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and that of Geta on the other. There were also others, with the head of the emperor Claudius. * * Many circumstances coucurred to excite our curiosity concerning the interior of the island; although we despaired of being able to penetrate as far as Baff'a, the ancient Paphos, on account of the plague, then raging over all the western part of Cyprus, and particularly at Baffa. The ruins, and other an. tiquities of this place, are numerous. Sir Sidney Smith remov. ed some inscriptions already alluded to; and the English coffre sul at Larneca presented me the hand of a colossal niarble sta(ue, found there, of the most exquisite sculpture.t We also hoped to enrich our collection of plants, and make some obser- 1995 vations concerning the minerals of Baffa, especially a beauti. ful variety of crystallized quartz, as diaphapous as the rock crystal of the north of Norway, called yeny maden, or mademt by the Turks, and sold by Armenian merchants in the Crimea for diamonds. Before we left that peniosula, prosessor Pallas had particularly requested information with regard to the locality of this stone. Among the substances offered for sale as fa se diamonds, there is nothing more common, all over the Mediterranean, than highly transparent quartz; hence the various names of Gibraltar diamonds," “ Vesuvian dia. mods.” “ Baffa diamonds," and many other. We have also, in our own country, the Bristol diamonds." All natural resemblarices of the diamond have, however, been lately eclipsed by a very different mineral, the white Topaz of New Holland.|| This stone, when cut and polished, with the exception outy of the white Corundum, possesses a degree of lustre and limpidalluded to by disserent authors, and recently by the editor of the Oxford edition of Strabo, in his notes to that work; “ Formam templi et simboli Veneris in nummis videre est." (Vid. p. 973. in not.) The image of the goddess had not the human form. ** Simulacrum Deæ non effigie humana.” [Tacitus.] Ilopious r uer? Appodien tas τιμάς χει, το δε αγαλμα ουκ άν εικάσαις άλλω τώ ή πυραμίδι λευκη" ή δε ύλη αγνοείται.

Max. Tyrius, Diss. 38.1 The form of an Indian idol at Jaggernaut is said to hea cone, answering to the ancient account of the Paphian goddess. This confirms wbat I before advanced, concerning the nature of the Cyprian Venus. The pateras used by priestesses in the rites of Ceres, had this pyramidal pode, or cone, in the centre. A priestess is represented holding one of these, upon a has-relief in the vestibule of Cam'ridge University Library. See “Greek Marbles," No. xv. p 37.

* The bust was sent to the British consul, and is therefore, probably, now in Eps land. Mariti says the medals were given to him, vol. i. p. 60. . † See“ Greek Marbles," No. Xxxviii. p. 55. Signifying the new gem."

This name was given to the rock crystal of Bafra, so long ago as the time in which Egmont and Heyman visited Cyprus. * Near Bafie are mines of rock crystals and a French merchant there showed me a most bcautiful stone, which might pass for a dia. mont and such stones being found in the mines here, are commonly called Bogo diamonds." Trav. of Egm. and Heym. vol. i. p. 289.

11 Among the lapidaries of London, it bears the name of " mininova," and is fitta esteemned by them,

mess superior to every other, excepting the real diamond. The ancieut mines of Cyprus, now eptirely neglected, appear to have been situated toward the Paphian extremity of the isl. and; for if the natives exhibit any mineral substance remarkable for its beauty, utility, or hardness, they name it, by way of eminence, * a Baffa stone." Amianthus of a very superior quality is found near Baffa,* as tiexible as silk, and perfectly white; finer, and more delicately fibrous, than that of Sicily, Corsica, or Norway. The Cypriots call this mineral the cotton stone." - Early on the morning of June the eighth, having procured an order for mules and asses, and a firmân to authorise the expedition, re left the Ceres, and set out for Nicotia, the Leucusia or Leucosia of the Greeks, and present cap. ital of Cyprus We were detained at Larneca until the evening, by the hospitality of the English consul, Siguor Peris. tiani, who had prepared a large party of ladies and other inhabitants, all eager to represent to us the danger of travelling during the day; and to gratify very reasonable curiosityfor a sight of strangers, and for news from Egypt. Among the party was the English consul from Berylus, from whom I obtained a silver tetradrachm of Tyre, in the highest state of

* See Drummond's Travels, p. 157. Mariti mentions a village called Amianthus, as still existing in Cyprus, in his time, and adds, that it was a considerable town in the time of the Romans. The neighbouring country," says he," produced the stone ashestos, used for making a kind of incombustible cloth, in which the bodies of empe. rors were burned." (Mariti's Trav. vol. i. p. 177.) This village is mentioned by Dapper, (Isles de l'Archipel. p. 52.) ay marking the spot where the store amianthus was found in abundance, and manufactured, by being mixed with flax, spun and then wave, for the incombustible cloth of the ancients. The process is given by Dioscorides. (Lib. v. c. 46.) Dapper says the village took its name from the mineral; and that it was once a place of great renown, on account of the cloth and thread there * manufactured of amianthus

It is often supposed, that the art of manufacturing an incombustible cloth, by means of ainianthus, is not possessed by the moderns; but the inhabitants of a certain district in Siberia are in the practice of preparing thread by mixing flax with this substance, and then spinning it. After weaving with this thread, the cloth is exposed to the action of fire, which consumes the flax, apd leases an incombustible web. This, according to Dioscorides, (as above cited,) was the method used by the ancients. *The principal manufacture of amianthine cloth existed in this island, the mineral being found bere in abundance and perfection. The art of making it was also forinerly known in fodia. If we might rely upon the mineralogy of the ancients, real diamonds were once found in Cyprus ; but Pliny's observations concerning them, (Hist. Nat. lib. xxxvii.c.4.) although he describes the Cyprian diamond as officacissimis in mecicinā," prove they were nothing more than the sort of quartz before mentioned. The aetites, or eagle stone, which they superstitiously esteemed on account of the aid It was supposed to render to women in labour, is still valued by the ignorant inhabitants for this, its imaginary virtue. Pliny considered the jasper of Cyprus as ranking * Dext in perfection to that of Scythia; and crystal, he says, was turned up by the

plough. The other minerals of the island were, emerald (a name they gave to any *greepish transparent stone), agate, opal, sapphire, lazulite (which they called lapis cyaneus), mica, or Muscovy glass, aluni, nitre, sulphur, gypsum, and great abundance of salt. The latter was chiefly collected from the environs or Citium, where the salt marshes

DON &re..


preservation. The interesting costume presented in the dress of the Cyprian ladies ought uot to pass without notice. Their head apparel was precisely modelled after the kind of calathus represented upon the Phænician idols of the country, and upon Egyptian statues. This was worn by women of all rauks, from the wives of the conşuls to their slaves. Their hair, dy. ed of a fine brown colour, by means of a plant called henna, hung behind, in numerous long straight braids; and, in some ringlets disposed near the face, were fastened blossoms of the jasmine, strung together, upon slips from leaves of the palm tree, in a very curious and pleasing bjauner. Next to the Calmuck women, the Grecian are, of all others, best versed in cosmetic arts. They possess the valuable secret of giving a browo Colour to the whitest locks, aod also tinge their eye brows with the same hue; an art that would be highly prized by the hoary courtezans of London and of Paris. The most splendid colours are displayed in their habits; and these are very becoming to the girls of the island. The upper robe is al. ways of scarlet, crimson, or green silk, embroidered with gold. Like other Greek women, they wear long scarlet pantaloons, fastened round the ankle; and yellow boots, with slippers of the same colour. Around the neck, and from the head, were suspended a profusion of gold coins, chains, and other triukets. About iheir waists they liave a large belt or zone, fastened in front by two large and heavy polished brass plates. They endeavour to make the waist appear as long as possible, and the legs, consequently, short. Naturally corpulent, they take no pains to diminish the size of their bodies by laciog, but seem rather vaiu of their bulk; exposing their bosoms, at the same time, in a manner highly unbecoming. Nothwithstanding the extraordinary pains they use to disfigure their patural beauty by all sorts of ill-selected ornaments, the women of Cyprus are handsomer than those of any other Grecian island. They have a taller and more stately figure ; apd the features, particularly of the women of Nicotia, are regular and dignified, exhibiting that elevated cast of countenance so universally admired in the works of Grecian artists. At present, this kind of beauty seems peculiar to the women of Cyprus: the sort of expression exhibited by one set of features may be traced, with different gradations, in them all. Hence were possibly derived those celebrated models of female beauty, conspicuous upon the statues, vases, medals, and gems of Greece; models selected from the throug of Cyprian virgins, who, as priestesses of Venus, officiated at the Paphian shrine. * Indefinite as our notions of beauty are said to be, we seldom differ in assigning the place of its abode. That assemblage of graces, which, in former ages, gave celebrity to the women of Circassia, still characterizes their descendants upon Mount Caucasus; and with the same precision that enables us to circu mscribe the limits of its residence, we may refer to countries where it never was indigenous. Foremost in the list of these, may be nienlioned Egypt. The statues of Isis, and the mumınies, exhibit, at this hour, the countenance common to the semaies of the country ; por did the celebrated Cleopatra much differ from the representation thus afforded, if the portrait given of her upon Mark Antony's medals may be considered as authority. There are some countries (for example, Lapland) where it might be deemed impossible to select a single instance of female beauty. Here, it is true, the degraded state of human pature explains the privation. But among more elightened na. tions, a traveller would hardly be accused of gcucralizing inaccurately, or partially, who should state that female beauty was rare in Germany, although common in England; that it exists more frequently in Russia than in France ; in Finland, than in Sweden ; in Italy, than jo Greece; that the Irish women are handsomer than the Spanish ; although learned antiquaries would assure us, that both were originally of Pelasgian origin.

The gardens of Larneca are very beautiful, and constitute the only source of delight the women of the place seem to possess. They are, however, no ornament to the town, being in. closed by high walls. Almost every house has its garden: the shade and verdure thus afforded is a delightful contrast to the glare of a wiiite and dusty soil, every where observed around, In these gardens we noticed two sorts of jasmine, one common in European countries, and the other derived from Syria; the double blossoined pomegranate, a most beautiful shrub; also lemons, ora!ges, plums, and apricots. The phaseolus caracallu, kept in the greenhouses of the seraglio gardens at Constantinople, flourished here in the open air. They had also the arbutus andrachne, growing to an enormous size.

We left Larneca jo the evening, and found a very good road to Nicotia; travelling principally over plains, by a gradual and

álmost imperceptible ascent, toward the porthwest Mountains * appeared in the distaut scenery, on almost every side. The


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soil every where exbibited a white marly clay, said to be ex. ceedingly rich in its nature, although neglected. The Greeks: are so oppressed by their Turkish masters, that they dare not cultivate the laod: the harvest would instantly be taken from them if they did. Their whole aim seems to be, to scrape together barely sufficient, in the course of the whole year, to pay their tax to the governor. The omission of this is punished by torture, or by death: and in cases of their inability to supply the impost, the inhabitants fly from the island. So many emigrations of this sort happen during the year, that the population of all Cyprus rarely exceeds sixiy thousand persons; a number for. merly insufficient to have peopled one of its towns. The governor resides at Nicotia. His appoiotment is annual; and as it is obtained by purchase, the highest bidder succeeds; each strive ing, after his arrival, to surpass his predecessor in the enormity of his exactions. From this terrible oppression the consuls and a few other families are free, in consequence of protection granted by their respective nations. Over such a barren tract of land, altogether desolate, and destítute even of the meaneste herbage, our journey was neither amusiog nor profitable. It might have suggested reflections to a moral philosopher, thus viewing the horrid consequences of barbarian power; but when a traveller is exposed to the burning beams of an eastern sun, mounted on a sorry mule dislocating his very lojos, fatigued, and breathing hot pestilential vapours, he will feel little disposition to moralize. We rejoiced indeed, when, in a wide plain, we came in view of the little buts where we were to pass part of the night, previous to four inore hours of similar penance. :

The venerable pair with whom we rested in the village of Attién* were the parents of our mule drivers, and owners of the mules. They made iis welcome to their homely supper, by : placing two planks across a couple of benches, and setting ihereon boiled pumpkius, eggs, and some wine of the island in a hollov gourd. I observed upon the ground the sort of stones used for grinding corn, called qucrns in Scotland, common also in Lapland, and in all parts of Palæstiue. These are the primæval mills of the world; and they are still found in all corn countries, where rude and ancient customs have not been liable to those changes introduced by refinement. The employment of grinding with cliese mills is coofined solely to females; and the practice illustrates the observation of our saviour, alluding :

* Alariti writes the name of this place Afene. See yol, I p. 82.

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