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and His apostles, by holding fast to the pure tradition, they yet could not wholly free themselves from the influence which the civilization of the age, personal endowments, and preponderating mental tendencies have ever exerted upon the formation of religious ideas and conceptions. On this account we find in the Catholic Church the same contrasts, or at least similar diversities and modifications, as among the heretics, though they manifest themselves in a milder and less offensive form. Here, too, is, on the one hand, a firm, sometimes painful adherence to external rites and historical tradition, akin to legal Judaism (positive tendency), combined in some cases, as in that of Tertullian, with the Montanist tendency. On the other hand, we find a more free and flexible tendency allied to the Hellenistic; sometimes more ideal and speculative, akin to Gnosticism (the true gnosis contrasted with the false), and, again, critico-rationalistic, like Monarchianism, even when not identical with it (2).

(1) On the term Catholic in opposition to Heretic, see Suicer, Thesaurus, sub voce kaloλikós, comp. ¿płodocia. Bingham, Origg. Eccles. i. 1, sec. 7. Vales. ad Euseb. vii. 10, tom. ii. p. 333: "Ut vera et genuina Christi ecclesia ab adulterinis Hæreticorum cœtibus distingueretur, catholicæ cognomen soli Orthodoxorum ecclesiæ attributum est."-Concerning the negative and practical, rather than theoretical, character of earlier orthodoxy, see Marheineke (in Daub und Creuzer), 1.c. s. 140 ff.

(2) This was the case, e.g., with Origen, who now and then shows sobriety of understanding along with gnostic speculation. On the manner in which the philosophizing Fathers were able to reconcile gnosis with paradosis (disciplina arcani), comp. Marheineke, 1.c. s. 170.

§ 26.

The Theology of the Fathers.

Steiger, La Foi de l'Eglise Primitive d'après les Ecrits des premiers Pères, in the Mélanges de Théologie Réformée, edited by himself and Hävernick, Paris 1833, 1er cahier. Dorner, 1.c. Schwegler, Nachapostolisches Zeit

alter. A. Hilgenfeld, Die Apostolischen Väter; Untersuchung über Inhalt und Ursprung der unter ihrem Namen erhaltenen Schriften, Halle 1853. [Patrum Apostol. Opera, ed. Cotelerius and Clericus, Amst. 1724. Gebhardt, Harnack, and Zahn, Leipz. 1876-78; Hefele and Funk, Tübing. 1878. J. H. B. Lübkert, Theol. d. Apost. Väter, in Zeitschrift f. d. Hist. Theol. 1854. Hilgenfeld, Das Urchristenthum, in Zeitschrift f. wiss. Theol. 1858. E. de Pressensé, Hist. des trois premiers Siècles de l'Eglise Chrétienne, 2 vols. Paris 1858. J. J. Blunt, Lectures on Study of Early Fathers, 2d ed. 1856; ibid. Right Use of Fathers, 1858. Ginoulhiac, Hist. du Dogme Cathol. dans les trois prem. Siècles, 2 vols. Paris 1850. E. Reuss, Hist. de la Théol. Chrét., 2 vols. 1853, 3d ed. 1864. Ritschl, Die Altkath. Kirche, 2d ed. 1857. Joh. Huber, Phil. d. Kirchen Väter, 1859. Abbé Frepel, Les Pères Apostoliques et leur Epoque, Paris 1859. Donaldson, Apostolic Fathers, Camb. 1864, 77; Lightfoot, Ep. of Clement, Camb. 1869, 77. Apost. Fathers in Clark's Ante-Nicene Lib., Edin. 1867.]

While the so-called apostolical Fathers (with few exceptions) were distinguished for their direct practical and edifying tendency, preserving and continuing the apostolic tradition (1), the philosophizing tendency allied to Hellenism was in some measure represented by the apologists, Justin Martyr (2), Tatian (3), Athenagoras (4), Theophilus of Antioch (5), and Minucius Felix (6), in the West. On the contrary, Irenæus (7), as well as Tertullian (8), and his disciple Cyprian (9), firmly adhered to the positive dogmatic theology and the compact realism of the Church, the former in a milder and more considerate, the latter in a severe, sometimes in a stiff and sombre manner. Clement (10) and Origen (11), both belonging to the Alexandrian school, chiefly developed the speculative aspect of theology. But these contrasts are only relative; for we find, e.g., that Justin Martyr manifests both a leaning toward Hellenism and also a Judaizing tendency; that the idealism and criticism of Origen are now and then accompanied with a surprising adherence to the letter; and that Tertullian, notwithstanding his anti-Gnosticism, strives in a remarkable way after philosophical ideas.

(1) The name Patres Apostolici is given to the Fathers of the first century, who were supposed to be disciples of the apostles. Concerning their personal history and writings, much must be left to conjecture and uncertainty.

1. Barnabas, known as the fellow-labourer of the Apostle Paul from Acts iv. 36 (Joses), ix. 27, etc. On the Epistle ascribed to him (formerly in part known only through a Latin translation, now since the publication of the Cod. Sinaiticus by Tischendorf, complete in the original), in which is shown a strong tendency to typical and allegorical interpretations,though in a quite different spirit from, e.g., the canonical Epistle to the Hebrews, opinions are still greatly divided; and as the very time of its composition is still uncertain, the arguments against its genuineness must be regarded as preponderating.-Comp. Ern. Henke, De Epistolæ quæ Barnabæ tribuitur Authentia, Jena 1827. Rördam, De Authent. Epist. Barnab., Hafn. 1828 (in favour of its genuineness). Ullmann, Studien und Kritiken, 1828, Ht. 2. Hug, Zeitschrift für ff.; Ht. 3, s. 208 ff.

das Erzbisth., Freiburg, Ht. 2, s. 132 * Hug (Zeitschrift für das Erzbisth., Freiburg, Ht. 2, s. 132 ff.; Ht. 3, s. 208 ff.). Against it, Twesten, Dogmatik, i. s. 101. Neander, i. s. 657: "A very different spirit breathes throughout it from that of an apostolical writer." Bleek, Einleitung in den Brief an die Hebräer, s. 416, note (undecided). Schenkel in the Studien u. Kritiken, x. s. 651 (adopting a middle course, and considering one part as genuine and another as interpolated); and on the other side C. T. Hefele, [Das Sendschreiben des Apostels Barnabas aufs Neue untersucht, übersetzt und erklärt, Tüb. 1840.-N. Lardner, Works, II. s. 17-20, iv. 105-108, v. 269-275 (for its authenticity). W. Cave, Lives of the most eminent Fathers of the Church, Oxford 1840, i. p. 90-105. Burton, Lectures on the Ecclesiastical History of the First Century (Works, iv. p. 164, 343) (against it), S. Davidson, Sacred Hermeneutics, Edinb. 1843, p. 71 (for it). William Lee, Discourses on the Inspiration of Holy Scripture, Appendix E, and Milligan in Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography, for its genuineness.] The subject has received a new treatment since the discovery of the Codex Sinaiticus. Comp. Hilgenfeld, 1c.; Weizsäcker, zur Kritik des Barnabasbriefs (Tüb. Univ. Programm, 1863); Volkmar (in Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift, viii. 4, s. 449): “ The latter retains (even according to the Sinaitic) the doctrinohistorical significance of an outpost of Gnosticism, standing close and almost forming a transition to it, and yet still untouched

by the peculiar, i.e. the consciously dualistic Gnosis." Editions (see under collective edd. of Ap. Fathers): Tischendorf (Cod. N. T. Sinaiticus, Petropoli 1862, Lips. 1863); Volkmar, Monumentum vetustatis Christianæ ineditum, Turici 1864, 4to (Univ. Prog.); Hilgenfeld, Barnabæ Epistola, integram Græce primum, ed. Lips. 1866. Same: Nov. Test. extra canonem receptum, fascic. 2.

2. Hermas (Rom. xvi. 14), whose Toμýv (Shepherd) in the form of visions enjoyed a high reputation in the second half of the second century, and was even quoted as Scripture (γραφή). Some critics ascribe the work in question to a later Hermas (Hermes), brother of the Roman bishop, Pius I., who lived about the year 150. Comp. Gratz, Disqu. in Past. Herm., Pt. 1, Bonn 1820, 4to. Jachmann, Der Hirte des Hermas, Königsb. 1835. "The immense difference between the apostolical writings and the immediate post - apostolic literature is more apparent in the work of Hermas than in any other;" Schliemann, Clement. s. 421. Schwegler, in his Nachapost. Zeitalter, s. 328 ff., judges differently. Comp. Dorner, s. 185 ff. There is a variety of opinion as to the relation of this work to Montanism, Ebionitism, and the Elkesaites; comp. Uhlhorn in Herzog's Realwörterb. On the manuscript discovered by Simonides, and published by Anger and Dindorf, 1856, see Uhlhorn, 1.c. Comp. below, note 6. Comp. on the whole question, Dr. Ernst Gaab, Der Hirte des Hermas, ein Beitrag zur Patristik, Basel 1866.

3. Clement of Rome (according to some, the fellow-labourer of Paul, mentioned Phil. iv. 3), one of the earliest bishops of Rome (Iren. iii. 3; Euseb. iii. 2. 13, 15). The first Epistle to the Corinthians, ascribed to him, is of dogmatic importance in relation to the doctrine of the resurrection. Editions: Clementis Romani quæ feruntur Homil. xx. nunc primum integræ, ed. Alb. R. M. Dressel, Gött. 1853. Comp. R. A. Lipsius, De Clem. Rom. Ep. ad Cor. priore, Lips. 1855. [E. Ecker, Disquisitio-de Cl. Rom. prior. ad Rom. Epist., Traj. ad Rhenum 1853.] The so-called second Epistle is evidently a homily by a later writer. [Lardner, l.c. ii. 33-35.] Comp. also Schneckenburger, Evangel. der Ægypter, s. 3, 13 ff., 28 ff. Schwegler, Nachapostolisches Zeitalter, s. 449; on the other side, Dorner, s. 143. [A most important addition has recently



been made to the writings of Clement. Until quite lately both Epistles were incomplete, the first lacking about onetenth of the whole, and the second fully two-fifths of the whole. In 1875 a complete Greek Ms. of the two Epistles was found at Constantinople, and about a year later a Syriac translation in Paris. The discovery has been of great service, not only in completing the works, but in helping to secure a more accurate text. It has also become clear, as had formerly been conjectured, that the so-called second Epistle is a homily. The new ed. of the Ap. Fathers by Gebhardt (1876) makes use of the Greek MS. Lightfoot's Appendix (1877) uses both the Greek and Syriac. A new edition by Hefele and Funk (1878) also gives the results of these discoveries.] From a dogmatic point of view, those writings would be of greatest importance which are now universally considered as suppositious, viz. the pseudo-Clementine Homilies (ouλíai Kλńμevтos, cf. § 23), the Recognitiones Clementis (avayvapioμoi), the Constitutiones Apostolicæ, and the Canones Apostolici; on the latter, comp. Krabbe, über den Ursprung und Inhalt der Apostol. Constit. des Clemen. Rom., Hamb. 1829; and † Drey, neue Untersuchungen über die Constitutiones und Canones der Apostol., Tüb. 1832. Uhlhorn, Die Homilien u. Recognitionen des Clem. Rom., Götting. 1854. [Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, Bd. i., and Eng. Tr. Hilgenfeld, Kritische Untersuchungen, 1850. E. Gundert in Zeitschrift f. d. Luth. Theol. 1853, 54. W. Cureton, Syriac version of Clem. Recognitions, Lond. 1849. G. Volkmar, Clem. von Rom. und d. nächste Folgezeit, in Theol. Jahrb. 1856. Clem. Rom. Epistolæ Binæ de Virginitate, ed. J. T. Beele, Lovan. 1856, comp. Theol. Quartalschrift, 1856. Lardner, ii. p. 29-35, 364– 378. Burton, 1.c. p. 342-344. Art. Apostolical Fathers, by Lightfoot, and Clemens. Rom., by Salmon in Smith's Dict. of Chr. Biog.]

4. Ignatius (Oeopópos), bishop of Antioch, concerning whose life comp. Euseb. iii. 36. On his journey to Rome, where he suffered martyrdom under Trajan (116),' he is said to have written seven Epistles to different Churches (Ephesus, Magnesia, Tralles, Rome, Philadelphia, Smyrna) and to Polycarp, which

1 [This is disputed by some writers of the critical school, who maintain that he was put to death at Antioch.]

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