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Journal Historique du Voyage fait au Cap de Bonne Esperance.

Par feu M. L'Abbé de la Caille de l'Acad. des Sc. &c.An Historical Journal of a Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope. By the late Abbé de la Caille of the Academy of Sciences. To which is prefixed, A Discourse on the Life of the Author; with Remarks and Reflections on the Cuftoms of the Hottentots and the Inhabitants of the Cape. Paris.

This work, which was first printed in the year 1-63, having been lately reprinted at Paris, the French journalists, as well as our own, have announced it as a new publication, The Monthly Reviewers, in particular, have given a long account of it in their last Appendix, notwithstanding much the same account was given in that Review near twenty years ago *. There occurs, indeed, fome little difference in the wording of the extracts; of which we shall instance one passage, as 'a proof of the superior attention and abilities of the present, over former, Monthly Reviewers.—Speaking of the Hottentots, the Reviewer of 1763 says, “ The women are cloathed with sheep-skins, as well as the men; wearing the wool outwards in suminer, and inwards during the winter. They wear one íkin over their fhoulders, the ends of it crossing each other before, and leaving their neck bare; another ikin is fastened round their middle, and reaches down to their knees. Thole of them who are ambitious to please, adorn themselves with necklaces of shells: for even in this country the sex have their charins, which they endeavour to heighten by such arts as are peculiar to themselves, and would meet with little success ellewhere. To this end they grease their faces, necks, and the naked parts of their bodies with mutton suet, in order to make them shine. They braid also or plait their hair, to give themselves an additional elegance. An Hottentot lady thus bedizened, hath exhausted all the arts of her toilette ; and, however unfavourable nature may have been with regard to her - Shape and stature, her pride is wonderfully flattered, while the fplendor of her appearance gives her the highest degree of satisfaction." - The Monthly Reviewer of 1777, gives the above passage, in the following terms. 6 Both men and women are clothed with sheep-fkins, of which the wool makes the outfide in summer, and the inside in winter. Such of the women as are desirous of pleasing, make necklaces of shells, knot their hair, and rub their faces, breafts, and all the naked parts of their bodies, with mutton fat, to make them shine."-We do

* See Monthly Review, Vol. XXIX. for 1763. Vol, V,

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not deny that the first Reviewers, in faithfully following the original, is rather too verbose; but lurely, in aiming åt brevity, the latter has committed a very gross blunder. That a Hottentot Mhould wear the woolly side of his skeep-skin inwards in winter and outward in fummer, is natural enough; but that he should clothe himself with a sheep-skin; the wool of which is on one side of it in winter, and on the other side in summer, would be very extraordinary indeed !-During the lapse of time since the first publication of this journal, later writers have allo corrected in iome degree ihe error, the Abbé de la Caille was led into, of to severely condemning Kolben; whole history of the Cape gave the public the first authentic account of the state of that country. ;

Elai sur le Caraflere Ese les Mæurs des François, &0.–An

Efray on the Characters and Manners of the French, com pared with thole of the English

The great difference, in the national character of the Enge lish and the French, this writer deduces chiefly from their different degries of attachment to the fair sex. The conclufins, however, he draws from the premises have not always a logical legitimacy.

Lettere Turche, &c.-Or, Turkish Letters; collected and pubi lished by Etienne Pastor-Vecchio 8vo. Venice.

These Le ters are written by a young nobleman of Dalmatia, who stiles himself Count de Zannovich, and is now on his travels through burope They appear to'be written in imitation of the Persian letters, and abound with pertinent reflections on men and inanners. They have been burnt at Rome, although the wiiter is no Turk, but a Ronan Catholic. Since the publication of these letters, which are dedicated to the Empress of Ruslia, the writer bas printed two others addressed to the presuinptive heir of Pruflia; in which he draws a parallel between "the government of the European states and that of the Grand · Sei nidr. Being obliged to leave Dresden on account of cer

tain reflections thought to'be too severe on the clergy, he repaired to Berlin, and thence to Potsdain ; whither he was ina fited by letter from the Prince of Prussia.

Ethecrating

Ethöcratie, ou le Gouvernement fondé sur la Morale.-On Go.

vernment founded on Morality. Amsterdam.

This writer conceives very properly, that if laws were made and administered strictly according to the principles of found morality, the systein of human policy would be much improved. I might be fo. But, if men could be prevailed on to act universally on those principles, would it not in a great measure supersede the necessity of pol'tical government? It has been juftly remarked, that al nost all the writers on the subject of inorals, as relative to community in general, have only paraphrased in various ways, the expresion of Horace, Quid leges, fine moribus, vang proficiuni ? - When a people are become generally virtuous, their legislators and magistrates may become so too: till when it is in vain to expect it.

Les Argumens de la Raison en Faveur de la Philosophie, de la Rea

ligion, et du Sacerdoce. Par L'Abbé Pinelon. Rational Arguments in Favour of Philosophy, Religion, and the Clergy: 12mo, Paris,

Soon after the decease of the celebrated Helvetius, was published a posthumous wok attributed to that writer, entitled, De l'Homme, de ses Facultés Intellectuelles, et de fon" Education; containing an illustration and explication of the principles inculcated in his famous book, entitled, De l'Esprit. The Abbé Pinćton hath here attacked those principles with great spirit and some success.

Observations sur l'Air. . Par M. Berthollet, M.D.Observa

tions on Air. Paris.

The success of Dr. Priestley's late enquiries into the nature" of the air, seems to have set the philosophical experimentalists, all over Europe, upon analyzing the heterogeneous matter, which composes the mass of the surrounding atmosphere. In these researches, it is no wonder if th' y should a little clash, in their opinion of the result of their experiments. It is very proper, nevertheless, that they should be apprized of what they are severally doing, as their reciprocal mistakes. may serve to their general correction.

theich comporpe, upon amet the philco enquiries into

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Novi Commentarii Academiæ Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitant.

-New Commentaries by the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Petersburg. Vol. XX. for the Year 1776.

These Commentaries, which are compiled in the manner of the French Academical Memoirs, appear annually, and be. come more and more interefting to the philosophical world, from the increased intercourse and liberal communication the academy holds with learned and scientific foreigners. The mathematical part of the present volume contains, among other ingenious papers, Dissertations by, M.D. Bernouilli on con, tinued fractions, and by M. Euler on various subjects in pure mathematics. In the mixt mathematics the latter hath also two excellent tracts, on the motion of bodies : on which subject are also given tome general theorems by M, Lexell. A differtation, on the power of a new kind of oar, by Mr. Kraft, diftinguishes, also, this part of the work. --The theory of the common car hatir been long since sufficiently elucidated by Mr. Bouguer and Mr. Euler. Daniel Bernouilli, in answer to the question proposed by the Academy of Sciences of Paris, about twenty years ago, offered a new kind of gar greatly superior in refpeét of power to the common ones. Mr. Kraft hath made án improvement on thele, which proinises to be of much utility.

- In the class of physics, and that of astronomy, are also some curious papers by the Eulers and other refpe&table academicians. .

*

eions defeen duit one prime, a world en barrass

Eljai sur les Langues en general, sur la Langue Françoise en par. ticulier, et fa Progresion depuis Charlemagne jusqu à present. Par M. Sablier. -An Eslay on Languages in general, and on the French Language in particular, and its progress from the Time of Charlemagne to the present. Svo. Paris.

Mr. Sablier prudentially sets out with taking for granted that, as all nations descended originally froin one common stock, there can have been but one primitive language. By this assumption he saves himself, of course, a world of trouble in diicussing the numerous difficulties that would embarrass

him, in treating the subject in a more philosophical manner. . The method he hath chofen is rather historical; a much more

cafy if not satisfactory method. His history of the progressive improvement of the French tongue is particularly instructive

and entertaining. There appear to have been no traces, says *he, of the present French, in the time of Charlemagne, who, Aevertheless, endeayoured to diffuse a tafte for literature

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throughout his empire. At that time it appears that a kind of mixture, or lingua franca, of Latin, Gaulic, and Franc, was in general use; the first traces of the modern French first appearing in the reign of Charles the Bald, about the middle of the ninth century.

ing Voltaire as ither strength of

all sides.

Un Chretien contre Six Juifs. One Christian against Six Jews.

Svo. Hague.

A match! but a very unequal one! By the fix Jews is meant the supposed authors of the Letters to De Voltaire from certain - Dutch and Portugueze Jews, published about eight years ago* :

to whom, it appears, by the file and manner of this performance, the celebrated writer hath here given, in the name of a friend, a final answer. This friend begins by representing Voltaire as a poor old man, approaching to ninety, who has no longer either strength or spirit to defend himself, and therefore is inhumanly attacked on all sides. Like a hackneyed advocate, he proceeds then to raise a doubt about his client's being really the author of the works objected to; but without going so far as actually to deny it. By attempting next to justify several of the objectionable passages, he seems, indeed, to admit the fact. But his replies are of little weight or importance. This advocate for Voltaire is so much the man himTelf, that he can hardly support, for a moment, a ferious argument on such subjects. His pleasantries, when not profane, are more entertaining. The reader may not be displeased with a fainple. In reply to the criticisin of the Jews, on Voltaire's objection to the multitude of flocks that sublisted on the plains of Median; in which they observed, that no less than four hundred thousand sheep are to be found on a small marshy {pot of ground in Dorsetshire; our Christian answers, “ So much the worse for the owners; Theep die foon of the rot in the marshes. I have lost many of mine on such grounds; and would not advise you to feed your sheep there; but to turn the whole into fish-ponds and breed carp. They will thrive.'?

In this manner our Christian parries off the thrusts of liis supposed Six Jews, when he thinks himself likely to be foiled; seldom closing with his adversary in fair encounter. But, per haps, he thought himself justified in this, by the avowed plur rality of numbers, as the odds may be supposed to have made at no fair match.

ise you the and breed carp off the thruits foiled;

* Said to be written, however, by a single Christian, Abbé Guenne, Professor of Rhetoric in the Univerlity of Paris.

. . . D.

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