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combatants appear with their bodies oiled, having no other clothing than a tight pair of greasy leathern breeches. So much has been already written upon these subjects, that any further detail would be superfluous. Belon, in his interesting work, composed near three centuries ago, appropriated an entire chapter to a description of the Turkish wrestling matches.*

The same observation is not applicable to the hippodrome ; dow called atmeidan, which also signifies the horse-course; because many erroneous statements have appeared with regard to the antiquities it contaius, particularly the absurd story, generally propagated, concerning the blow given by Mahomet, with his battle as, to the famous delphic pillar of three brazen serpents; which, it is said, smote off the heads of one of them. This place preserves nearly the state in which it was left by the Greeks; and as no accurate view of it had been engraved, I accompanied an artist to the spot, that a faithful representation might be here given. The mosque in front, near the obelisk, is that of Sultan Achmed; and the more distant one that of St. Sophia. Not a single object has been either added or removed, to interfere with the fidelity of the delineation : every thing is represented exactly as it appeared to us at the time; although we were under some apprehension from the Turks, who will suffer nothing of this kind to be takeo, with their consent.'

A representation of the hippodrome is given in bas-relief upou the base of the obelisk : by this it appears, there were originally two obelisks, one at each extremity of the course. That which remains is about fifty feet in height, accordivg to Tournefort,t of one entire block of Egyptian granite. The manner in which this iminense mass was raised, and placed upon its pedestal, by the emperor Theodosius, is represented also, in a series of bas-reliefs upon its base. The workmen appear employed with a number of windlasses, all brought, by means of ropes and pulleys, to act at once upon the stone. and Xenophon calls this, opiáruwv útroypapń. (De Cyri Inst.) The corp is now tror. den out by oxen or horses, in an open area, as in the time of Homer; (II. T. v. 495. and a passage of that poet, relating to fishing, would have been understood, if the commentators had known, that the Greeks, in fishiog, let the line with the lead at the end run over a piece of horn fixed on the side of the boat; this is the meaning of xar' aypaikoio Bois xépas iußeßavia. (Il. N. v. 81.) The flesh of the camel, which hears in taste a resemblance to veal, is now eaten by the Turks, as also by the Arabians, on days of festivity, as it was by the Persjans in the time of Herodotus." (Clio.)

Walpole's MS. Journal. * De la Llicte de Turquie, chap. xxxviji. liv. iii. des Singular, observees par Belon, p. 201. Par. 1555.

Tournefort, lett. 12. According to Bondelmont, its height is fifty-eigbt feet: and this nearly coincides with the statement of Mr. Dallaway, who makes it equal to Atty., See Dill. Constant, . 67.

There is nothing either grand or beautiful in the remains of the brazen column, consisting of the bodies of three serpents {wisted spirally together. It is about twelve feet in lieight; and being hollow, the Turks have filled it with broken tiles, stones, and other rubbish. But in the circumstances of its history, no relique of ancient times can be more ioteresting. It once supported the golden tripod at Delphi, which the Greeks, after the battle of Platæa, found in the camp of Mardovius. This fact has been so well ascertained, that it will probably never be disputed. “ The guardians of the most holy relics," says Gibhon,* “ would rejoice, if they were able to pro duce such a chain of evidence as may be alleged upon this occasion.” Its original consecration in the temple of Delphi is proved from Herodotus and Pausanias; and its removal 10 Constantinople, by Zosimus, Eusebius, Socrates Ecclesiasticus, and Sozomen. Thevenot, whose work is koowo only as a literary imposture, relates the story of the injury it had sustained from the battle ax of Mahomet. The real history, however, of the loss of the serpent's heads is simply and plainly related by Chishull.t " The second pillar,” says hie, " is of wreathed brass, not above twelve seet high; lately terminated at the top with figures of three serpents rising from the pillar, and with necks and heads formning a beautiful triangle. But this monument was rudely broken, from the top of the pillar, by some attendants of the late Polish ambassador, whose lodgings were appointed in the cirque, opposite to the said pillar."

* Vol. i. c. 17. dot.

| Travels in Turkey, p. 40. Lond. 1747

CHAP. III.

FROM CONSTANTINOPLE TO THE PLAIN

OF TROY.

Arrival of an American Frigate Departure from Constantino

ple~Dardanelles-Situation of Sestus- Dismissal of the Corveite-Visit to the Pacha- oyage down the HellespontAppearance caused by the waters of the Mender-Udjek Tape

Koum-kale.

The arrival of an American frigate, for the first time, at Coustantinople, caused considerable sensation, not only among the Turks, but also throughout the whole diplomatic corps stationed at Pera. This ship, commanded by captain Bajubridge, cane from Algiers, with a letter and presents from the dey to the sultan and capudan pacha. The presents consisted of tigers and other animals, sept with a view to conciliate the Turkish goverument whom the dey had offended. When she came to an anchor, and a message went to the Porte that an American frigate was in he harbour, the Turks were altogether unable to comprehend where the country was situated whose flag they were to salute. A great deal of time was therefore lost in settling this important point, and in considering how to receive the stranger. In the mean time we went on board, to visit the captain ; and were sitting with him in lris cabin, when a messenger canie from the Turkish government, to ask whether America were not otherwise called the New World; and, being answered in the affirmative, assured the captain that he was welcome, and would be treated with the utmost cordiality and respect. The messengers from the dey were then ordered on board the capudap pacha's ship ; who, receiving the letter from their sovereign with great rage, first spat, and then stamped upon it; telling them to go back to their master, and inform him, that he would be served after the same manner, whenever the Turkish admiral met him. Captain Bainbridge was however received with every mark of attention, and rewarded with magnificent presents. The fine order of his ship, and the healthy state of her crew, became topics of general conversation in Pera; and the different ministers strove who should first receive him in their palaces. We accompanied him in his

long boat to the Black Sea, as he was desirous of hoisting there, for the first time, the American flag; and upon his return, weré amused by a very singular entertainment at his table duriog dinner. Upon the four corners were as many decanters, contaiping fresh water from the four quarters of the globe. The patives of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, sat down together to the same table, and were regaled with flesh, fruit, bread, and other viands; while, of every article, a sample from each quarter of the globe was presented at the same time. The means of accomplishing this are easily explained, by his having touched at Algiers, in his passage from America, and being at anchor so near the shores both of Europe and Asia.

Soon after, news came to Constantinople of the expedition to Egypt, under General Sir Ralph Abercrombie ; and intelligence of the safe arrival of the British fleet, with our army, in the bay of Marmorice. The capudan pacha, on board whose magnificent ship, the Sultan Selim, we had been with our ambassador previous to the sailing of the Turkish squadron for Egypt, ordered a corvette to be left for us to follow him; having heard that my brother, Captain George Clarke, of the Braakel, was with ine fleet in Marmorice, to whom he expressed a desire of being afterward introduced. Nothing could exceed the liberality of the Turkish admiral upon this occasion. He went for the captain of the corvette, and in our presence, gave orders to have it stored with all sorts of provisions, and even with vioes ; adding also, that knives, forks, chairs, and other couvepiencies, which Turks do not use, would be found on board.

We sailed in this vessel op the second of March; and saluting the seraglio as we passed with twenty-one guns, the shock broke all the glass in our cabin windows. Our Turkish crew, quite ignorant of marine affairs, ran back at the report of their own cannop; trusting entirely to a few Greeks and some French prisoners, to manage all the concerns of the vessel. We were not sorry to get away from the unwholesome place in which we had liver, and to view the mosques and minarets of Constantipople, disappearing in the mists of the sea of Marmora, as we steered with a fair wind for the Hellespont.* Toward even

* "I guitted Constantinople at the end of autumn, 1806, for the purpose of visiting ¿he Troad a second time, and examining it with more accuracy than in the spring of the year. The Greek vessel in which I embarked was bound to Tricchiri, a little town on the coast of Thessaly. The Greek vessels are in general filled with great numbers of Greeks, all of whom have a share, large or small, in the ship, and its mer. cbandize. The vast profits which the Greeks reaped about ten years past, when they carried coro to the ports of France and Spain, from the Black Sea and Greece, particularly Thessaly, and from Caramania, excited a spirit of adventure and enterprise, which

E

ing, the wind strengthening, the crew lowered all the sails, and lay to all night. In the morning, having again hoisted them, I found, at dine o'clock A. M. that we had left Marmora, a high mountain, far behind us. The Isle of Princes appeared, through a telescope, to consist wholly of limestone. I wished much to have visited the ruius of Cyzicum, but had no opportunity. The small isthmus, near which they are situated, is said to have accumulated in consequence of the ruins of two ancient bridges, which formerly connected an island with the main land. Recently, above a thousand coins had been found on the site of Parium in Mysia, and sold by the peasants to the master of an English merchant vessel : I saw the greater part of them; they were much injured, and of po remote date, being all of bronze, and chiefly of the late emperors.' Between Marmora and the Dardanelles, and nearer to the latter on the European si:le, appears a remarkable tumulous, on the top of a hill near the shore. The place is called Hexamil; and, ac. cording to the map of De L'Isle, was once the site of Lysimachia.

soon ghowed itself in the building of many hundred vessels, belonging chiefly to the *wo barren isiands of Spezzia and Hydra, situated on the eastern side of the Morea. Vessels are to be seen pavigated by Greeks, carrying twenty-two guns: one of this size I met in the Archipelago, off Andros, in company with other smaller ships; all sailing before the wind, with large extended sails of white cotton, forming a beautiful appearance. The Greeks on board the Tricchiriote vessel were not very numerous. My fellow companions were three Turks: one was going to Eubea; another to a village near Thermopylæ; and the third was a Tartar, who profited by the northerly wind that was blowing, and was going to the Morea." At sun-set, the Greeks sat on the leck, round their supper of olives, anchovies, and biscuits, with wine; and in tbe cabin. a lamp was Jighted to a tutelar saint, who was to give us favourable weather. The wind that bore us along was from the N. E, to which as well as the East, the name of the Levanter is given. This wind is generally very strong; and the epithet ap

bied by Virgil, Violentior Eurus, is strictly appropriate. After a little more than a day's sailing, we found ourselves opposite to a village on the European coast of the Sea of Marmora, called Peristasis. The distance from Constantinople we computed to be about forty leagues. I was informed that a Greek church at this place was dedicated to St. George. This explains the reason why that part of the Propontis, which is now called the Bay and strait of Gallipoli, was formerly designated by the appellation of St. George's Channel. At the distance of eighteen or twenty miles to the south of Gallipoli, are the remains of a fort, XOICIDIKAOTPO (Pig's-fort,) which a Turk isb vessel, as it tacked near us, saluted; for here, it is said, the Turks first landed, when they came under Soliman into Europe.

"The ship anchored off the castle of the Dardanelles, on the Asiatic side, according to the custom enforced by the Turks on all ships, excepting those of war, which pass southward. At this time, and ever since the Mamluks had shown dispositions. hostile to the Ottoman government establisec in Egypt, under Mahomed Ali, the actual viceroy, all ships and vessels, particularly Greek, which might be supposed to be the means of conveying supplies of Circassians to the Mamluks, to increase their numhers, were strictly searched.

* The population of the town, Chanak kalesi, on the Hellespont, where I landed, consists of Mahometans, Jews, and a few Greeks; amounting, in all, to about 3000. It derives its name from a manufactory of earthen ware; chanak signifying a plate or dish. The houses are mean, and built chiefly of wood. From this place I took a boat, and sailed down the Hellespont, to koum-kale (the Sand castle,) situated between the Dout of the Simois and the Sigean promontory." Walpole's Ms. Journal.

ope.

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