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over this country. In the first view of them, I recognised the form of an ancient car, of Grecian sculpture, iu the vatican collection at Rome; and which, although of Parian marble, had been carved to resemble wicker: work; while its wheels were an imitation of those solid circular planes of timber used at this day in Troas, and in many parts of Macedonia and Greece, for the cars of the country. They are expressly described by Homer, in the mention made of Priam's litter, when the king commands his sons to bind on the chest, or coffer, which was of wicker-work, upon the body of the carriage.*
Returning to the house of the agha, the prospect of the plain was beconiug dim in the twilight. Samothrace still appeared; and as the moon rose over all, the minuter traces of the scene were no longer discernible; but the principal objects, . ia fine distinct masses, remained long visible.
In the morning I observed a number of antiquities in and about the place, such as fragments of Doric and Ionic pillars of maible, some columns of gravite, broken bas-reliefs, and, in short, those remains so profusely scattered over this extraordinary country ; serving to prove the number of cities and temples, once the boast of Troas, without enabling us to ascertain the position of any one of them. There is every reason to believe some ancient town was originally situated at Bonarbashy; not only by these remains, but by the marks of ancient turrets, as of a citadel, in the soil immediately behind the house of the agha. The reliques of very ancient pavement may also be observed in the street of the village ; and in the front of it, upon a large block of Parian marble, used as a seat, near the mosque, Mr. Walpole observed a curious inscription, which is here subjoined, in an extract from his Journal.t .
*lljad 12. This wicker chest, being movable, is used or not, as circumstances may require.
"I shall here give an inscription which I copied at Bonarhashy, and which has never yet been published. It is on a piece of marble, now serving as a seat, and very Interesting, being found on the supposed site of Troy ; but to what city of the Troad It belonged, cannot be determined from any fact mentioned in it. From the omissioa of the imra adscript, it may be referred to the time of the Romans; (See Chishull, Antiq. Asiat ) and a form of expression precisely similar to one in the inscription is to be found in the answer of the Romans to the Teians, in Chishull, p. 102.
. . ΕΝΤΙΑΝΤΙΚΑIΡΩΠEΡΙΤΗΣ
At a distance from Bonarbashy, and not in any way connected either with the antiquitics there, or with the place itself, are the heights, which recent travellers, and several of my particular friends, after the example of M. Chevalier, have thought proper to entitle the acropolis of ancient Troy. Not having my own mind satisfied upon the subject, I should be extremeJy deficient in duty to my readers, if any sense of private regard induced me to forego the stronger claim they have to my sincerity. Having already shown the nature of the error concerning the source of the Scamander, which first induced M. Chevalier to adapt appearances at Boparbasly to the history of Ilium, I am particularly called upon to point out bis other misrepresentations. One of the most glaring is that which concerns the temperature of the springs ;* another is in de, scribing the lieights to which I now allude, as a part of the chain of Mount Ida, although seperated from it by the whole plain of Beyramitch, which intervenies toward the east; and a third, that of representing the heights to which the supposed acropolis belooged, as a continuation of the ascent ou which Bonarbasliy is placed ; so tliat the reader supposes a gradual rise to take place from what he has defined as the relative situation of the lower to the upper city ; although a deep and rocky dingle intervenes, never yet subjected to any effort of human labour, which might serve to connect the two places with each other. The antiquities on these heights are certainly very remarkable, and worthy every degree of attention a traveller can bestow upon them. I shall now proceed to describe their appearance.
Proceeding in a southeasterly direction from the sloping eminence on which Bonarbashy is situated, we crossed the din. gle.I have mentioned; and then began to climb the steep, on which it has been supposed the citadel of Priam stood. Upon the very edge of the summit, and, as it were, hanging over it, is an ancient tumulus, constructed entirely of stoues, heaped, after the ordinary manner, into a conical shape, and of the usual size of such sepulchres : this, although various, may be averaged according to a circumference, for the base, equal to
" This inscription seems to have formed part of a message to the citizens or magistrates of the place; and the writer refers in it to something formerly addressed to ther concerning piety toward the gods, but particularly toward Minerva; and mention is made of oxen, which may have been offered up to the goddess; as Xerxes, we find from Herodotus, sacrificed to her, when at Troy, a thousand Oxen; Gure xilias Bous."
Walpole's MS. Journal. ** The one of these sources is in reality warm, &c. and the other is always cold."
Chevalier's Descript. of Plain of Troy: p. 127.
an hundred yards; and these are nearly the dimeusions of the base of this tumulus, which has been called the tomb of Hector. * That this name has been inconsiderately given, will be evident from the statement of a single fact ; namely, that it stands on the outside of the remains, iusignificant as they are, of ihe wall once surrounding the hill on which it is placed ; although that wall has been described as the ancient inclosure of the supposed citadel. The evidence of one is therefore nearly sufficient to contradict the other; for, although Homer is not explicit as to the situation of Hector's tomb, there is every other reason to suppose it was erected within the walls of the city. But there are other tumuli upon these heights, equally eotitled, by their size and situation, to the distinction so bastily bestowed upon this. It will therefore be curious to ascertain the cause of its present appellation, and show how very little foundation it had in reality. This tumulus has been formed entirely of loose stones, and the coincidence of such a circumstance with Homer's description of the tomb of lector, was deenied a sufficient ground of discovery as to the identity of the tomb itsell.I A little further attention, however, to these monuments, would have proved that they were all constructed after the same manner ; the stones of ihe other tumuli being only concealed fron observation by a slight corering of soil. From this spot the whole Isle of Tenedos is in view, and a most magnificent prospect of the course of the Scamander to the sea, with allo Troas, and every interesting object it contains. This consideration, together with the remarkable character of the hill itself, surrounded by precipices above the river.ll and, still more, the erroneous opinions entertained of the springs at Bonarbashy, superseded every objection urged concerning its distance from the coast, and the utter impossibility of reconciling such a position of the city with the account given by Homer of the
*It is ninety-three yards in circumference.
f Here we found a new species of orchis, which we have called ORCHIS HEROICA. Orchis labello emarginato, obcordato latissimo : petalis suberectis ovato oblongis; bracels germine longioribus: cornu adscendente subulalo germine breviore : folois carinatis subensiformibus: bulbis ovatis. By the side of it grew ornithogalum luteum, or yelloni star of Bethlehem; and hyacinthus racemosus, the grape hyacinth. On other parts of these heights we found, moreover, a new species of cardamine, which has received the name of cardamine tenella. The following is the description of it; Cardamine foliis simplicibus, ternatis, pinnatisque ciliatis pilosis : foliolis basi inaqualibus subreniformibus : siliquis linearibus longis, Other plants, interesting only in their locality, mere, anemone apennina, teucrium polium, anemone hortensis, and sedum cepaa. | Iliad 12. See also Chevalier's Description, &c. p. 125.
" Est in conspectu Tenedos." A Wkeace the Trojans were invited to cast down the Grecian horse.
mapner in which Hector was pursued around its walls by Achilles.*
One hundred and twenty-thrce paces from the tumulus, called by Chevalier, and others, the tomb of Hector, is a second; a more regular and more considerable artificial heap of the same nature, and in every respect having a better title to the name bestowed upon the first. The base of this is one hundred and thirty-three yards in circumference. An hundred and forty-three paces further on, upon the hill, is a third, the circumference of whose base measured pinety yards. Names have been alreadly bestowed upon them all; the first being called, as before stated, the tomb of Hector; the second, that of Priam; and the third, that of Paris. After passing these tumuli, appear the precipices flanking the souiheastern side of the hill above the Scamander, which wiuds around its base. --So much has been already written and published upon the subject, that it is not necessary to be very minute in describing every trace of human labour upon this hill. The extent of its summit is eiglit hundred and fifty yards : its breadth, in the widest part, equals about tiro hundred and fifty. The foun. dations of buildings, very inconsiderable in their nature, and, with no character of remote antiquity, may be discerned in several parts of it: the principal of these are upon the most elevated spot toward the precipices surrounding its southeastern extremity; where the appearances, as well of the soil as of masonry, certainly indicate the former existence of some ancient superstructure. But the remains are not of a description even to ascertain the site of a Roman citadel: they seem rather lo denote one of the retreats of those numerous pirates which in different ages have jnfested the Hellespont; and whose dispersion in the time of Drusus Cæsar, gave occasion to the memo. rial of gratitude before noticed, as inscribed upon one of the marbles we removed from the ruins at Halil Elly. This remark applies solely to the buildings. The tumuli upon these heights undoubtedly relate to a very different period : and whether their history may be carried back to the eveots of the Trojan 'war, or to the settlement of Milesian colonies upon the coast, is a point capable of some elucidation, whenever future travellers have an opportunity to examine their interior.
* Iliad X'. Some, misled by Virgil, (En. 1.487.) hare affirmed that Achilles dragged the body of Hector thrice round the city.
+ See the preceding chapter, p. 51.
Thus far of Bonarbasly, its springs and its antiquities.During the rest of our residence in the place, we made several excursions into the plain, revisiting the objects before described. I crossed the whole district, in different directions, not less than seventeen times; but have preferred giving the reader the result of my observations in a continued narration rather than in the exact order of their occurrence; as this must necessarily have introduced superfluous and wearisome repetitions.* ' I took the following bearings by the polar star. Due north of Bonarbashy stands the hill of Tchiblack. To the west lies Tenedos; and in the same line, nearer to the eye, is the tomb of Æsyetes. The springs are toward the south; and the tumuli, upon the heights behind Bonarbashy, to the southeast. Lemgos, and a line of islands, are seen from the heights, bearing from southeast toward the north west.
On the eighth of March, the memorable day on which our troops under General Abercrombie were landed in Egypt, and while that event was actually taking place, we left Bonarbashy, determined, if possible, to trace the Mender to its source, in Mount Ida, about forty miles up the country. Distances in Turkey being everywhere estimated according to the number of hours in which caravans of camels, preceded by au ass, are occutpied in performing them, the reader is requested to consider every such hour as equivalent to three of our English miles. After riding, according to this estimate, an hour and a halftoward the southeast, we descended to the village of Araplar. We asterward proceeded through a valley, where we observed, in several places, the appearance of regular basaltic pillars. Thence, entering a deGle of the mountains, very like some of the passes in the T'irol, we were much struck with the grandeur of the scerrery. Shep. herds were playing their reed pipes among the rocks, while herds of goats and sheep were browsing on the herbage near the bed of the torrent. We passed a place called Sarmo saktchy cupré, an old cemetery, on the left-hand side of the road. In this, by way of gravestone, was placed a natural basaltic
* During these excursions, I collected several plants which deserve notice. Leontice leontopetalum, or true lion's leaf, flourished in different parts of the plain. The blossoms are yellow, with a tipge of green, in large leafy bunches; the leaves almost like those of a pæony, and the root of a bulb, resembling that of the cyclamen, but larger. This curious and beautiful plant is not yet introduced into any English garden. Also scirpus holoschenus, the cluster-heated clubrush. This is found in England, upon the coast of Hampshire, and in Devonshire. Trifolium uniforum, or solitary Plomered trefoil. Atractylis humilis, the dwarf rayed thistle. Hypecoum imberbe, the beardless horned cumin, described by Dr. Smith in the Prodromus to Dr. Sibthorpe's Flora Graca. A nondescript horned cumin, with very sharp leaves, and much-branched flower-stalks. The poppy, anemone coronaria, was common every where.