Sidor som bilder

iii. 5 (Opp. t. i. p. 149, Redep. 309): Nos vero consequenter respondebimus, observantes regulam pietatis et dicentes: Quoniam non tunc primum, cum visibilem istum mundum fecit Deus, cœpit operari, sed sicut post corruptionem hujus erit alius mundus, ita et antequam hic esset, fuisse alios credimus. It might be questioned whether Origen, in the use of the pronoun "nos" in the subsequent part of the passage, intended to enforce his own belief as that of the Church, or whether he employed the plural number merely in his character as author; comp. Rössler, Bibliothek der Kirchenväter, i. s. 177, and Schnitzer, 1.c. s. 228 f. Comp. also Thomasius, s. 153 ff., 169 ff., Redep. ii. 292 ff. On the connection of Origen's doctrine of creation with his notion of the pre-existence and the fall of souls (§ 55, 63), see Baur, Dg. s. 537, and Möller, s. 554. This fall Origen sees in the biblical expression Kaτaßoλn Kooμov. But Origen does not understand by this the falling away of God from Himself. The world still remains the sphere of the divine power, and the manifestation of the divine love.

(10) Iren. ii. 28, p. 157 (ii. 47, p. 175, Grabe): Ut puta si quis interroget: Antequam mundum faceret Deus, quid agebat? dicimus: Quoniam ista responsio subjacet Deo. Quoniam autem mundus hic factus est apotelestos a Deo, temporale initium accipiens, Scripturæ nos docent; quid autem ante hoc Deus sit operatus, nulla scriptura manifestat. Subjacet ergo hæc responsio Deo. Respecting the important position which the doctrine of Irenæus concerning the creation of the world occupies in his theological system (in opposition to the Gnostics), see Duncker, s. 8.

In close connection with the creation of the world stands its preservation. As the world is created by the Logos, so its permanence is secured by Him. More especially is its preservation ascribed to the Spirit of God, as the Spirit of life. According to Theophilus (ad Autol. ii.), all creation is embraced by the πνεῦμα θεοῦ. Tatian distinguishes this cosmic πνεῦμα (πV. Vλkóv) from the Holy Ghost in the more strict sense of the word (Orat. ad Græc. 12). According to Athenagoras (Legat. 16), God Himself comes into immediate causative connection with the world. It was also common to regard the preservation of the world as under the care of the angels. Cf. Möller, 1.c. s. 174 ff.

§ 48.

Providence and Government of the World.

Though the doctrine that the world exists for the sake of the human race may degenerate into a selfish happiness scheme (eudemonistic egoism), yet it has a deeper ground in the consciousness of a specific distinction between man and all other creatures, at least on this earth, and is justified by hints in the sacred Scriptures (1). Accordingly, the primitive Christians considered creation as a voluntary act of divine. love, inasmuch as God does not stand in need of His creatures for His own glory (2). But man, as the end of creation (3), is also pre-eminently the subject of Divine Providence, and the whole vast economy of creation, with its laws and also its miracles, is made subservient to the higher purpose of the education of mankind. The Christian doctrine of providence, as held by the Fathers of the Church, in opposition to the objections of ancient philosophy (4), is remote, on the one hand, from Stoicism and the rigid dogma of an eiμapμévn held by the Gnostics (5), and, on the other, from the system of Epicurus, according to which it is unworthy of the Deity to concern Himself about the affairs of man (6). Yet here, again, the teachers of the Alexandrian school in particular endeavoured to avoid as much as possible the use of anthropomorphism (7) in connection with the idea that God takes care even of individuals, and to uphold in their theodicy the liberty of man (8), as well as the love and justice of God (9).

(1) Matt. vi. 26; 1 Cor. ix. 9, 10.

(2) Eg. Clement of Alex. Pæd. iii. 1. 250: 'Avevdens dè μόνος ὁ θεὸς καὶ χαίρει μάλιστα μὲν καθαρεύοντας ἡμᾶς ὁρῶν τῷ τῆς διανοίας κοσμῷ.

(3) Justin M. Apol. i. 10: Kaì пávта την ȧрxyv åɣaðòv ὄντα δημιουργῆσαι αὐτὸν ἐξ ἀμόρφου ὕλης δι' ἀνθρώπους dedidáyμela. Comp. Athen. De Resurr. c. 12: God, he says,

has made man, not διὰ χρείαν ἰδίαν; yet not μάτην, but δι' Eavτóv, i.e." He has created him, not in order to obtain something from him, but in order to give him something, and to make him participate in His own wisdom and goodness," Möller, 1.c. s. 144. Similarly Iren. v. 29. 1, iv. 5. 1, iv. 7. 4 (comp. Duncker, s. 78, 79). Tert. Advers. Marc. i. 13: Ergo nec mundus Deo indignus, nihil etenim Deus indignum se fecit, etsi mundum homini, non sibi fecit. Orig. Contra Cels. iv. 74, p. 558, 559, and ibid. 99, p. 576: Kéλoos μèv ovv λεγέτω, ὅτι οὖν ἀνθρώπῳ, ὡς οὐδὲ λέοντι, οὐδ ̓ οἷς ὀνομάζει. Ἡμεῖς δ ̓ ἐροῦμεν· Οὐ λέοντι ὁ δημιουργὸς, οὐδὲ ἀετῷ, οὐδὲ δελφίνι ταῦτα πεποίηκεν, ἀλλὰ πάντα διὰ τὸ λογικὸν ζῶον.

(4) See the objections of Cæcilius in Minucius Felix, c. 5 ff.; and, on the other hand, the oration of Octavius, c. 17, 18, 20, 32, and especially the beautiful passage, c. 33: Nec nobis de nostra frequentia blandiamur; multi nobis videmur, sed Deo admodum pauci sumus. Nos gentes nationesque distinguimus: Deo una domus est mundus hic totus. Reges tantum regni sui per officia ministrorum universa novere: Deo indiciis non opus est; non solum in oculis ejus, sed et in sinu vivimus. Comp. Athen. Leg. c. 22, in calce. It has, however, been correctly remarked, that "in all ages of the Church the doctrine of providence has not been so much doctrinally developed as set forth apologetically, and for edification," Kahnis, Kirchengl. s. 47.

(5) On the opinion of the Gnostic Bardesanes respecting the eiμapuévn (fate) and the influence of stars, comp. Photius, Bibl. Cod. 223. Euseb. Præp. vi. 10. Neander, Gnostische Systeme, s. 198. [Neander: "He (Bardesanes), therefore, although, like many of those who inclined to Gnosticism, he busied himself with astrology, contended against the doctrine of such an influence of the stars (eipapμévn) as should be supposed to settle the life and affairs of man by necessity. Eusebius, in his great literary treasure-house, the Præparatio Evangelica, has preserved a large fragment of this remarkable work; he here introduces, among other things, the Christians dispersed over so many countries, as an example of the absurdity of supposing that the stars irresistibly influenced the character of a people."] Baur, Gnosis, s. 234, Dg. s. 539. C. Kühner, Astronomiæ et Astrologiæ in doctrina Gnostic.

Vestigia, P. I. Bardesanis Gnostici numina astralia, Hildburg. 1833. As to how far Bardesanes is the author of the "Dialogue on Fate," published as the "book of the laws of the lands" (Syr. in Cureton's Spicileg. Syriacum, Lond. 1855, and in Germ. by Merx, Halle 1863), see Hilgenfeld, Bardesanes der letzte Gnostiker, Leipz. 1864, who opposes it, and (s. 29 ff.) gives a sketch of the doctrine of Bardesanes on his astrological fatalism in particular, cf. s. 56 ff. If the dialogue were genuine, Bardesanes would have to be reckoned among the opponents rather than the defenders of fatalism. On the relation of the dialogue to the Recognitions of the pseudo-Clement, see s. 123 ff. [Comp. also Gieseler, l.c. i. § 49, note 2, and Burton, Lect. on Ecclesiast. hist., Lect. xx. p. 182, 183.]

(6) Comp. especially the objections of Celsus in the work of Origen: God interferes as little with the affairs of man as with those of monkeys and flies, etc., especially in lib. iv. Though Celsus was not a disciple of Epicurus, as Origen and Lucian would have him to be, but rather a follower of Plato (according to Neander), yet these expressions savour very much of Epicureanism. [Comp. Lardner, Works, vii. 211, 212.]

(7) According to Clement, there is no antagonism of the whole and its parts in the sight of God (comp. also Minuc. Felix, note 4): Αθρόως τε γὰρ πάντα καὶ ἕκαστον ἐν μέρει μια προσβολῇ προσβλέπει, Strom. vi. p. 821. Comp. the work of Origen, Contra Cels.

(8) The doctrine of the concursus, as it was afterwards termed, is found in Clem. Strom. vi. 17, p. 821 ss. Many things owe their existence to human calculation, though they are kindled by God, as if by lightning (Tǹv ěvavow eiλnþóra). Thus health is preserved by medical skill, the carriage of the body by fencing, riches by the industrial art (xpημATIOTIKỲ τέχνη); but the divine πρόνοια and human συνέργεια always work together.

(9) Comp. § 39, note 8. In opposition to the Gnostics, who derived evil, not from the supreme God, but from the demiurge, Irenæus observes, Adv. Hær. iv. 39, p. 285 (iv. 76, p. 380 Gr.), that, through the contrast of good and evil in the world, the former shines more brightly. Spirits, he further remarks, may exercise themselves in distinguishing between good and evil; how could they know the former without


having some idea of its opposition? But, in a categorical manner, he precludes all further questions: Non enim tu Deum facis, sed Deus te facit. Si ergo opera Dei es, manum artificis tui expecta, opportune omnia facientem: opportune autem, quantum ad te attinet, qui efficeris. Præsta autem ei cor tuum molle et tractabile, et custodi figuram, qua te figuravit artifex, habens in temetipso humorem, ne induratus amittas vestigia digitorum ejus. . . . And further on: Si igitur tradideris ei, quod est tuum, i.e. fidem in eum et subjectionem, recipies ejus artem et eris perfectum opus Dei. Si autem non credideris ei et fugeris manus ejus, erit causa imperfectionis in te qui non obedisti, sed non in illo, qui vocavit, etc. At all events, the best and soundest theodicy! Athenagoras (Leg. c. 24) derives the disorders of the world from the devil and demons (comp. § 51); and Cyprian (Ad Demetrianum) from the very constitution of the world, which begins to change, and is approaching its dissolution. To a speculative mind like that of Origen, the existence of evil would present a strong stimulus to attempt to explain its origin, though he could not but be aware of the difficulties with which this subject is beset. Comp. especially De Princip. ii. 9 (Opp. i. p. 97, Redep. 214; Schnitzer, 140); Contra Celsum, iv. 62, p. 551 (an extract of which is given by Rössler, i. 232). Different reasons are adduced in vindication of the existence of evil in the world; thus it serves to exercise the ingenuity of man (power of invention, etc.); but he draws special attention to the connection between moral and physical imperfections, evil and sin. Comp. the opinion of Thomasius on the theodicy of Origen, s. 57, 58.

$ 49.

Angelology and Demonology.

Suicer, Thesaurus, s. v. ayyidos. Cotta, Disputationes 2, succinctam Doctrinæ Angelis Historiam exhibentes, Tüb. 1865, 4to. Schmid, Hist. dogm. de Angelis tutelaribus, in Illgens histor. theol. Abhandlungen, i. s. 24-27. Keil, De Angelorum malorum et Dæmoniorum Cultu apud Gentiles, Opusc. Acad. p. 584-601. (Gaab), Abhandlungen zur Dogmengeschichte der ältesten griechischen Kirche, Jena 1790, s. 97-136. Usteri, Paulin. Lehrbegriff, 4 Ausg. Anhang 3, s. 421 ff.-[Dr. L. Mayer, Scriptural Idea of Angels, in Amer. Biblic. Reposit. xii. 356-388. Moses Stuart,

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