« FöregåendeFortsätt »
'" * PARENTHESIS I.. :: « * Our Lord ajirts, that (1) from within, out of the heart of men,
proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefrs, coverousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blafo phemy, pride, foolishness; all these evil things (faith the Saviour
bf mankind) come from within, and defile the man. The Apostle * Paul denominates it (m) another law in his members, warring against * the l.w of his mind. And plainly implies that it is a (fpiritual) * fubitance, by calling it (n) the body of death: (0) 'so then, adds
the Apostle, with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with * the flesh, the law of fin. And in his '(p) epistle to the Ephelians, * h: calls it the Old Man which is corrupr according to the deceitful * lasts; thereby implying again that it is a substance; or why would be * metonymically call it si Man?" The like may be observed of the in* ternal principle of divine grace, (in Christians ar lealt ;) which in the * Jame epistle and (2) chapter he denominates the New Man."
(To be continued.)
A Paraphrafe and Notes, on the Epistle of St. Paul to the Galatians and Ephesians : With Doctrinal and Practical Observations. Together with a Critical and Practical Commentary on the two Epiftles of St. Paul to the Thessalonians. By the late Learned Samuel Chandler, D. D. Published from the Author's MS. by Nathaniel White. 410. 125. Dilly.
The character and abilities of the late Dr. Chandler ärë fo well known, that it would be fuperfluous to expatiate on them, in recommendation of the work before us. Let it fuffice to say, therefore, that it appears, as well from the internal evidence which the work bears in itself, as from the assurances given by the Editor in the preface, that it is the genuine production of the learned writer to whom it is attributed. As a Specimen of his paraphrafe, noets, and observations, we shall give those on the first fix verses of the third chapter of the Galatians.
" The apostle having, by a great variety of arguments, vindicated his own apostleship and doctrine, and given the Galatians a Thort but clear account, of the method of juitification ; now comes to reason with them more directly on this important article, and to let before them the folly of departing from the fimplicity of the Ehristian faith, and submitting to the bondage of the Jewish law for juftification. D 2
PARAPHRAS E. CH A P. III. "O foolish and senseless Galatians, what
1 O foolish) Galatians, impostor by his arts and subtleties hath so whohath bewitched you, bewitched you, that instead of obeying the that you should not obey truth of the gospel doctrine, ye should have the truth, before whose recourse to the law of Moses for justificaeyes Jesus Christ bath tion ? Especially since the doctrine of Christ been evidently set forth, crucified hath been represented to you in crucificd among you? the plainelt and clearest manner.
2 This only would I " Answer me as to this single article ; learn of you : Received Did you receive the Spirit in his extraorye the Spirit by the dinary gifts, by your conformity to the law works of the law, or by of Moses, or by hearing and obeying the the hearing of faith ?? golpel doctrine?
Ver. 1. Aronmou. Foolish Galatians.}The original word properly signiftes persons void of confideration and understanding :' And it is with great juitice here applied to the Galatians, since there could not be a greater instance and argument of want of thought and reflection, than for persons in their circumstances to forsake the doctrine of the apoitles, and the purity of the Christian faith, and to suffer themselves to be led away by false seducers; to place their dependance on the unprofitable rites of the Jewish law for justification, and being constituted the members of the church of God.
T ullcos eBaorang. Wbo bath bewitched you.] Baotaww, signifies in the best writers' to envy.' 0.9ovefes oytaso xai Tois alpisors Basxanels a coalfeueras, is the character of the Athenians, Æl. V, H.' l. ii. C. 13. and thus it may fignify here ; ( who hath lo envied you, or looked with so & evil an eye on you, as to turn you away from the truth?" but, as the word p:operly signifies to corrupt and deceive the eyes, and is frequendy transferrn to the mind, to denote the deception of it by evil arts; cur translation
fzeins to be just and proper. "What impostor bath so bewitched you, as to . persuade you to exchange the purity of the gospel for Jewish rites ? For tiis is the meaning of not obeying ihe irurb, i. e. deserting the apostle's doctrine of justification by faith, and expecting it from the law of Moses.
Before whose eyes Christ bath been evidently set forth, crucified amongst you.? If this rendering should be judged belt, the meaning is, that the death of Ciwit had been as clearly and plainly represented to them, in its certainty sind effects, as if they had actually feen him crucified with their eyes; but tie original will bear another translation, which I prefer ; thus, before • whole eyes Christ crucified hath been evidently set forth amongst you,'i.e. plainly and cleared preached amongst you. The expression, xal Janues, before whose eyes, is used metaphorically by the best writers, to denote' the clear discovery and perception of any thing. Thus kv opfadMois swpa to dosor, malum quali jam prajens videbat, Æl. iii. 26. And thus Chrift crucified was evidently set forth before the Galatians eyes ; clearly repreferte.l to their minds, as though they had seen it, by the preaching of the apostle Paul; having thus rebuked them, he proceeds to argue with them..
* Ver. 2. By ibe Spirit, the apostle here means, not what divines call the crdinary alliitances of the Spirit, but those extraordinary gifts of God, which were frequently bestowed on the first converts, to allure them of their juftification, and being constituted the children of God; which gifts are exprefly calle I the Spirit or the Holy Ghost. Thus when Peter preached to Corneous, so the Holy Ghost fell on those who heard him," Als x. 44, for it is added, " they spoke with tongues, and magnificd God," ver.46. Thus att hefu,“ The Holy Ghost came on the disciples, and they spoke with
3. Are ye fo foolish, “Unquestionably by obeying the gospel having begun in the fpi- doctrine. And can you, who have thus reia rits are ge nozu made ceived the spirit of adoption, upon your fir perfect in the fielb? conversion, as the consequence of your faith
in Christ, be so flapid as to imagine, that your justification is not compleat, unless you conform to the fleshly ceremonies of the
law of Moses? 4. Have ye faffered "If this were true, all your paft sufferings
for « tongues and prophesied,” Acts xix. 6. and when the apostles at the feast of Pentecost, were filled with the Holy Ghost, and fpoke with tongues, Peter exprelly declares, “ This is that which was spoken by Joel ; I will “ pour out of my Spirit upon all Aeth," Acts ii. 17.
Now these gifts of the Spirit were communicated as the full evidence and proof, that those who received them were constituted the people and children of God; thus the Holy Ghost fell on Cornelius, a Gentile ; upon which the Jewish Chriftians made this reflection : “ Then hath God also to the Gen« tiles-granted repentance unto life," Acts xi. 18. Thus Peter at the
council at Jerufalem declares ; « God bare the Gentiles witness, giving .“ them the Holy Ghost even as he did unto us; and put no difference beo
· tween us and them," Acts xv. 8. i. e. declaring the Gentiles equally members of the Christian church, and heirs to falvation by Chrilt with the Jews. Hence the Spirit in his extraordinary gifts, is called the spirit of adoption, Rom. viii. 15. because the granting it was an inttance of God's peculiar favour, and of his owning himself the father and friend of those to whom he vouchsafed the Spirit.
Now in this view, the apottle's question appears with great propriety and strength. Did ye receive that fpirit, which was the fullett evidence of your being jultified, accepted, and received as the children and people of God, by conformity to the law of Mofes, or by embracing the doctrine of the gospel ? If bv embracing the doctrine of the gospel, then you became jurtified by embracing hat doctrine, and consequently need not conform to the law of Moses, in order to obtain justification. The argument in form is this.
Those who are justified by faith in Chrift, need not conform to the law of Moses for justification ; but Christians are justified by faith. Therefore, &c.
That Chriftians are justified by faith is thus proved.
Those who have received by faith that fpirit from God, which is the great evidence of their justification, are justified by faith; but Christians have received. Therefore, &c.
This argunent is ftri&ily conclusive, and I would only observe with re· spect to the expreffion, by the bearing of laill, that aron may be rendered
obedience ;' in which tense azyw is frequently used; thus, This 18 my bed loved son, biar pe bin, i. e, obey him, Matt. xvii. 5. So Alian. V. H. 1. j. c. 16. and ihus the expreffion will nean, by obedience to the gospel.' As the apuitle knew that they received the spirit by obeying the gospel doctrine, he proceeds to other questions. - Ver. 3. To begin in the Spiru.) incans their receiving the extraordinary gifts of it, immedintely upon their believing in Chrift, as the evidence of their juftification and acceptance with God, and the being made perfect in the fiep, denotes their hanng recourse to those ceremonies of the law of Mo"fes, which reached only to the tieth, to perfect or compleat their justification ;
but this the apo itlejuftly represents as a foolish imagination, and proceeds to , tell them it was a reproach upon their former beliaviour. - Ver. 4. The words, e x Eske, it it be ve: in vain,} are a kind of gen.
teel and tender recalling wliche hid said iininediately before, and an ex
so many things in vain, for the sake of Christianity must have been if it be yet in vain ? to no purpose fince you might have avoid
ed, them by submitting to circumcifion and the law. And will you thus lose the benefit of all the persecutions you have endured, and render them wholly vain and
ineffectual? 5. He therefore that “When I was with you, and conferred miniftreth to you the the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit upon Airit, and worketh mi. you, and wrought several miracles in the racles amongli you, doth' midit of you, did I confer and do them as be it by the cuorks of the a preacher of the neceflity of the law of law, or by the bearing Moses to you, and to confirm your obligaof faith?
tions to observe it ; or as a preacher of the doctrine of justification by faith, and to
confirm and ettablish you in the belief of it? 6. Even as Abrahan " As a preacher of the doctrine of jurbelieved God, and it was tification by faith. And thus Abraham counted to him for righe himself, the father of our nation was juftiteousness
fied; for when God promised him a nume. rous seed in his extreme old age, he believed in the Lord; and the scripiure exprefly says, it was counted to him for righteouf
nefs, Gen. xv. 6. “OBSERVATIONs on the Doctrine of JUSTIFICATION. “ To reconcile thefe Judaising converts to this doctrine of justification by faith, the apostle with g:eat address and strength thew's them, that it was by this very principle of faith, that Abraham, the father of the Jewish nation, was himself jullified. Abraham and Sarah were, according to the course of nature, absolutely incapable of baving any children. Aud upon his complaint to God that he was childless, God said to him ; " he that shall come forth out of thine
“ own pression of some hope that it might be otherwise. "Have ye fuffered to o many things for Christ in vain, if you will finally render them vain, 6 and not prevent it by a steady adherence to the purity of the gospel doc• trine? I greatly fear for you, but am loth to give you up as wholly loft."
Ver, s. Though St. Paul speaketh here in the third person, “ he that mi“ nitreth to you the fpirit," yet I think it is evident he ineans himself, who was the instrument of their conversion, and of conferring these extraordinary gifts upon them; and he appeals to them, that he conferred them only to citablith the doctrine of justification by faith alone, and not to bring them under bondage to the law of Moses; and this doctrine of justification by faith, he proceeds to thew was abundantly confirmed by the Old Testament, and that Abrahain himself was thus justified.
Ver. 6. The word somon, rendered here counted, is translated in Rom. iv. 6. imputed. And from hence comes the expression of imputed righteou:ness; the word signifies to place fomewhat to account, and that either as a matter of justice or favour, Rom. iv. 4. “ To him that workth is the 18“ ward not imputed of grace but of debt,” in which the imputation of boili kinds is exprefly mentioned.
own bovels shall be thine heir." Abraham might have objected the natural impoffibility of the thing, but he believed in the Lord, believed that God was able to give him a son, and would do it in accomplishment of bis promise. Whar was the confequence of this? Wby God counted to him this his belief of his promise, and trust in his power and goodness, for righteousness. God was so well pleased with this eminent instance of his faith and piety, that he accepted and blessed him as a truly righteous person ; his very faith in the promise and power of God was his righteousness, that which justified him, and upon account of which God accepted and blessed bin as a juft person. This is the express do&rine of scripture, which cannot be evaded by the systems, schemes, and comments of fallible men, though it hath been often represented as erroneous and false; whilst the scriptores remain it will ever be true, that Abraham believed God, and that it, this very belief in God, was 'accounted to him for righteousness, - "The exprefion of imputing righteousness, is but twice mentioned in fcripture, and in neither place can it possibly fignify the imputation of one person's righteousness to another, so that he who is unrighteous in himself, hould be esteemed and accepted as a juft and righ. teous man for the sake of another person's righteousness; the im. putation of righteousness never once means this in the New Ter. Lament, In the first place it evidently denotes the pardon of 'sin, Rom. iv. 6, 7, 8. " David also defcribeth the blekedness of the " man; unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works, " saying, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven,-and to "wbom the Lord will not impure fin :" In which passage nothing can be more evident, than that she imputi g righteousnefs, the not imputing fin, and the forgiving iniqušies, are equivalent expressions, and mean jotirely the same thing, and they all of them denote jurrifica ion; because not to impute fin is to pardon it, and to pardon fin is to impote righeçousness, i. e, to esteem, and accept and treat the person pardoned as a righteous and juit man that hath never of. fended.
The same expression of imputing righteousness is also used in the eleventh verse of the fourth to th: Ronans. “ Abraham received so the fign of circumcifion, a feal of the righteousness of the faith “ which he had being yet ancircumcised, that he might be the father “ 'of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised, that “ righteousoess might be imputed unto them also,” i. e.' that their
faith, might be im puted unio them for righteousness,' or, ó that • chev mi ht be accepied and created of God as righteous upon ac
count, or for the sake, of their faith :' That this is the meaning is plain fron the apostle's reasoning, which is to thew that the uncir. cumcised Genviles were to be justified the same way as Abraham was whilst he was uncircumcised. Now, says the apostle, “ we fay " that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness,' ver. 9. his faith was his righteousness, for which God accepted him as a juft person even whilft he was uncircumcised,“ that he might be the q fa her of all them that believe, though ihey be not circumcised, phạt righteousness might be imputed to them allo," i. e. ' that