and the proof.

For the indifference of the unlearned community at large to classic literature we may partly account by a traditional conceit which has been, from the earliest times, cherished by all pedants. These monopolists would always have it that a Greek or Roman author afforded no pleasure in any other language than his own; and that to enjoy his peculiar excellencies, or even to comprehend his meaning, we must pass through a twenty years' purgatory of Greek or Latin grammar! Amongst the parties who would be personally interested in maintaining such a doctrine, we confess that we ought to be numbered; for, as we have undergone the severe probation, we should be naturally inclined to overvalue the fruits of it. But every man of sense and candour in our situation will agree with us when we declare it to be our deliberate opinion, that any possible improvement of gratification which can be derived from a perusal, by a competent person, of an original classic, as compared with the pleasure afforded to him by a good English translation, is but as a grain of worthless dust in the balance, when brought in contrast with the obligation of acquiring the necessary knowledge of the dead language. We can only say, that we wish now we had the choice of the two modes of reading the classics. Let no one then, who has it in his power to obtain this series of the Classical Library, imagine that he is defrauded of an iota of the pleasure which the most consummate scholars enjoy from a perusal of the originals. Speaking reasonably on

this matter, we think we might say, that neither Cicero nor Demosthenes can be very considerably injured by addressing us in the language of Fox, Sheridan, and Burke. Surely the fame of Xenophon and Livy can be sustained by a medium whereon the memory of a Hume and a Gibbon floats gallantly from generation to generation. For our parts we think that Catiline speaks as orthodox sedition in English as Sallust ever put into his mouth. It is time indeed that we give up these childish prejudices.

With the opinions and feelings thus expressed, we shall be readily believed when we say that we attach the very highest value to the undertaking which is now partly executed before us; we think that in the selection of the translations, and in the notes of verbal explanation and historical and antiquarian illustration, the proofs of good taste, discretion, and extensive knowledge, are every where apparent. The biographical sketches of each author, an engraving of his bust, with the maps and cuts which are added to these volumes, respectively combine to give to the work that character of completeness which constitutes one of its best recommendations. We might, too, praise the elegance and accuracy of the printing, and the neatness of the appearance of the volumes; but a feature of greater importance than is connected with external merits, demands our warmest approbation, -we mean the exclusion of every thing offensive to virgin innocence. Thus, then, for the first time in the course of ages, all the intellectual splendours of Greece and Rome are opened to the modest contemplation of the gentler sex; and for the first time can a lady acknowledge an acquaintance with the treasures of ancient poetry without the smallest

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compromise of her delicacy. One word of advice before we conclude is extorted from us by the interest we feel in this admirable work. Neither in note nor preface let there be Greek or Latin quoted, at least unless accompanied by a version in English; for is it not an example of the most ludicrous inconsistency to offer information in untranslated Greek and Latin to a reader whom it is the avowed principle of this whole enterprise to consider as utWe refer terly ignorant of both ? particularly to No. X.

ART. XIV.-1, Plain Advice to Landlords and Tenants, Lodging House Keepers, &c. 3rd edition. H. Washbourne. 1831. 2. A Fumiliar Survey of the Laws respecting Masters and Servants, &c. H. Washbourne. 1831. THE size of each of these treatises is about that of a child's primer, and indeed they are altogether so unpretending and cheap that we can scarcely believe that legal advice could ever assume so reasonable and agreeable a shape. But it is only necessary to open the pages of either of the small volumes to be satisfied that a sound mind, and great practical experience have guided the execution of both. Freed entirely from technicalities, and every sort of impediment to perspicuity, with which Acts of Parliament notoriously abound, the treatises explain the provisions of the various laws, now in force, relating to the two subjects mentioned in the title pages; and this exposition is so clear, so comprehensive, so easily understood, as that there are few even of that extensive class to whom these works apply, who will not find something new and important to him, whatever relation he fills in

Landlords and tenants, society. masters and servants, of every shade of connection or dependence, will find in these humble books a source of counsel and instruction which will-if they be not fools or knaves-effectually secure them against the horrors of litigation; and moreover will teach them-what every man should desire to know— the value of exercising a little forethought in the management of his most material concerns.

ART. XV.-The Life of John Walker, M.D. By John Epps, M.D., &c. &c. 8vo. London: Whittaker and Co. 1831.

It is not a long time since an elderly gentleman, dressed in the severest costume of the meek quakers, was seen almost daily parading the most public of our streets, and many a thoughtless ejaculation of contempt or ridicule might he have encountered on his way from persons, who, if they were but conscious of the nature of his errand, would have turned their scorn into respect and affection. The individual here pointed at was the late Dr. Walker, a man that redeemed some follies, and many eccentricities, by the purest benevolence of heart. The metropolitan journies which were so long and so indefatigably performed by the Doctor, were made in pursuance of a plan which he had himself laid down for ensuring the diffusion of the blessings of vaccination. He visited stations, at intervals, through the interior of the city, and thus evinced his zeal for the comfort and happiness of his fellow creatures, in a manner that cannot be too much applauded. The history of his adventures, as told in the animated pages of his surviving friend, Dr. Epps, em

braces much that is exceedingly curious and instructive. He joined the army in Egypt as an amateur vaccinator; he cultivated, in Paris, during the revolution, the acquaintance of all the most famous revolutionists of that day; he was a schoolmaster in Ireland; he wrote a gazetteer and a geographical atlas, both of which works reflect the greatest credit on his ability, ingenuity, and industry. We must refer the reader to the very amusing and various narrative itself, which Dr. Epps has so ably given, as we should in vain endeavour to present an adequate notion of its agreeable contents, by any extracts which it would be in our power to make.

ART. XVI. Guy's Geographia Antiqua; or School Treatise on Ancient Geography, upon a new plan. By Joseph Guy, junior. London: W. Joy. 1830. WE know of no work on ancient geography better suited than this judicious volume for the young classical student. The arrangement observed is admirably calculated to facilitate the recollection of proper names—an object of the greatest consequence in studying Greek and Roman authors. The attention of the pupil is first directed to the grand divisions of a country, after which the details are presented to him on a fixed rule of order which will serve, by an easy association, to preserve those details in his memory. The information is abundant-indeed sufficient, on most occasions, to be a good substitute for Lempriere-even any of the improved Lemprieres of modern days. The quantities of the syllables of every name are accurately marked; and any one who is timid of pronouncing the names of noted classical

towns or rivers, lest he should violate one of the rules of prosody, could not do better than peruse this volume twice or thrice. An excel

lent Map of the World (notus veteribus) is prefixed, and affords the opportunity for the learner to carry on a most instructive exercise.

ART. XVII.—The Extraordinary Black Book, comprising an Exposition of the United Church, &c. &c., Civil List, &c. By the Original Editor. 8vo, pp. 576. London: Effingham Wilson.


THE great political changes which have taken place since this very elaborate book was published, have deprived many of the topics which it treats so curiously, and with such abundance of information, of that pressing interest which, but a few months ago, was connected with them. Highly important as are the tables and lists contained in this volume, yet, when we consider that another week may happily render some of them obsolete, or may alter them generally or individually, we think it would not be prudent at present to enter upon its details. But we have no hesitation in saying that, as a picture of the fiscal condition of the country for the first thirty years of the present century -as a summary of the practical calamities which long continued misrule may inflict on an industrious people as a register of the degree to which human patience may be forced in enduring oppression, this book deserves to have a place in even the poorest man's library. The author devotes a considerable space to the churches of England and Ireland. We do not agree, we confess, in the general spirit of his remarks upon this part of his sub

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