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or any other type connected with its ancieot mythology, it is not easy to conjecture. The second is a carneliau scarabæus, bought in the bazar of Nicotia, representing, in front, a sepulchral stele. One of the letters is evidently a compound ; and four others agree with characters in the Etruscan alphabet. There is, moreover, the following inscription upon the back of this stone, which is evidently Phoeniciad ; but this also exhi. bits Etruscan letters. Hence it seems manifest that the Etrus. caps and Phænicians were originally the same people.*

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It is a curious circumstance, that Leonhart Rauwolf, in his itenary into the Aastern countries, as published by Ray in 1693. part 2. c. 13.) calls the Druses of Mount L banus by the name of TROSCI. This people now use the Arabic language but very mistakes notioD8 prevail concerning tbeir origin.

CHAPTER XI.

CYPRUS.

Ancient Geography of the IslandSituation of CitirniPhæni. - cian Setllemenis - Illustrious Citians--Last Remains of the

City-Reports concerning BaffaMinerals of Cyprus
Journey to Nicotia--Women of Cyprus-Gardens of Larneca
-Desolate Appearance of the Country-Village of Attien-
Primæval Mills-Curious Mode of keeping Bees-Carob
T'rceAppearance of Nicotia, Banishment of Prostitutesa
Palace of the English Dragoman-Visit to the Turkish
Governor-His reception of the Author_Oriental Mode of
Entertaining Guests--Gûyûmjee, or Goldsmiths of Turkey=
Antiquities obtained in the Bazar--Polished Stones of Cy.
prus-Ancient Gems found in Nicotia-Camels-Rivers of
the Island Ancient Phænician MedalTetradrachm of
Tyre-Return to the fleet-Loss of the Iphigenia.

It will now perhaps be interesting to ascertain from what Phænician city the antiquities discovered at Larpeca derivedi their origin; and if the reader will give an author credit for the difficulties he has encountered, in order to ascertain this point, he may perhaps spare himself some trouble, and repder unnecessary any ostentatious detail of the volumes it was necessary to consult. The ancient geography of Cyprus is invol. ved io greater uncertainty than' seems consistent with its former celebrity among enlightened nations. Neither Greeks oor Romans bave afforded any clue by which we can fix the locality of its eastern cities. Certain of them, it is true, had dis. appeared in a very early period. Long prior to the time of Pliny, the towns of Cinyria, Malium, and Idalium, so necessary in ascertaioing the relative position of other places, no longer existed.* Both the nature and situation of important land. marks, alluded to by ancient geographers, are also uncertain. According to Strabo, the Cleides were iwo islands upon the porth.

* After enumerating fifteen cities belonging to Cyprus, Pliny adds, "fuere et ibi Ginyria, Malium, Idalium." (Plin. lib. v. c. 31. L. Bat. 1635.) Idalium signifies, literally, the place of the goddess;" whence Idalia Venus. In Hebrew it was called Idala, and under this appellation it is mentioned in the scriptures. (Jos. xix. 15 ) as the name: * of a town belonging to the tribe of Zabulon. See Gale's "Court er the Gentiles," a 50 Boehart. Can. lib. i. c. 3.

east coast ; Pliny makes their number four: and Herodotus mentions a promontory that had the name given to these islands. If we consult the text of Strabo, his description of Cyprus* appears to be expressed with more than usual precision and per. spicuity, Yet of two renowned cities, Salarnis and Citium, the first distinguished for the birth of the historian Aristus, and the last conspicuous by the death of Cymon), peither the situa. tion of the cpe nor the other has been satisfactorily determined. D'Anville assigns a different position for these cities, and for the present towns of Famagosta apd Larneca ; although Drum. mond, t “ Vir haud contemnendus," as he is styled by a late commentator upon Strabo, † and also Pococke, & whose proverbial veracity is beyond all praise, from their own ocular tes. timony reconcile the locality of the apcient and modern places. “At Larneca," observes the former of these writers.fi are undeniable proofs of its haring been the ancient Ciljum. Perhaps the antiquities now described may hereafter serve to confirm ap opinion of Drummond's, founded upon very dili. gent inquiry, and repeated examination of the country. During the time he was consul at Aleppo, he thrice visited Cyprus, and upon every occasion industriously surveyed the existing documents of its apcient history. The sepulchral remains occupying so considerable a portion of the territory where the modern town is situated, appear to bave been those of the Necropolis of Citium ; and this city probably extended from the port all the way to Larneca, called also Larnec, and Larnic ;** implying, in its etymology, independently of its tombs, “ a place of burial.Desceuding to later authors, we find this position of Citium strongly confirmed by the Abhé Mariti,tt who discovered very curious testiniony concerning it, in a manuscript preserved at Venice.It From his very interesting account of Cyprus, we learn that the erroneous notions entertained with regard to the locality of the city, originated with Stepheu de

* Strabon Geogr. lib. xiv. p. 970. ed. Oron.
+ Travels, &c. in a series of letters, by Alexander Drummond, Lond. 1754.
i See the notes to the Oxford edition of Strabo, p. 972.

It should be observed, however, that Drummond, although he seems to agree with Pococke in the situation of Citiuo, criticises very severely the freedom used by that author, in presuming to trace the walls or the city from imaginary remains; and also for his erroneous map of the coast. See Drummond's Travels, lett. xii. p. 248.

Il Drummond's Travels, lett. xiii. p. 251.

** Larneca is the name in most common acceptation among foreign natioos; but the inbabitants call it Larnec, and tbe Abbé Mariti writes it Larnic. The bay of Salines is also sometimes called Larneca Bay.

tt Travels through Cyprus, Syria, and Palestine, by the Abbé Mariti. Eng, edition London, 1791.

If MS. description of Cyprus, by As cagne-savernien, in the library of Dominika Manni

Lusignan : alio was deceived by the name of a neighbouring village, called Citi, from a promontory at present bearing that appellation Mariti places Citium between Salines and Larneca, upon the authority of the manuscript before mentioned, and the ruins he there observed.* It is, as he remarks of some importance to determine the true situation of a city once so renowned, on account of the celebrated mep it produced, and the splendid actions of which it was the theatre, Yet it is sio. gular, that this writer makes no mention of its Phænician origin. Concerning this fact, so well ascertained, a few observations may therefore suffice.

Citium, from whose ruins we shall now consider both the modern towns of Salines and Larneca to have arisen, was founded, together with the city of Lapethas, by a Phænician king, of the name of Belus.I its inhabitants, according to Cicero, were origivally Phænicians. $ Cyprus, from its vicinity to their country, aud its commercial advantages, was the first island of the Mediterranean that came under this dominion. Eusebius observes, that Paphos, a Phænician city in Cyprus, was built when Cadmus reigned at Thebes. It is moreover affirmed by the learned Bochart,** that before the time of the Trojan war, Cinyras, king of Phænicia; possessed this island of Cyprus, having derived it from his ancestors. To this monarch, Agamemnon, according to Homer, it was indebted for his breast plate. The cities of Urania and Idalium were also souuded. by the same people; the former received its name from Urania Venus, whose worship, as related by Herodotus, was trausferred to Cyprus by the Phænicians from Ascalon.It Citium derived its name from the Hebrew appellation for the island CHETIM; the Chittim, or Cittim, of the Holy Scriptures. of It was famous

* This is also the position assigned to it by Pococke. There is reason to believe occupied a greuter extent of territory, and reached from the port as far as Larneca.

Mariti's Travels, vol. i. p. 53. I There were many kings of Phonecia who had this name; so called from Baal, signifying Lord. Hence all the Phænician Baalim bad their denomination. See Galę $ * Couri of the Gentiles," b. i. c. 8. P. 47.

$ See also Gale, p. 48: Cic. lib. iv. de Finibus: Laertes and Suidas on the file OL Zeno; Grotius; and Vossius de Philos. Sectis, lib ii. c. ).

Euseb. Chronicon. in Num. 1089. ** Bochart. Præf. ad. Canaan. tt Hom. Iliad, A. Boch. Can. lib. i. c. 3. 11 There were four cities in Cyprus famous for the worship of Venus:

« Est Amathus, est celsa mihi Paphos, atque Cythera,

Idaliaque domus 09 This word, haring a plural termination, is said to imply the descendants of Celing. the son of Javan. Josephus places their establishment in the isle of Cyprus; and .. seventy interpreters render The word by KILTIOI, that is to say, the Kelii or Call aesen o nslation of Dar The valuable compilation of Dapner. (Description des Isles de l'Anthipel) written ginally in the Flemish language, of which a French trap-laiion was pu!Jished in ons at Amsterdam, ig 1703, concentrates much valuable information upou the sun

as the birth place of Apollonius, a disciple of Ilippocrates; and of Zeno, who, being shipwrecked upon the coast of Attica, froni aPhænician merchant became founder of the Stoics, and had for his illustrious followers, Epictetus and Seneca. According to Plutarch, it was with the sword presented by a king of Citi: um that Alexander triumphed over Darius. * This weapon was held by him in such estimation, that he always wore it upon his person. The same author also informs us, that at the siege of Citium, Cimon, son of Miltiades, received the wound whereof he died. It is quite uncertain when this city was destroyed. Mariti believes that event did not take place later than the beginuing of the third century. In 1767, an excavation being made to procure from its ruins materials for build. ing, the workmen discovered a marble bust of Caracalla, some medals of Septimius Severus, Aotoninus Caracalla, and Julia Domna, with Greek inscriptions. Upon their obverse sides were exhibited the temple of Paphos,f with the legend KOINONKYNPINN. Some of them had the image of Caracalla on one side,

Cyprus. The author believes he shall contribute to the reader's gratification, by insertiog from that work, which is now rare, the observatious concerning the name of the island "This island, which all the Greek and Latin authors have called Kumpos, or Cyprus, and which is designated under that name in the New Testament, had been known under that of Chetima, or of Chetim, among the Hebrews; as Josephus relates in the first book, chap. 7. of his Jewish antiquities; deriving it from Chetimos, or Chetim, son of Javan, son of Japhet, son of Noah, who, in the division of territories, had the first possession of this isle. Thence it followed, that all islands, and mari. time places, were called Chetim by the Hebrews. He supports this opinion, by showing that CITIUM is a name corrupted from that of one of the cities of the island, which is derived from the appellation Chelim, borne by the whole island; 'for,' says he, it was called CITIUM by those who wished to render, by a Grecism, the name of Chetimos, of Chill em, or of Chetin, which seems couched under that of CITIUM. St. Jerom relates Comment. in Esgi. in Traduct. Hebr. in Genes.] that some authors have translated the word Chetim, in the prophet Isaiah, by that of Cyprus; and that the Chetims are the Cyprians, whence a city of the island still bore, in his time, the name of CITIUM Theodoret, in Heremi, c. 2.) shows that it is called Chetim in the Prophet Jeremiah, and Zonoras (2. c. 2. v. 9 Annal.] affirms that Chetima is the island which the Greeks call Kumpos, whereof Chitim, great grandson of Noah, had been the original possessor." Les Isles de l'Archipel. par Dapper, Amst. 1702. y. 21.

* The reverend and learned Dr. Henly, writing to the author upon the circumstance here noticed, makes the following remarks: "You mention," says be, the sword presented to Alexander by the king of Citium. It is to be observed, that the prophecy of Balaam loses with the following prediction : Ships shall come from the coast of CHITTIM, 'i. e Citium, and shall afilict Assur, and shall afilict Eber, and he also shall perish for ever.' This prediction I propose hereafter more fully to illustrate ; but at present shall only observe, that the naval armament, by which Alexander was alone enabled to overcome Tyre and the whole power of the Persian empire by sea, was hiefly furnished to him from Cuprus, or Chittim. (See I Maccab. i. 1.1 ' and it happened, after that Alexander, the son of Philip the Macedonian, who came ou! of the land of Chetteim, had smitten Darius, king of the Persians and Medes that he reigned in his stead, the first over Greece. From not adverting to this historical lact. geographers have made a strange mistake, in supposing that Macedonia liad been calleChittim; for Arrian, who has given a distinct account of Alexander's maritime equipment, expressly mentions, that the reinforcement from Cuprus, consisted of one hundred and twenty ships, whilst from Macedonia he had but a single vessel. See ARRIAN. de Erpeditione Alexandri, lib. ii. c. 20.

Mariti's Travels, vol. i. p. 61.
II bave never seen any medals corresponding with this description; but they are

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