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paganism. "Common to all Gnostic sects is their opposition to that merely empirical faith with which they charge the Church, as being founded on authority alone." Dorner, s. 353. [Further particulars will be found in the special history of heresies (coinp. § 6), and in the history of the particular systems of Basilides (A.D. 125-140), Valentinus (140-160), the Ophites, Carpocrates and Epiphanes, Saturninus, Cerdo, Marcion (150), Bardesanes (170), etc.] The element of knowledge (the speculative) in religion is with it the chief matter; and so far it has its correlate in the Jewish law-works (Dorner, s. 354). On the great importance of Gnosticism in the development of theological science and of ecclesiastical art, see Dorner, s. 355 ff. On particular points, see further, Gundert, Das System des Gnostikers Basilides, in Zeitschrift f. d. luth. Theol., Bd. vi. and vii.; Uhlhorn, Das Basilidianische System mit Rücksicht auf die Angaben des Hippolytus dargestellt, Götting. 1855. A. Hilgenfeld, Bardesanes, der letzte Gnostiker, Leipz. 1864.

[Hilgenfeld on Basilides, in the Theol. Jahrb. 1856, and Baur, ibid. 1856. J. L. Jacobi, Basilidis . . . Sententiæ ex Hippolyti libro, Berol. 1852. Pistis Sophia, Opus Gnosticum Valentino adjudicatum e codice Ms. Coptico. . . ed. J. H. Petermann, Berol. 1852; comp. Köstlin in Theol. Jahrb. 1854. Colorbasus-Gnosis (the Valentinian Kol-arbas), Volkmar in Zeitschrift f. d. hist. Theol. 1855. On Bardesanes in Cureton's Spicilegium Syriac., see Journal of Sacred Lit. 1856. Die Philosophumena und die Pertaten (Ophites), R. Baxmann in Zeitschrift f. d. hist. Theol. 1860. On the general subject, comp. Bunsen's Hippolytus, and especially Niedner in his Gesch. d. Kirche, s. 217-253. Niedner's division is the best-1. Most numerous (in Valentinus and others); Christianity has the primacy, but other religions, Jewish and heathen, are different degrees of the development of the true religion. 2. (Marcion) Christianity sundered from its historical connections; the only revelation. 3. A syncretism, identifying heathenism and Christianity (Carpocrates), or Judaism and heathenism (the Clementines). Gnosticism is an attempt at a philosophy of religion, identifying the history of the world and the history of religion. Comp. Neander's Dogmengesch. i. 43-59.]

(9) Comp. Dorner, I. i. s. 391 ff.

(10) Ibid. s. 381 ff. [Ritschl, d. Evang. Marcions, 1847: Volkmar, cf. Gersdorf Rep. 1852. Franck, d. Evang. M. in Stud. u. Kritiken, 1855. Hilgenfeld, Das Apostolikon Marcions, in Zeitschrift f. d. hist. Theol. 1855.]



§ 24.

Montanism and Monarchianism.

Wernsdorf, de Montanistis, Gedani 1751, 4to. Kirchner, de Montanistis, Jen. Heinichen, de Alogis, Theodotianis, Artemonitis, Lips. 1829. * A. Ritschl, Entstehung der altkath. Kirche, 2d ed. Bonn 1857. F. C. Baur, Das Wesen des Mont., in Zeller's Jahrb. 1851, s. 538 ff. Gieseler, Hippolytus, die Monarchianer, und d. romische Kirche, in Stud. u. Krit. 1853. F. C. Schwegler, der Montanismus und die christliche Kirche des zweiten Jahrhunderts, Tüb. 1841-48. [Hase, § 67. Niedner, 253 ff. Möller in Herzog's Realencyk. ix. s. 758.]

Besides the antagonism between Judaism and Ethnicism, another might be formed on the basis of the general Christian system; and its opposite extremes likewise run out into heretical tendencies. In the establishment of the peculiar doctrines of the religion of Christ, questions necessarily arose, not only concerning the relation of Christianity to former historical forms of religion, but also respecting its relation to the nature of man and his general capacities of knowledge. Two opposite tendencies might ensue. On the one hand, an exaggerated supernaturalism might manifest itself, passing the boundaries of the historical revelation, making the essence of the inspiration of the Spirit to consist in extraordinary excitement, interrupting the course of the historical development, and endeavouring to keep up a permanent disagreement between the natural and the supernatural. This is seen in what is called Montanism (1), which took its rise in Phrygia. On the other hand, an attempt might be made to fill the chasm between the natural and the supernatural, by trying to explain the miracles and mysteries of the faith, adapting them to the understanding, and thus leading to a critico-sceptical

rationalism. This appears in one class of the Monarchians (Alogi?) (2), whose representatives in the first period are Theodotus and Artemon (3). The Monarchians, Praxeas, Noetus, and Beryllus (4), differ from the preceding in having more profound views of religion, and form the transition to Sabellianism, which we shall have to consider in the following period, as introducing a new (more speculative) mode of thought.

(1) Montanus of Phrygia (in which country the fanatical worship of Cybele prevailed from an early period) made his appearance as a prophet (the Paraclete) about the year 170, in Ardaban, on the frontiers of Phrygia and Mysia, and afterwards in Pepuza. He was distinguished rather as an enthusiastic and eccentric character, than for any particular doctrinal heresy; and thus he is the forerunner of all the fanaticism which pervades the history of the Church. "If any doctrine was dangerous to Christianity, it was that of Montanus. Though noted in other respects only for a strict external morality, and agreeing with the Catholic Church in all its doctrines, he yet attacked the fundamental principle of orthodoxy. For he regarded Christianity, not as complete, but as allowing and even demanding and promising further revelations, as in the words of Jesus concerning the Paraclete." Marheineke (in Daub and Creuzer's Studien), s. 150, where he also points out the contradiction in which the earnest and positive Tertullian involved himself by joining this sect. Millenarianism, which the Montanists professed, was in accordance with their carnallyminded tendency. In this respect they were allied to the Ebionites (Schwegler). Notwithstanding their anti - Gnostic tendencies, they agree with the Gnostics in going beyond the simple faith of the Church; but still, their eccentricities were seen not so much in speculation as in practical Christianity. Yet Montanism could not keep clear of Gnosticism; but here its peculiarity consists in the position, that this gnosis is attained, not by man's faculty of thought, but in an ecstatic state. "Catholic truth is an evenly flowing stream, gradually swelling from many tributaries; the Montanistic illumination is a spring, suddenly gushing up from the ground; the former is conditioned by the idea of a complex continuity, the latter

clings to a disconnected and atomistic view of spiritual influences." Schwegler, s. 105. This sect (called also Cataphrygians, Pepuzians) existed down to the sixth century, though condemned by ecclesiastical synods. On its connection with the general tendencies of the time, see Baur (ubi supra). This does not interfere with a recognition of the individuality of Montanus as an essential element (Neander describes him from this point of view). Sources: Eusebius (following Apollonius), v. 18. Epiphanius, Hæres. 48. Neander, ii. 8. 871 ff. Neander's Dogmengesch. s. 49 (against Baur).

(2) This term occurs in Epiph. Hær. 51 as a somewhat ambiguous paronomasia on the word Logos (men void of understanding notwithstanding their understanding!), because the Alogi rejected the doctrine concerning the Logos, and the Gospel of John in which it is principally set forth, as well as the book of Revelation, and the millenarian notions which it was used to vindicate. It may be generalized in dogmatic usage so as to be applied to all those who rejected the idea of the Logos, or so misunderstood it, as either to regard Christ as a mere man, or, if they ascribed a divine nature to Christ, identified it with that of the Father. It is difficult to decide to which of these two classes the proper Alogi mentioned by Epiphanius belong, comp. Heinichen, l.c.; on the other hand, Dorner, s. 500, defends them from the charge of denying Christ's divinity, and considers them as being the point of departure for the twofold shape in which Monarchianism showed itself. At all events, we must not lose sight of these two classes of Monarchians (comp. Neander, Kg. i. 3, s. 990 ff.; Antignostikus, s. 474. Schwegler, Montanismus, s. 268; Dorner, 1.c.), though it is difficult to make a precise distinction between the one and the other.

(3) Theodotus, a worker in leather (ó σKUTEús) from Byzantium, who resided at Rome about the year 200, maintained that Christ (though born of a virgin) was merely a man; and was excommunicated by the Roman bishop Victor, Euseb. v. 28. Theodoret, Fab. Hær. ii. 5. Epiph. Hær. 54 (àтóσжаσμа τῆς ἀλόγου αἱρέσεως). He must not be confounded with another Theodotus (Tраπeliтns), who was connected with a party of the Gnostics, the Melchisedekites. Theodor. Fab. Hær. II. 6. Dorner, s. 505 ff. Artemon (Artemas) charged

the successor of Victor, the Roman bishop Zephyrinus, with having corrupted the doctrine of the Church, and smuggled in the doctrine of the divinity of Christ. Comp. Neander, i. 998. See § 46, below. Heinichen, 1.c. s. 26, 27. [Burton, Lectures on the Ecclesiast. Hist. of the Second and Third Cent. p. 211 ff., 236 ff., 265 ff., 387, and Bampton Lect., notes 100 and 101.] The prevailing rationalistic tendency of this sect (pseudo-Rationalism) may be seen from Euseb. 1.c. ii. p. 139 (Heinichen). Οὐ τί αἱ θεῖαι λέγουσι γραφαὶ ζητοῦντες ἀλλ ̓ ὁποῖον σχῆμα συλλογισμοῦ εἰς τὴν τῆς ἀθεότητος εὑρεθῇ σύστασιν, φιλοπόνως ἀσκοῦντες . . . καταλιπόντες δὲ τὰς ἁγίας τοῦ θεοῦ γραφὰς, γεωμετρίαν ἐπιτηδεύουσιν, ὡς ἂν ἐκ τῆς γῆς ὄντες καὶ ἐκ τῆς γῆς λαλοῦντες καὶ τὸν ἄνωθεν ἐρχόμενον ἀγνοοῦντες. The homage they rendered to Euclid, Aristotle, Theophrastus, and Galen, ôs tows VπÓ TIVWV Kai προσκυνεῖται.

(4) Praxeas, from Asia Minor, had gained under Marcus Aurelius the reputation of a confessor of Christianity, but was charged by Tertullian with Patripassianism, and combated by him. Tertull. Advers. Praxeam, lib. II. Noëtus, at Smyrna, about the year 230, was opposed by Hippolytus on account of similar opinions. Hippol. contra Hæresin Noëti. Theodoret, Fab. Hær. iii. 3; Epiph. Hær. 57.-As to Beryllus, bishop of Bostra, in Arabia, whom Origen compelled to recant, Euseb. vi. 33; comp. Ullmann, de Beryllo Bostreno, Hamb. 1835, 4to. Studien und Kritiken, 1836, part 4, s. 1073 (comp. §§ 42 and 46). [For Praxeas, see Burton, 1c. p. 221 ff., 234 ff. Noëtus, Burton, 1.c. p. 312, 364.-Beryllus, Burton, l.c. p. 312, 313. Schleiermacher, Kirchengesch. 131 ff., 154. Baur, Dreieinigkeit, i. 132-341, and in the Jahrb. f. Theologie, 1845. Bunsen's Hippolytus.]

§ 25.

The Catholic Doctrine.

The Catholic doctrine (1) was developed in opposition to the heresies. While the orthodox teachers endeavoured to avoid heretical errors, and to preserve the foundation laid by Christ

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