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! By a pretty exact estimate,” says Mr. Hutton, “ which I have made, of the proportion of the trouble or time in computing the cire cumference by this middle form of the value of A, and by Mr. Ma. chin's theorem, I have found, that the computation by his method requires about 1.8th or 1-1 oth more time than by mine. And its advan, tages over any of the series, invented by Euler or others, is still much more considerable." ,“ XXIX. An Account of a very extraordinary Effect of Lightning on a Bullock, at Swanborow, in the Parish of Iford, near Lewes, in Sussex. In sundry Letters, from Mr. James Lambert, Landscape. Painter at Lewes ; and One from William Green, Esquire, at Lewes, to William Henly, F. R. S."
The extraordinary effect here related is that of stripping a pyed bullock of all its white hair, leaving its red hair un. hurt.
“ XXX. Of the Light produced by Inflammation. By George Fordyce, M. D. F.R. S.”
When bodies are heated to a certain degree, they become luminous, and are said to be ignited. One of the means of producing heat is inflammation ; which, it is well known, is Lufficient to produce ignition. Dr. Fordyce, however, appre- . hends that besides the light produced by ignition, there is a light also produced by the inflammation itself. :* XXXI. Experiments on ignited Bodies, By John Roebuck, M. D. F. R. s."
These experinients tend to invalidate those of the celebrated Mr. Buffon, on the increased weight of heated bodies, made with a view to prove fire to be a gravitating body.
“ XXXII. Experiments and Obfervations on a new Apparatus, called, A Machine for exhibiting perpetual Electricity. In a Letter to the Rev. Dr. Horsley, Sec. R. S.
“ XXXIII. Account of the Iron Ore lately found in Siberia. In a Letter to Dr. Maty, Sec. R. S. by Petr. Simon Pallas, M. D. F. R. S.
" XXXIV. On the Crystallizations observed on Glass. By James Kier, Esquire, of Stourbridge. Communicated by George Fordyce, M. D. F. R. S.”
Article XXXV. is a simple annunciation of the appearance of a belt in the disc of Saturn, in a letter from Mr: Melier, of Paris, to Mr. Magellan ; dated May, 29, 1776. Messieurs John and James Cassini, seem to have been the first astronomers who discovered this phænomenon, toward the end of the last century. . “ XXXVI. An Account of fome poisonous Fish in the South Seas, In a Letter to Sir John Pringle, Bart. P. R. S. from Mr. William Anderson, late Surgeon's Mate on board His Majesty's Ship the Relolution, now Surgeon of that Saip.
XXXVIII. Experiments on ignited Substances. By Mr. John Whitehurst, in a Letter to James Stuart, Esquire, F. R. S.“ Аа 2
These experiments tend to the fame purpose as those of Dr. Roebuck's in Article XXXI, and appear satisfactorily to refute Mr. Buffon's opinion. Mr. Whitehurst's manner of account. ing for Mr. Buffon's mistake appears just and reasonable.-As this paper is short, we shall give it, therefore, entire to our readers.
“ The experiments of Mr. Buffon upon ignited bodies seem to prove, that, when heated to the degree he mentions, they are more ponderous than when cold. The experiments, which I have made on heated me. tals, suggest a different idea, and contradict the facts he relates ; so that I am induced to believe, that some circumstance, not attended to, has introduced a mistake in the relation this learned philosopher has published as the result of his inquiry, ..^ His experiment stands thus recorded (Suppl. Nat. Hift. vol. II, p. 11.): a mass of iron, after receiving a white heat, weighed 49lbs. goz. ; when reitored again to the temperature of the atmosphere 49lbs. goz. Hence he concluded, that the igneous particles, contained in the heated iron, increased its absolute weight 2 ounces.
“ My experiments are as follows: ift, One penny-weight of gold, made red-hot, became apparently lighter ; but, when restored again to the temperature of the atmosphere, its former weight was perfectly restored. *“ 2d, One pennyweight of ironi, heated as above, was also appa. rently lighter ; but, when it becaine cool again, its weight was visibly augiented.
* It is now several years since I made these experiments; but I well remember to have repeated them several times, and that the results were always the same. It may be necessary to remark, that the beam used in these experiments was sensibly affected by the booth part of a grain; and likewise, that each of the metals was heated upon charcoal, by means of a candle and a blow-pipe, and both were brought nearly to a state of fusion, . It seems needless to observe, that the apparent levity of the gold and ot the iron, when hot, was owing to the rarified air above the scale, and to the tendency of that underneath to restore the equilibrium of its pressure. The increase of the weight in the iron might probably arise from its having, in some degree, acquired the property of steel, by means of the flame and charcoal.
« I am at a loss to account for the fallacy which seems to have altended M. Buffon's experiment; but it seems probable, that the heat of the mass of iron employed by hiin, had a greater effect on that arm of the beam from which it hung than on the other, which being less heated, would consequently be less expanded ; and this ditference of expansion might produce the error in M. Button's account of the weigh of heated iron."
It may be observed that the most accurate experiments, of the philosophers of the present day, tend to confirm the theory of that great advocate for experimental philofophy in general, Sir Isaac Newton; who justly looked upon fire ratheç as an accident attending bodies than as a body itself.
; • XXXIX.
ici XXXIX. An Account of a Suppression of Urine cured by a Puncture made in the Bladder through the Anus; being an Extract of a Letter from Dr. Robert Hamilton, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians at Edinburgh, and Physician at King's-Lynn, in Norfolk, to Sir John Pringle, Bart. P. R. S. '
“ XL. Observations made during the late Frost ar Northampton. By A. Fothergill, M. D.”
The reader is not to suppose that the frost, here mentioned, happened no where but at Northampton: the observer meaning only that the observations were made at Northampton during the frost, in the beginniug of the year 1976, which was severely felt all over the kingdom. .
The phænomena, which Dr. Fothergill thought so very sur. prising and which are here honoured with a place in the philophical transactions, are as follows. . .' - 6 Jan. 27th, the great quantity of snow which had continued falling alınost every day for three weeks, had, for thefe five or six days past, rendered the roads impaffable; and the post, both upwards and downwards, was stopped, the snow being drifted from fix to ten feet deep or upwards. This morning the frost became suddenly very severe; the wind full East; accompanied with snow. The barometer stood at 292. A thermometer, according to Fahrenheit's scale, which hung in my parlour, where there was a good fire, stood at 33°, that is, only 1° above the freezing point. After it had been suspended a quarter of an hour on the chinese palisades before the street door facing the South, it funk to 20°, that is, 12° below the freezing point. At five o'clock in the same evening, it fell to 16o. At this time eggs in the market cracked in the womens baskets, and appeared in a coagulated state, of the consistence of bees-wax. This evening was placed on my gardenwall, facing the East, half an ounce of each of the following liquors in a cup; viz. lemon juice, vinegar, and red port-wine. .
" Jan. 28th, This morning, at eight o'clock, the barometer stood at 30. The thermometer at 12°, that is, 20® below the point of freez. ing; wind Easterly; the atmosphere clear and serene, but piercing cold. The three liquors were reduced to a solid cake of ice. This night, about eleven, were placed on the same wall the following li. quors'; viz. spirit of Mindererus, volatile spirit of sal ammoniac of both kinds, mild and caustic, dulcified spirit of nitre, red port-wine, and French brandy.
" Jan, 29th, Barometer 2975; thermometer' at 11°, that is, 219 below freezing; the Easterly wind excessively keen and piercing. The Foads which, at great labour and expence, had just been cut through for carriages to pass, were again this morning, though no fresh snow had fallen, compleatly drifted up. These liquors alio, to my great sur. prize, now shewed evident marks of freezing. They were suffered to remain, and two more cups were placed near them, with highly rectified fpirit of wine and vitriolic ether. At a little distance was placed, in a frigorific mixture, about an ounce of crude quicksilver in
« Jan. ,“ Jan. 30th, The morning clear, but intensely cold; wind S. E. ; barometer 301's; thermometer funk to go, that is, 23° below the freezing point; a degree of cold which, I apprehend, has been but rarely experienced in this climate, being 30 below that of the remarkable frost in the year 1739. On examining the liquors on the garden wall I found, to my astonishment, all of them, except the fpirit of wine and there, perfectly congealed : the first time I had ever seen these liquors in a solid form. Being desirous to see the effect of a high degree of artificial, added to the natural cold that now prevailed, the thermometer was immersed into the frigorific mixture ; but though it funk the quicksilver, in a few seconds, into the bulb of the thermometer, yet the result was by no means adequate to that of the experiment of of Profeffor Braun at Petersburg: for although the quicksilver in the thermome. ter, and that in the phial, contracted a film on the top, yet it remained quite fluid below, *?Jan, gift to Feb. ift, The barometer at 29 ; the thermometer only at 16°, that is, 17% below the point of congelation; the atmos: phere serene and pleasant.
“Feb. 2d, Wind S.; barometer 291 ; a warm, misty morning, succeeded by a pleasant spring-like day, ushered in a very mild and a. greeable thaw, the thermometer from 9° being got to 40°; so great was che change of temperature in fo fhort a space of time! And it seems worthy of observation, that the epidemic cold, which had prevailed universally during the preceding mild season, suddenly disappeared in the late intense frost; but now began to re-appear, together with rheu. matic affections and other diseases of the former period.”
" XLI. An Account of the Magnetical Machine contrived by the Fate Dr. Gowin Knight, F. R. S. and presented to The Royal Society, by John Fothergill, M. D. F. R. S.
XLII. Demonstrations of Two Theorems mentioned in Article XXV, of the Philosophical Transactions for the Year. 1775. ' In a Letter from Charles Hutten, Esq. F. R. S. to the Reverend Dr. Horsley, Sec. R. S.
" XLIII. Experiments made in order to ascertain the Nature of fome Mineral Substances : and in particular, to see how far the Acids I of Sea-Salt and of Vitriol contribute to mineralize Metallic and other Substances. By Peter Woulfe, F. R. S.”
To this Volume is added a catalogue of the presents of natural curiosities, books, drawings, &c. made to the Royal Society, during the year 1775, with the names of the donors annexed.
A Commentary, with Notes, on the four Evangelists and the A&T's of
the Apostles ; together with a new Tranflation of St. Paul's first Epistle to the Corinthians, with a Paraphrase and Notes. To which are added other Theological Pieces. By Zachariah Pearce, D. D. late Lord Bishop of Rochester. To the whole is prefixed, 'Some Account of his Lordship's Life and Charafier, written by himself. Published from the original Manuscripts, By John Derby, A. M. his Lordship's Chaplain, and Rector of Southfleet and Longfield. 2 vols. 4to, Cadell.
(Continued from Page 43.) Numerous as are the commentators on the New Testainent, and justly celebrated as are those of other nations *, the writers of this country are by no means inferiour either in point of merit or reputation. The most popular of our English coinments, are those of Dr. Hainmond, Dr. Whitby, and Mr. Locke; the two former on the whole New Testament, and the latter on some of St. Paul's epistles only.
In the annotations of Dr. Hammond we are presented with a copious treasure of scriptural learning ; always generally useful, tho' not always equally necessary to the explanation of the particular passage, on which it is displayed. It has been pertinently faid of this learned divine, that, like a generous hoft, he sets before us, on most occasions, his whole stock of provifions, when a small part would have answered every necessary purpose of refreshment or repaft. . Dr. Whitby has displayed a fund of Greek knowledge, and has done, perhaps, as much as a inan could do, whole judgment was to inuch inferiour to his learning. In this particular his cominent differs from that of Mir. Locke; whose fort, on the contrary, lay in point of judginent, which carried him also as far as a man could well be expected to go, who was so de.” fective in the knowledge of the original language.
It appears to have been these imperfections in these popular cominents that first induced our learned prelate to undertake the present commentary. This design, however, was under taken so long ago and has been so long in the execution, that a number of respectable labourers in the same vineyard have, in
* At the head of these may be placed the learned Dutchinan Hugo Gros tius, next to whose observations on the New Testament might be recommended the translation and notes of Beauíobre and L'Enfant; and particularly their general preface ; in which an explicit account is given of these several particulars, relative to the Jews and other ancient nations, which are neceíTary to a competent understanding of the text of the New Testament. This general preface, if we mistake not, has been translated into Englith.