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ject: but we can with great justice award him the praise of ability, coupled with a diligence and erudition which have enabled him to bring before us a vast mass of important and interesting statements illustrative of the ecclesiastical history of this country. The Revenues of the Crown are next considered; and their origin and augmentation, with the delusions practised respecting them, are graphically described. The Civil List, with all its train of imposture, is amply exposed. The author then proceeds to examine the position in which the Aristocracy stands in relation to the people, showing the effects of their ambition as a body, and their usurpations of interference with the representative system. Indeed we may say that every link in the complicated chain of Government, or rather, what has been Government for so long a time in these realms, is traced with a bold and acute spirit of investigation. As a document, presenting an important, curious, and, for the most part, attested series of facts, we think the Extraordinary Black Book amply merits the general attention.

ART. XVIII.-The Life and Writings of Henry Fuseli, Esq., M.A.R.A., the former written, and the latter edited, by John Knowles, F.R.S. In three volumes, 8vo. London: Colburn and Bentley. 1831.

BOTH the biography, and most of the works of Fuseli, are already well known to the public, so that when we have awarded to these volumes the praise of being, as to mechanical elegance, a suitable repository for the reliques of a considerable genius, we have performed all that duty commands, or conve


nience will allow. In spirit and matter, Mr. Knowles's Life of his hero falls very far short of that account of Fuseli which we read in Mr. Murray's Family Library. occupies the whole of the first of the present volumes, and does not add a single material fact concerning the celebrated painter, which Mr. Cunningham had not already employed in his very animated sketch. The Lectures and Dissertations, which occupy the remaining two volumes, are all devoted to the details of that art in which the author so conspicuously shone. Besides the technical instruction with which they abound, the writings of Fuseli form some of the happiest models we possess in English, of a fine classic composition. As one of the standard works that are calculated to maintain the purity of English literature, we strongly recommend these beautiful volumes to the public.

ART. XIX.-A Treatise on the Nature and Causes of Doubt, &c. 12mo. London: Longman and Co. 1831.

THIS is a very sensible, and we regret to have cause for saying, a very seasonable little work, addressed, in a becoming strain, to all those rational persons who have not yet made up their minds upon the great subject of their "being's aim and end," and still retain an adequate sense of the importance of such a question. The object of our author is the very just one of spreading Christianity, an object indeed common to many; but the means which he employs, are, we suspect, somewhat peculiar, and we are mistaken if they be not as useful as they are singular. The great fault of those Treatises which are usually written in defence of the Christian religion is, that

they assume a vast deal of things in the nature of principles, of which their adversaries or those whom they desire to convert, are yet to be convinced. Now the author before us enters with evident propriety into the chief of those preliminary questions, and by slow gradations he labours forward in the removal of difficulties until he attains that point at which his predecessors have always begun. There he places the inquirer unembarrassed, and in a state which will give him the fairest chance of taking a correct view of those ulterior doctrines, which, as we have said, it was the final object of this writer to inculcate.

The volume is written in an excellent spirit, and not without some of those merits of composition which will recommend it to popularity.

ART. XX.-An Examination of the Doctrines of Value, as set forth by Adam Smith, Ricardo, M'Culloch, &c. By Charles F. Cotterill. Svo. Simpkin and Marshall. 1831.

In this very elaborate and acute treatise, Mr. Cotterill attempts to overthrow some of the leading principles of the Ricardo school of political economy. He indeed gives Mr. Ricardo credit for the profound and original views which he took of the efficient and determining cause of value-but says, that from wanting the necessary skill in analytical subtlety, he mistook the true theory on this point. Mr. Cotterill contends, in opposition both to Smith and Ricardo, that the cost of production, or labour, and its general productiveness, determines, or is the cause of value: and he follows up the consequences of his doctrine, inasmuch as it affects collateral questions such as the effects of

alterations in wages on value—the conditions of the standard of value --and value in exchange. We must say that we have seldom met with a controversialist so perfectly fair, candid, and temperate to his antagonists, as Mr. Cotterill.

ART. XXI.-Invention of an effective and unfailing Method for forming an Instantaneous communication with the Shore in Shipwreck, and illuminating the Scene in the dark and tempestuous Night. By John Murray, F. S. A. London: Whittaker and Co. 1831. We are glad to see one of Mr. Murray's energy and scientific attainments, attentive to a subject of such pressing interest as that to which he has now devoted his talents. The invention, with the history of which this pamphlet is occupied, bears in its outline a resemblance to that of Captain Manby, with, however, such a difference in favour of the new one, as justly authorizes Mr. Murray to claim the merit of originating a principle. The object of forming a communication between the ship in distress and the shore, is effected in the new plan by means of an arrowshaped missile, which is propelled by a gun from the shore. This instrument is so formed as to be able to maintain its direction against the resistance of the storm-to secure itself a hold where it strikes— and it is armed with a rod and ring, to which latter a line is attached the moment that the shot is fired. The apparatus is further supplied with a most ingenious appendage for illuminating the flight of the arrow and the scene of the shipwreck. We trust that this pamphlet will meet with immediate attention from the numerous bodies of humane associations which have

been formed in this country on the same benevolent principles as seem to have actuated Mr. Murray. Every suggestion for lessening the dangers that are so imminent to the existence of those who are obliged to " plough the watery main" should be seized with avidity, and the utmost latitude of experiment afforded to it; but this compliment, which is so amply due to such suggestions or plans on account of the value of their object, is certainly challenged with tenfold force in favour of a contrivance which has for its author a gentleman with the information, experience, and abilities of Mr. Murray. In bestowing this recommendation on the pamphlet before us, we may be allowed to mention, as some test of our sincerity, that we, at the same time, feel no little displeasure at the indiscriminate insinuation of corruption against Reviews, which, coming from one that has been so fairly dealt with by cotemporary critics, is as ungenerous as it is unjust.

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ments, or with the traditions and testimonies, to which his acquaintance with the colonists must have given him access. The account of

the insurrection in 1795, when the inhabitants of St. Vincent, by their patriotic and disinterested conduct, laid such an immense obligation on the proprietors of estates there, is now presented to us in an enlarged and correct form, and proves to be a very interesting and important passage in our colonial annals. Au appendix of copious statistical details is added; and in point of plan and execution, we have not seen, for some time, an historical and topographical work that reflects more credit on the good sense and diligence of the author, than the volume before us. One fact which we glean from Mr. Sheppard's work deserves, for the eternal instruction which it holds out, to be mentioned. When the settlements of North and South Carolina were first established, the celebrated Locke was prevailed on to digest a code of laws for the new colonists. The code was put into operation, but in a few years it was deliberately abandoned, in consequence of its michievous effects!-Another circumstance is noted by the author, as proving the most criminal apathy to the sufferings of humanity in the members of the local legislature of St. Vincent. Whilst the aged and infirm slaves are enjoying the comforts of a decent maintenance from their masters, the corresponding class of free labourers is left wholly unprovided for, there being neither relief fund nor even hospital to receive them when sick. The want of the latter institution is quite unaccountable, as the leprosy, in all its horrible violence, is increasing amongst the population. We should observe that some excellently engraved views are annexed to this volume.

ART. XXIII.-The Medical Annual for 1831, containing a Popular Account of all the Discoveries of Medicine and of Domestic Articles of real Utility, &c. &c. By R. Reece, M. D. London: Simkin and Co. 1831.

A MEDICAL Annual! what will not ingenuity compass and execute? This work is but a new and agreeable method by which Dr. Reece seeks to place sound medical knowledge at the door of every member of the community, not only perfectly free from technical obscurities and difficulties, but in such a clear and obvious way as all can easily understand. This Annual appears to be more particularly intended to convey a description of the new discoveries and improvements which have occurred in the Art of Medicine during the last ten years. The mere knowledge, however, of the properties of the new medicines would go but a little way in answering the whole of the author's disinterested wishes; and he has accordingly treated them with reference to their virtues in such an arranged form, as that the simplest person may be able to know in what disease, or what stage of it, the article is to be used, and in what proportion, and under what precautions. The Doctor very properly justifies what might be called the unprofessional simplicity of his work, by observing that the healing art has not only ceased to be the property of any privileged body, but it has been brought to such a degree of perfection, by the labours of the moderns, as not to require the cloak of technicalities, or of a dead language. The preliminary estimate which the author gives of the value of some of the proposed new remedies, shows him to be extensively and analytically acquainted with the scientific re

searches of the most eminent continental chemists. But whilst he pays to such authorities the deference that is due to their talents and experience, he is far from implicitly adopting their conclusions, and honestly declines giving his sanction to the employment of any medicine of their recommendation, which has not attested its character as a remedy in his own practice. There is a great deal of stubborn strong sense in the following obser


6 Of all the new remedies, Iodine, Morphine, Prussic Acid, and Strychnine, are the only ones in the favour of which the results of our own experience have enabled us to speak decidedly. Of the other new articles-as Emetine, Veratrine, Atropine, &c.—we have not given a trial, for a plain reason that may excite the derision of the philosophical practitioners of France and Italy, viz. because we would not take any one of them ourselves in any case of disease. We do

not mean to say that great credit is not due to some French chemists, particularly to M. Pelletier and M. Caventou, for their late discoveries of the alcalies of numerous natural productions of the vegetable kingdom, in which they sup pose the virtues of the articles to reside; and also to the justly celebrated physiologist, M. Majendie, for the numerous experiments he has made on different animals, for the purpose of ascertaining their medicinal properties: but this we say, that the value of many of these discoveries, as remedial agents, has been by them much overrated. When the extracts of poisonous vegetables contain all their medicinal virtues in such a state of concentration, that one or two grains is a sufficient dose, what advantage can arise from a still further concentration by tedious and expensive processes; and especially when the article so concentrated is too powerful to be administered without dilution? If the atropine (the alcali of the deadly nightshade), the daturine (the alcali of the stamonium seeds), and other alcalies of poisonous vegetables, are to be mixed with a converse, or dissolved in a fluid, to render them safe articles for convey

ing into the human stomach, surely they cannot differ, as remedies, from carefully made extracts, which are, in fact, the alcalies in combination with gummy matter. As to the solutions of these alcalies in alcohol, which Majendie and others term tinctures, they possess no advantage whatever over the common tinctures of the articles from which the alcalies are obtained, for they cannot deny that they are powerfully impreg

nated with the alcaline bases. The discovery of an alcali in such powerful poisons as the deadly nightshade, the garden nightshade, &c. &c. is only interesting in a chemical point of view. In medicine, we are satisfied, such articles are far more like to prove injurious than beneficial, by supplying with dangerous implements those theorists and experimentalists who think hospital patients fair objects for the boldest experiment. We have noticed some of the following articles, more to induce practitioners to avoid than to subject their fellow-creatures to dangerous experiments. To Majendie, Orfila, and other cool philosophical experimentalists, the profession is, unquestionably, much indebted for the numerous trials they have made with the new alcalies on dogs and other animals; but had they communicated the unfavourable results of

ART. XXIV.-The Pious Minstrel; a Collection of Sacred Poetry. 12mo., pp. 351. London: Č. Tilt. 1831.

A BEAUTIFUL little volume, bound in morocco, in the best taste, with gilt edges, looking like a prayerbook, lies modestly on our table, asking us not to pass it over among the multitude of works by which we are surrounded,-perhaps we might also truly say,--and confounded. We open it, and the first object we behold is-oh ye muses, sacred and Now profane Robert Pollok! who is Robert Pollok? He is the author of "The Course of Time." What is "The Course of Time?" We have not the most trifling idea, but we believe that, under that title a poem was written in English, such as it then was, about 300 years ago. But what brings Robert with his sober face and un-combed hair into the frontispiece of this little book? May we perish if we know! we cannot even conjecture, unless that, like our friend Mont

their experiments on their fellow-crea-gomery-him we mean of Heaven,

tures, who had placed their lives in their hands, the medical profession of this country would have been more competent to form a just opinion of their value. The life of a member, even of the lowest class of society, is, in this country, deemed much too valuable to be subjected to rash experiments.'-pp. 40, 41.

This is the language of true philosophy, whose characteristic attribute it is to be applicable to all times, and all places; nor is it necessary, after such an extract, to take further trouble in claiming the public confidence for this book.

Some very curious and useful information on various points connected with the preservation of health are added, for which we refer to the volume itself.


Hell, &c.-he had an ambition to exhibit his portrait to the eyes of the world. We would recommend the spirited publishers to Robert Pollok with an ejectment, to give him notice to quit forthwith, otherwise their book will not sell. It is truly ridiculous to put a face side by side with the transfiguration, and in front of a collection of poetry, which boasts of the names of Milton, Southey, Campbell, Cowper, Burns, Watts, and Byron. From these, and indeed from many of the best poets in our language, a charming selection of verses has been made, which take us out of this noisy and transitory world at once, and lift us to the contemplation of those regions where Peace has her eternal abode. The tumult of life becomes hushed while we

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