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Th. Ittig, de Hæresiarchis Evi Apostolici, Lips. 1690, 1703, 4to. [Edw. Burton, Theolog. Works, vol. iii.: The Bampton Lecture on the Heresies of the Apostolic Age, Oxf. 1837. Comp. the introduction where the literature is given. Lardner's Hist. of Heretics. Sartori, Die . . . Secten. 1855. J. B. Marsden, Christ. Churches and Sects, 2 vols. 1854, 59. G. Volkmar, Die Quellen der Ketzergesch. 1855.]

Every departure from the apostolic canon of doctrine was considered, in relation to the Church, as alpeois, heresy (1). Even in the apostolic age we find false teachers, some of whom are mentioned in the New Testament itself (2), others in the works of early ecclesiastical writers (3). Concerning their personal history and doctrine many points are still involved in obscurity, which, in the absence of trustworthy historical evidence, cannot be easily and satisfactorily cleared up.

(1) Αἵρεσις (from αἱρεῖσθαι) and σχίσμα were at first synonymous (1 Cor. xi. 18, 19), but in later times the one was used to denote a separation in doctrine, the other to designate a disruption in consequence of differences of opinion concerning liturgy, discipline, or ecclesiastical polity. The word a peois did not originally imply blame; it is used in the New Test. as a vox media; comp. Acts v. 17, xv. 5, xxv. 5. [Burton, 1.c. p. 8.] Ecclesiastical writers themselves call Christianity a secta (Tertull. Apol. i. 1, and in many other places); and even Constantine gives the Catholic Church the name αἵρεσις (Euseb. x. c. 5). On the contrary, in Gal. v. 20, the same term is used in connection with ἐριθεῖαι, διχοστασίαι, etc., comp. 2 Pet. ii. 1 (yevdodidáσкaλoi). Synonymous terms are: ἑτεροδιδασκαλία, 1 Tim. i. 3, vi. 3; ψευδώνυμος γνῶσις, ch. vi. 20 ; ματαιολογία, ch. i. 6 ; the adject. αἱρετικός, Tit. iii. 10. Comp. Wetstein, N. T. ii. 147. Suicer, Thesaurus, sub voce. On the various etymologies of the German word Ketzer (Ital. Gazzari, whether from kalapós, or from the Chazares-like bougre from the Bulgares? or even from Katz ?),

comp. Mosheim, Unparteiische und gründliche Ketzergeschichte, Helmst. 1746, s. 357 ff., and Wackernagel, Altdeutsches Lesebuch, 1675; Jac. Grimm's review of Kling's edition of Berthold's sermons, in the Wiener Jahrb. Bd. xxxviii. s. 216. On the service which heresies may render to science, Orig. Hom. 9, in Num. Opp. t. ii. p. 296, says: "Nam si doctrina ecclesiastica simplex esset et nullis intrinsecus hæreticorum dogmatum assertionibus cingeretur, non poterat tam clara et tam examinata videri fides nostra. Sed idcirco doctrinam catholicam contradicentium obsidet oppugnatio; ut fides nostra non otio torpescat, sed exercitiis elimetur." Comp. August. De Civit. Dei, xviii. c. 51.

(2) On the different parties in the Church of Corinth (which, however, caused only schisms in, but not separations from the Church), comp. Dan. Schenkel, de Ecclesia Corinthia primæva factionibus turbata, Bas. 1838. F. Ch. Baur, die Christuspartei. [Billroth, Comment. on the Corinth., transl. by Alexander, i. p. 11. Hilgenfeld, Hist. Crit. Einleitung ins N. T. 1875, s. 260 ff. W. L. Alexander, in Kitto, Cyclop. of Bibl. Lit. Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, sub voce.] With respect to the heretics mentioned in the New Testament, the attention of critics has chiefly been directed to those alluded to in the Epistle to the Colossians and in the pastoral Epistles. Concerning the former (were they theosophic Jewish Essenes, or Jewish Christians?), comp. Schneckenburger in the appendix to his treatise on the Proselytentaufe, p. 213. Böhmer, Isagoge in Epist. a Paulo ad Coloss. datam (1829), s. 131. Neander, Apostolische Gesch. ii. [Alexander, in Kitto, 1.c. sub voce. Especially see Dissertation in Lightfoot, Comm. on Ep. to Coloss. 1875, pp. 73-113.] Among the latter, Hymenæus and Philetus only are mentioned by name as denying the doctrine of resurrection, 2 Tim. ii. 17, 18. [Burton, 1.c. s. 135 ff. Ryland, in Kitto, 1.c. sub voce.] But the inquiry relative to the character of these heretics is intimately connected with the critical examination of the Epistles themselves. Comp. F. Ch. Baur, die sogenannten Pastoral briefe des Apostels Paulus, aufs neue kritisch untersucht, Stuttg. 1835. On the other side: Mich. Baumgarten, die Aechtheit der Pastoralbriefe, Berlin 1837; comp. also the reply of Baur in his treatise, Ueber den Ursprung

Comp. also Schwegler, [Alexander, in Kitto,

des Episcopats, Tüb. 1838, p. 14 ff. 1.c., and Dietlcin, Urchristenthum. 1.c., art. Timothy, Titus. C. E. Scharling, die neuesten Untersuchungen über die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe. Aus dem Dänischen übersetzt, Jena 1845.] Concerning the Nicolaitans, Rev. ii. 6, 15, and those who held the doctrine of Balaam, Rev. ii. 14 (comp. Iren. i. 26, and the erroneous derivation from Nicholas, Acts vi. 5), see the commentaries on the Book of Revelation [comp. Davidson, in Kitto, 1.c.] (Ewald, p. 110). Neander, Kg. i. 2, s. 774 ff. [Gieseler, i. 88. Burton, 1.c. Lect. v. p. 145 ff. Lee, in Kitto, 1.c. Schaff, p. 671. Stuart, Comm. on the Apoc. ii. p. 62 ff. Trench on the Epp. to the Seven Churches, in loc.]

(3) The heresiarch Simon Magus, who is described in the New Testament (Acts viii.) as a man of an immoral character, but not as a heretic, is nevertheless represented by Clem. Al. (Strom. ii. 11, vii. 17) and Orig. (Contra Cels. i. p. 57) as the founder of a sect; by Irenæus (Adv. Hær. i. 23, 24) and Epiphanius (Hær. 21), even as the author of all heresies. Concerning his adventures and disputation with Peter, many fictitious stories were current among the earlier writers (see the Clementine Homilies, and Justin M. Apol. i. c. 56).-On Simon Magus and the two Samaritans Dositheus and Menander (Euseb. iii. 26), comp. Neander, i. 2. 779. [Burton, 1.c. Lect. iv. s. 87-118, and note 40. By the same: Lectures on the Ecclesiast. Hist. of the First Cent. s. 77 ff. Schaff, 215, 376, 655. Gieseler, i. 56, § 18, note 8, where the literature is given. Alexander, in Kitto, lc.] Marheineke in Daub's Studien, 1.c. s. 116. Dorner says, 1.c. s. 144: The accounts given of Simon Magus, Menander, and Dositheus, who have become almost mythical, at least prove that in Syria Gnostic tendencies made their appearance at an early period." [Volkmar, Simon Magus, in Theol. Jahrbücher, 1856, Heft 2.] The assertion of Hegesippus (Euseb. iii. 32, iv. 22), that the Church had not been stained with any heresy previous to the time of Trajan (παρθένος καθαρὰ καὶ ἀδιάφθορος ἔμεινεν ἡ ékkλŋola), is not to be understood as if no heresies at all existed, but that, till the death of Simon (A.D. 108), the poison of heresies had not penetrated into the Church. The judgment of Hegesippus, too, refers to the locality of



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Comp. Vatke in Jahrb. f. wiss. Kritik, 1839,

s. 9 ff. Dorner, 1.c. 223. Mangold, Die Irrlehren d. Pastoralbriefe, Marburg 1856, s. 108 ff.

§ 22.

Judaism and Ethnicism.

There were two errors which the new-born Christianity had to guard against, if it was not to lose its own peculiar religious character and disappear in one of the already existing religions: against a relapse into Judaism on the one side, and against a mixture with paganism and speculations borrowed from it, and a mythologizing tendency on the other. Accordingly the earliest heresies, of which we have any trustworthy accounts, appear either as Judaizing or as ethnicizing (Hellenizing) tendencies. But as Jewish and pagan elements were blended with each other at the time of the rise of Christianity, manifold modifications, and transitions from the one to the other, would be likely to occur.

Concerning the different forms of heathenism (occidental and oriental), as well as the earlier and later periods of the Jewish dispensation, comp. Dorner, Entwicklungsgeschichte der Lehre von der Person Christi, s. 4 ff. [Trench, Hulsean Lectures on the Unconscious Prophecies of Heathenism, various editions. Maurice, The Religions of the World, 1853.]

§ 23.

Ebionites and Cerinthus.

Doceto and Gnostics.

Lequien, Dissertatio de Nazarenis necnon de Ebionitis (in Vogt's Bibliotheca, ii. 1, 1729). Doederlein, De Ebionitis, Butsov. et Wismar. 1770.] *Gieseler, von den Nazaräern und Ebioniten, in Stäudlin's und Tzschirner's Archiv. Bd. iv. st. 2. Credner, über Essäer und Ebioniten und einen theilweisen Zusammenhang derselben (in Winer's Zeitschrift für wissenschaftl. Theol. 1827, Heft 2 and 3). Lobeg. Lange, Beiträge zur ältern Kirchen.

geschichte, Leipzig 1826, 1 Bd. Baur, De Ebionitarum Origine et Doctrina ab Essenis repetenda, Tüb. 1831. Schneckenburger, Beiträge zur Einleitung ins Neue Testament, Stuttg. 1832. A. Schliemann, Die Clementinen nebst den verwandten Schriften und der Ebionitismus, ein Beitrag zur Kirchen- und Dogmengeschichte der ersten Jahrhunderte, Hamb. 1844. Schwegler, ubi supra. A. Hilgenfeld, die Clement. Recognitionen und Homilien, Jena 1848. [Bunsen's Hippolytus, vol. iii. A. Ritschl in Allg. Monatsschrift, Jen. 1852. Hilgenfeld in the (Tübingen) Theol. Jahrb. 1854. Clementinorum Epitomæ Duæ, ex Tischendorf (ed. A. R. H. Dressel), Leipz. 1859. Rossel's Theologische Schriften, Bd. i. Clement. Homiliæ, ed. Dressel, 1853.] Schmidt, Cerinth, ein Judaisirender Christ, in his Bibliothek für Kritik und Exegetik, Bd. i. s. 181 ff. Paulus, Historia Cerinthi, in Introduct. in N. Test. Capit. selectiora, Jen. 1799. A. H. Niemeyer, De Docetis, Hal. 1823, 4to. Lewald, De Doctrina Gnostica, Heidelberg 1819. F. Lücke in the Theologische Zeitschrift, Berlin 1820, Heft 2, s. 132. *Neander, Genet. Entwicklung der vornehmsten gnostischen Systeme, Berlin 1818. Matter, Histoire Critique du Gnosticisme, Paris 1828, 2 vols. [2d ed. 1840. Gieseler, review of Neander, in the Hall. Lit. Zeitung, 1823, and of Matter in the Stud. u. Krit. 1830] +Möhler, Ursprung d. Gnosticismus, Tüb. 1831. [Lutterbeck, Neutest. Lehrbegriffe, Bd. ii. s. 3-79.] *Baur, Christliche Gnosis, oder die christliche Religionsphilosophie in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung, Tüb. 1835. Same Christenthum u. die Kirchengesch. der 3 ersten Jahrhunderte. Jacobi in Herzog, v. 204. *R. A. Lipsius, der Gnosticismus, sein Wesen, Ursprung u. Entwicklungsgang, Leipz. 1860. A. Hilgenfeld, Bardesanes der letzte Gnostiker, Leipz. 1864. Möller, Geschichte der Kosmologie. Comp. Gieseler, i. § 43 ff. Neander, i. 344–50, 396-99, 630. Hase, §§ 35, 75. Schleiermacher, Geschichte der Philosophie, s. 160-65. Schaff, 635. The articles in Herzog's Real-Encyklopädie. [See especially, Dean Mansel, The Gnostic Heresies, London 1875.]

The Judaizing tendency was chiefly represented by the Ebionites (1), of whom the Nazarenes (2) were a variety more nearly approaching the orthodox faith, and with whom were connected other Judaizing sects of a more indefinite character (3). Cerinthus (4) also belonged to this tendency, and makes the transition to that form of Judaism, blended with heathen Gnosis, which we find represented in the so-called Clementine Homilies (5). A strict opposition to the Jewish - Ebionitic tendency manifested itself first in the Doceto (6), and afterwards in various ramifications of the Gnostics (7). Of the latter, some were more sharply opposed to Judaism (8), others even returned to Ebionitish errors (9), while Marcion, who occupied a peculiar position, endeavoured to go beyond the antagonism between Judaism and heathenism; but, despising

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