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ter, disappointed in his hopes of a primacy * with superior abilities, à classical purity of language, and a i auttere dignity of action, food forth the champion of a constitutii n which he attempted to subvert ť, and of a church whose principles he polibly disbelieved 1. Human nature, degraded by theie instances of kc abuse that may be made of her gitts, seemed to recover her dignity in some men of great, thongh very different, merit. Slow in his parts, rough in his manner, impa. tient of contradiction, the humane, generous, and benevolent, lord Townshend, was inelegant in his language, often perplexed in his arguments ; but always spoke sensibly, and with a thorough knowledge of the subject.

6. John, duke of Argyle, discovered the man of quality in all his discourses, no less than in all his actions: he was a most pleafing speaker, though perhaps not the clofelt reasoner; and, being himself moved, he warmed, he charmed, he ravished the audience #l. A happy

“ through the whole cause with him, pointing out where the strength of * the argument lay, and where its weakness. The duke was very thank. “ fal, returned to town, palled the night in drinking; and, without “ going to bed, went to the houfe of lords, where he spoke for the bishop, 4 recapitulating in the most masterly manner, and answering all that had qe been argued against hiin." Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors, vol. II, p. 127.

That of York had been refused to him in the last reign; and it is said, that he entertained hopes of being bribed by that of Canterbury in this.

+ I find in one of my late respectable friend Dr. Birch's papers the following anecdote: “ Lord Harcourt leaving the old miniliry, provoked 4 Atterbury's abusive tongue. He, in return, declared, that, on the • queen's death, tlie bishop came to hiin and to lord Boling broke, and “ faid, nothing reinained but iminediately to proclaim K. J. He further “ offcrcd, if they would give him a guard, to put on his lawn sleeves and " head the procession."

I The following anecdote was often mentioned by lord Chesterfield; and I shall, to the best of my remembrance, give it in his own words. “ I went to Mr. Pope one morning ac Twickenham, and found a large " folia bible with gilt clasps lying before him upon his table ; and, as I " knew his way of thinking upon that book, I asked him jocosely, if he « was going to write an answer to it? It is a present, said he, or rather a " legacy, from iny old friend the bishop of Rochester. I went to take “ my leaye of him yesterday, in the Tower, where I law this bible upon « his table. After the first compliments, the bishop said to me, My friend " Pope, considering your infirmities and my age and exile, it is not “ likely that we should ever meet again; and therefore I give you this “ legacy to remember me by it. Take it home with you, and let me ad66 vise you to abide by it.Docs your Lordfhip abide by it yourself! “ I do. If vou do, my lord, it is but lately. May I beg to know what “ new light or arguments have prevailed with you now, to entertain an as opinion so contrary to that which you entertained of that book all the $ former part of your life. The bishop replied, We bave not time to " talk of these things; but take home the book; I will abide by it; and “ I recominend to you to do so too, and 10 God bless you !"

I The contrast between these two characters is strongly marked in Jord Chesterfield's Ictters, vol. I. p. 508. from which some of the strokes have been taken.

mixture mixture of the two preceding characters was found in lord Carteret. Master of antient, as well as of modern languages, this great imitator of Demosthenes * poflefled a most uncommon share of learning, and had made the laws of his own and of oiher countries his particular study. His political knowledge of the interests of princes and of commerce was extensive; his notions were great, perhaps not always just. As a speaker, he had a wonderful quickness and precision in seizing the weak and strong fide of a question, which no art or fophiftry could disguise to him; and his talents in the argumentative were not inferior to those in the declamatory way. Lord Scarborough was a Itrong, though not an eloquent or florid speaker in parliament ; his discourles were the honest dictates of his heart. Truth and virtue seemed to borrow his voice, and gave such weight to all he said, that he more than once carried an unwilling majority after him. The same thing may be faid of a nobleman cotemporary with those I just now named; who, Till living, preserves in the moit advanced age that vigor and presence of mind which distinguished all his life, and will be remembered by posterity with that ieverence which is due to great honor and great Iruth t. Many other characters might be sketched, and some will come in course in a subiequent period; but these may be sufficient to give some idea of the eloquence of those times. Besides, I am sensible how unequal I am to such sketches, fitter for the masterly hand of him whose picture I am attempting to draw.

“ Lord Chesterfield's eloquence, though the fruit of ftudy and imitarion, was in great measure his own Equal to most of his cotemporaries in elegance and perfpicuity, perhaps surpassed by some in extenfiveness and strength, he could have no coinpetitors in choice of iinagery, taite, urbanity, and graceful irony. This turn might originally have arisen from the delicacy of his frame, which, as on one hand it deprived him of the power of working forcibly upon the pafsions of his hearers, enabled him on the other to affect their finer lensations by nice touches of raillery and humor. His strokes, however poignant, were always under the controul of decency and sense. He realoned best, when he appeared most witty; and, while he gained the atfections of his heavers, he turned the laugh on his opposers, and otien forced them to join in içi.

“ It * See Dr. Taylor's Differtation prefixed to his addition of Demol. theacs.

+ Lord Bathurst was living when this character was written,

I That I am not fingular in this idea of our earl's cloquence will appear from the subj..ined account which was given of is by a contemporary writer in the Gentleman's Magazine for March, 1740; it was well 15 ceived, but seems rather too vague and pompous. * L.ord Chciterfiell, "" while he sat in the house of commons, which lic did for several years during the life of his father, discovered not those extraordinary talents " that bave fince distinguished hiin as one of the most accomplished orators “ his age or country has produced. When he begins to speak, he has a « peculiar art of engaging the attention of his hearers, wliichi hc irrefifibly " carries along wiin lim :o the end. He unites in his delivery all the " graces of diction that prevailed at Athens and Rome, and expreites him" lelf with all the freedom which the British conftitution allows, and all

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" It might, in some degree, be owing to this particular turn that our nobleman was not heard with so much applause in the lower as in the upper house. Refined wit and delicate irony are often lost in popular and numerous assemblies. Strength, either of argument or voice, a flow or pompous words, and a continual appeal to the passions, are in such places the best arms to fupport a good cause or to defend a bad one. The case is very different in the house of peers. Minds cast in a finer mould, affect to despise what they itile the vulgar arts; and, raifed equally above fears and feelings, can only be atfected by wit and ridicule, and love to find some of that elegant urbanity and convivial pleasantry which charms them in private liie.

“ Of all the modes of eloquence this seems to be the most difficult. Asit cannot be practised without great variety, and is above the reach of moderate parts, it constantly Itands in need of encouragements and assistance. A man of letters, not destitute of abilities and imagination, may in his study, by constant application to the works of the great ora- . tors of Athens and of Rome, acquire the knack (for ofien it is not much more *) of striking his hearers with terror, of inflaming them with indignation, or of melting them into fofiness and tears t. But the art of managing irony and pleasantry with advantage is a peculiar gift, and requires a constant intercourse with people of tallion and men of wit. Lord Chesterfield was early I acquainted with those, who in his time deservedly enjoyed the most distinguished reputation ; and he fomewhere mentions to his son his happiness, in having been introduced to these great men, notwithstanding his inferiority of age. Among his friends, were Mr. Addison, fir John Van Brugh !, Dr.' Garth, and Dr. Arbuthnot , Mr. Gay **, Mr. Pope it, and several

more. of the dignity of a peer. He is by no means sparing of his Attic salt, which " he applies so judiciously, as to please even those whom it might other66 wise offend. He reasons with the calmness of a philosopher, he per“ fuades with the art of an orător, he charins with the fancy of a u poct."

* Lord Chesterfield makes use of this very word in the idea to his son of parliamentary eloqucnce. Lett. to his son, vol. IJ.

+ Tully could do no more. Whitfield ofren did as much.

| In the year 1717, he is mentioned in one of Mr. Pope's letters to his friend Gay, as being in correfpondence with him.

The earl Taid, That he never knew a man who had more wit in conversation than Sir John Van Brugh, and who, at the same time, was more good-natured.

§ Dr. Arbuthnot was not only the earl's physician, but his friend. He was often with himn in a inorning, and more than once declared himself, in his presence, a patron of Christianity. He used frcquently to communicate his compofitions to his lordship. He defired him to amend and correct what he thought proper; and was never displeased at his lordship's making use of that privilege.

** It was probably at lord Chesterfield's desire that Mr. Gay's Fables were composed for the duke of Cumberland; but he wanted interest to procure a suitable return to the author. His lordship attended at that poet's funeral in November 1732, in Westminster-abbey, as one of the pallbearers.

++ Mr. Pope likewise shewed him several of his pieces in manuscript, that be might Tead them, and give him his opinion. « Mr. Pope, it is said in

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more: Though the last of these great writers seemed in public con versation continually afraid that the man should degrade the poet, and did not easily familiarise himself with those who wished to procure an intimacy with him; yet he very soon attached himself to lord Chester. field, admitted him in his private parties, and was particularly desirous of enjoying his company in his retirement at Twickenham. There he made himself most agreeable to those whom he thus distinguished, The wit and taste of our English nobleman was not a little improved by this intimate intercourse, in which he had opportunities likewise to observe the English bard's charitable disposition, and natural benevo. ! lence of mind, notwithstanding the load of infirmities which in some degree contributed to whet the edge of his fatire, and induced him to treat without mercy those who asumed any kind of fuperiority over, or happened to offend, him.

të It may easily be conceived that a society, composed of such men, must have been to the highest degree entertaining and instructive. It was so esteemed; and is to spoken of by those who had the honour of being admitted into it. Ai Mr. Pope's garden at Twickenham, especially, the flower of the nobility męc without any pageantry of state, jealousy of party, or distinction of sect *. Amongit these were, Cob. ham, Bathurst, Queensbury, Pulteney, Orrery, Lyttelton, Marchmont, Murray, names sacred in the annals of their country, and immortalised by the poet they loved. The head and the heart were both improved by such a familiar intercourse of true greatness and genius. To these eminent judges, as well as patrons of wit, the young author fubmitted his first essays, and received encouragement and advice. By their affistance and credit the veteran poet was often relieved, and sometimes supported against the frowns of courts, and under the pres


" one of the magazines, being one day in company at lord Cobham's “ with a great number of persons of distinction, who were scribling verses

on their glaffes, was desired by lord Chesterfield to oblige them with a “ distich ex tempore. Favour me with your diamond, my lord, said thic “ poct; and immediately after wrote on his glass.

“ Accept a miraclc, instead of wit;

“ See two bad lines by Sțanhope's pencil writ.” But a much finer, though equally short, character was drawn of him and of Mr. Pulteney, by the same hand:

“ How can I Pulteney, Chesterfield forget,

While Roman spirit charms, and Attic wit?
With these sentiments, and under many obligations, it is rather surprising
he should have omitted him in his will. I have been told, there arole lone
difference between them on account of the late dutchels of Marlborough,
whose character under the name of Atolia, Mr. Pope was, in vain, solicited
by his friend to give up.

** Thomson, Mallet, Hooke, Glover, &c. One of these (Mr. Hammond)
wrote, when only 22 vears old, some love-elegies in the true manner of Ti.
bullus; which lord Chesterfield esteemed so much, that, when the young
author died ten years afterwards, he took upon him the pleasing task of pub,
lifhing ther. The short preface which he prefixed contains inany 1trokes
highly characteristic of his lordship's manner of thinking, as well as of his
Vol. V.



sure of old age and of want * Sentiments of benevolence and generosity were imprefled upon the soul of him, whom pride was likely to mislead, or avarice to corrupt. Such were the friends, whom lord Chesterfield was so happy to be connected with; in their company, and by their joint assistance and encouragement, Pope sketched his ethic epistles, which point out to man his grandeur and his weakness ; and his immortal satires, which, in this ifland, have moft seasonably stopped the progress of pedantry and false taite."

We wish we could honestly subscribe to the truth of this last sentence. That they did fop, for a while, that progress,' we can readily allow; but, we are sorry to remark that false taste seems since to have reassumed its influence, and to procecd as precipitately in its career as ever.

(To be continued.)

Philosophical Transactions, of the Royal Society of London. Vol.

LXVI. For the Year 1776. Part II. 4to. Price 7s. 6d. Davis.

(Continued from Page 117 and concluded.) Article the XXVIII, of this volume of the Philosophical Transactions, contains,

" A new and general method of finding simple and quickly-converging series ; by which the proportion of the diameter of a circle to iis circuinference may easily be computed to a great number of places of figures. By Charles Hutton, Esq. F. R. S.

• The excellency of this method is primarily owing to the finplici. ty of the series by which an arc is found from its tangent. For if t der note the tangent of an arc a, the radius being 1, then it is well known, that the arc a will be equal to the infinite series,

-- +--- +-- -+&c.' : : 1 .3 5 7 9 11 where the form is as simple as can be desired. And it is evident, that nothing farther is required than to contrive matters so, as that the value of the quantity t in this series may be both a finall and very simple number. Small, that the series may be made to converge fürficiently falt; and simple, that the several powers of t may be raised by ealy multiplications, or easy divisions. , 'They procured many subscriptions to Mr. Gay for the impression of His Fables; and by the produce of these, as well as by the success of the Beggar's Opera, that poct was enriched as much as a poet commonly can, o perlaps ought to be enriched. Mr. Aaron Hill had frequent cncourageinents given him, notwithttanding his frequent bickerings with Mr. Pope ; wod cren his great enemy Dennis was relieved in his old age, at the request of a man whom lie had the most reviled.

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