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At page 19 the author exhibits his valuable opinions of the socalled dark

ages thus :
“ In those dark ages, known through after times

As learning's night, all ignorance and crimes.
Then social strife made civil union strong,
And private rectitude was public wrong,
And crime was sacred, guilt awoke no shame,

And superstition took religion's name.” Alas! poor dark ages! This production of an enlightened period must put you to shame!

On the Foundation of Morals. Four Sermons preached before the University of Cambridge, Nov. 1837. By the Rev. W. Whewell, Fellow and Tutor of

Trinity College. 8vo. pp. 88. THESE sermons are a vigorous effort on the part of their accomplished author to displace Paley's Moral Theology from the station it occupies among the prescribed studies of the university of Cambridge, and to prepare

the
way

for the introduction of a purer system of ethics, founded upon those principles which will be perhaps for many ages familiarly associated with the name of Bishop Butler.

The first two, after some preliminary observations upon the great importance that the practical principles imparted at Cambridge should be true, shew that the doctrine of an inherent moral sense is established by scripture, that it was not unknown to heathen philosophy, that it bears testimony to the moral attributes of God, that it possesses a distinct and peculiar character over other principles of action, authoritatively claiming to be the guide of life, and that, however it may require to be enlightened and instructed, it still supplies a basis on which may be reared a sound and consistent scheme of ethical science. The maintenance of these doctrines is concluded by a practical application of the subject. We are reminded that, to perceive these truths of our moral nature, we must carefully look for them; that the apprehension of duty, as the primary ground of conduct, may be apparently extinguished by perverse and vicious habits of thought and feeling ; that the fatalist, for instance, or he who professes to make selfishness his rule, or the disappointed searcher after mere enjoyment, have unfitted themselves for the attainment of this knowledge of their original constitution; and that for all there is but one appointed road in these inquiries. That those that do God's will shall know his way. The third sermon is intended to guard against misconceptions of what has been stated; it might be supposed that the motives supplied by revelation were not sufficiently kept in view; but while to do the will of God is the sum of our duty, as he is immutable holiness, that will must be coincident with right; while the final judgment is a warning, that judgment will be passed in righteousness, and the call which summons us to obey God's will is but the echo of the dictates of our conscience; and further, the very perplexity we are under, from a sense of our imperfect obedience to that law which is within us, prepares us for the great mystery of the gospel, salvation and deliverance through the

atonement of Christ. In the last discourse, the defectiveness of Paley's system is pretty severely animadverted on, with a view to induce the university no longer to sanction it; the consistency of such a system as might be framed upon the principles laid down, with all that is true in it, is pointed out; and the renewal and assistance promised in the scriptures to man's moral nature is beautifully and most fitly dwelt upon as that which is to complete the Christian view of man's conduct, encourage our efforts, and realize our hopes.

These sermons are forcibly written : perhaps the style strikes one occasionally as a little too flowery for the subject; but there will be few who will read them without interest, or without gratitnde to the author for the distinctness with which he has brought before them some of the most important truths with which their minds can be occupied.

In the preface, Mr. Whewell states his intention of shortly publishing an edition of some of Butler's sermons, arranged in sections for the facility of reference, with a few illustrations of his principles, collected from the writings of other authors.

The Law of the Mind and the Law of the Members. A Sermon preached before

the University of Oxford on St. Peter's Day, 1837; with Notes, and an Appendix, wherein the existence of an Innate Moral Faculty is maintained, and some Observations are offered on Mr. Woodgate's late Sermon. By Charles Henry

Crawfurd, M.A. Oxford: Talboys. pp. 99. A PLAIN and serious exhortation to zeal and watchfulness in ourspiritual warfare, grounded upon Rom. vii. 21-23, as representing the condition of all mankind. The appendix contains some observations on Locke's arguments for the non-existence of innate practical principles; and in the notes Mr. Crawfurd has brought together some interesting quotations from Aristotle and later moral writers. The passages objected to in Mr. Woodgate's sermon are those in which he states that the happiness which is the result of right action, “if sought on its own account, and not through inoral principle, must of necessity fail, not only of being obtained, but of being understood;" and “that none but one who is already a good man would form at all a correct notion of it; while to every one else, a description of it, if it could be given, would be distasteful and repulsive."

The Pope confounded, and his Kingdom exposed. By Martin Luther. Trans

lated by the Rev. Henry Cole. London: Nisbet. 8vo. pp. 180. It may be necessary to inform those readers of this book who are not acquainted with Luther's other works, that it is founded on a particular interpretation of a passage from the prophet Daniel, (viii. 23, 24, 25,) in which it is made strongly to prefigure the enormities of popery. Upon the merits of the original work nothing need be said, nor upon Mr. Cole's translation, as he has so often translated other works of Luther. But it is impossible to avoid making a few observations upon the translator's preface, in which he introduces subjects irrelevant to the matter, and, in the reviewer's opinion, very in

judicionsly. There are in it many violent passages not confined to popery, but launched forth against those who happen not to entertain the same views with the translator, who, however, does not himself appear to be quite a safe guide to sound opinions. He appears to refer with great satisfaction to a letter of his to the bishop of London, in which are suggested some alterations in the liturgy, &c.; and he makes the present preface a medium of advertising his other publications, both past and future.

Days of Darkness, and Other Poems. By the Rev. James Lawson, M.A.

London: Fellowes. 1838. 18mo. pp. 70. THESE poems, eleven in number, are written for times of affliction ; they are mostly addressed to the author's sister or to her husband. They are short, and one or two of them are pretty. There are also a dozen little poems upon different sacred subjects. Tastes differ so much in writings of this description, that it is scarcely possible to give an opinion upon them; though in some the sentiments are good, the versification is rather laboured. No. V., suggested by reading Matt. vii. 5, is one of the best.

Sermons. By the late Rev. Richard Moxon, Curate of Ilkestone, Derbyshire.

London : Hamilton, Adams, & Co. 1837. Post 8vo. pp. 260. This volume consists of eighteen sermons on various subjects. They are written in a clear and impressive style. They are more practical than doctrinal, and are sufficiently plain and simple for family reading, At the commencement of Sermon IV., Mat. xi. 54" The

poor

have the gospel preached to them,”-there is a very injudicious comparison of present and past times, giving out that the poor, a few years since, were looked on as mere clods of the valley, and treated as though they were of another species, and as though they had no kindred principles of immortality with those in the higher walks of life ; and taking far too much praise to the better dispositions manifested of late years.

They were published by subscription, agreeably with the wish of the parishioners of Ilkestone, of which place Mr. Moxon was curate twelve or thirteen years. There is a brief memoir written by his brother, by which it appears that Mr. Moxon was originally a Wesleyan, but that he early left that persuasion, and was ordained at Bishopthorpe to a church in Hull. He died in the 44th year of his age. In this memoir, there are given one or two of his own memoranda. One of these, upon his ordination, sets forth very strikingly what ought to be the feelings of one newly entering into the ministry.

A Succinct Account of the Kaffer's Case, in a Letter to T. Fowell Buxton,

Esq. M. P. By Stephen Kay, Missionary, London : Hamilton, Adams,

& Co. 1837. 8vo. pp. 92. This pamphlet is put forth as a vindication of the Kaffers, in order to shew that they have been misrepresented and unjustly treated. Mr. Kay has been a missionary among them for eleven years, and states

VOL. XIII.-April, 1838.

31

that he has been uniformly well treated by them. The letter is divided into two heads, and these into subdivisions. Under the first he maintains, lst, The true character of the Kaffer has been grossly misrepresented; 2ndly, as neighbours, the Kaffers have been most unkindly treated ; 3rdly, that the Kaffers as a nation have been seriously injured ; 4thly, their chiefs have been systematically maltreated; 5thly, their country has been again and again desolated. Under the second, which relates to the efforts of the missionaries, he maintains, 1st, the deportment of the Kaffer is manifestly altered; 2ndly, marriage has been introduced ; 3rdly, their views of female character are confessedly elevated; 4thly, their heathenish cruelties have been materially checked ; 5thly, war has unquestionably been prevented; 6thly, a peaceful disposition has in numerous instances been induced; 7thly, a desire for education has increased ; 8thly, commerce and agriculture have been promoted ; 9thly, the sabbath has been established; 10th, the rite of sepulture also is now observed.

There are many notes, containing extracts from the minutes of evidence taken before the committee of inquiry into the condition of aborigines, and other testimony to the correctness of the writer's statements. There are also frequent references to another work by the same author, “ Travels and Researches in Caffraria.”

The Reviewer having stated the object of this work, simply adds, that he cannot pretend to judge of its accuracy.

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An Inquiry into the Doctrine of the Eternal Sonship of our Lord Jesus Christ.

By Richard Treffry, jun. Mason. 1837. 8vo. pp. 508. Tuis volume is interesting on many accounts. It is an elaborate defence of a great Catholic doctrine, by one who does not belong to the church of England; and it is, besides, the work of one who says (pref. pp. viii. ix.) that his “arguments originated in no silly conceit of his abilities, but in a deeply painful process of sceptical reasoning, which at one time led as nearly as possible to the rejection of the great doctrine in question." He was, in short, nearly falling into Arianism, but being struck with the danger of the probable result of his views, he set himself, which he acknowledges should have been his first step, diligently to examine and classify every passage of scripture which seemed to pertain to the subject. In his preface, after answering some objections against his undertaking, such as the mysteriousness of the subject, and the evils of controversy, he proceeds to observe the necessity of treating upon it. He mentions an assertion triumphantly made (but it is to be hoped quite untrue,) to the effect that " that the mass of Christians out of the establishment deny that our Lord Jesus Christ is the eternal Son of God!" and fears there may be some ground for the statement. He then apologizes for selecting Professor Stuart, of Andover, for something like an uncourteous prominence in the controversial part of the volume. No apology, surely, is needed for this ; Professor Stuart has a considerable name with many people, but there is much in his works which is extremely unsound-unsound in doctrine, and unsound in criticism, and there.

fore any writer who takes the requisite pains to point this out is highly deserving of praise.

The Table of Contents gives a very good outline of the work. It is divided into seven chapters, going into the following particulars :

1. General statement and examination of the question.

2. Illustrations from Jewish opinions, phraseology, &c., from the personal confessions to our Lord, and from preternatural testimonies.

3. General evangelical illustrations. 4. The writings of St. John. 5. The Epistle to the Hebrew's. 6. The eternal Sonship of our Lord considered in its connexion with fundamental evangelical truth.

7. The consent of the Catholic church to the doctrine of the eternal Sonship of our Lord.

Each chapter is divided into several sections, to some of which notes, containing collateral testimony, are appended.

The first division contains an inquiry into the two classes of appellations applied to the mixed nature of Christ—the purely divine, and those originated in the incarnation,—and also into the question, “to which class does the title of the Son of God belong?" In the second chapter, illustrations from the Targums, Philo, &c., are given; and there is a long section on the Jewish distinction between the Messiah and the Son of God. There are some excellent remarks in the section upon

the personal confessions; and to this section there is a long note on the use of the article in phrases like Yoç Osov. In chapter 11. sect. 4, the author enters upon the preternatural testimonies to Jesuis as the Son of God. In regard to the testimony of the impure spirits, and to the annunciation made to the Virgin Mary, there are some arguments which enter on very mysterious and abstruse points, which require the greatest care in handling them. Agreeing, as the reviewer does most cordially, to the doctrine maintained in this work, he cannot engage to accede to all which is there argued, nor is he prepared to dispute it. He only intimates the necessity of extreme caution in making any assertions relative to the points there touched upon ; and the reader must be as cautious in admitting, as an author ought to be in mentioning, any such statements.

Chap. IV. is devoted to the consideration of St. John's writings the evangelical sense of the word Logos—and the epithet “ only begotten.” In the chapter relative to the last of these, the epithet “only begotten,” there is much that is both forcible and ingenious.

Chap. V. is occupied in discussing the doctrines laid down in the Epistle to the Hebrews. One section treats of apostasy from Christ, another of his priesthood. In some of the notes to the different sections of this chapter, there are a variety of remarks to which the admirers of Professor Stuart will do well to attend.

The sixth chap. develops the principles involved in the inquiry. Mr. Treffry very properly argues that extra-scriptural tests of truth cannot be admitted, and proceeds on the principle that when an opinion is affirmed on the warrant of scripture testimony alone, and denied on grounds partially or wholly independent of revelation, there

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