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17, the flesh lusteth against the Spirit; and the spirit against the flesh: verse 18, if ye be led of the spirit : verse 22, the fruit of the spirit : verse 25, if we live in the Spirit let us walk also in the Spirit.
Cock. To this word, in John xiii, 38, the capital has been restored; but in Matt. xxvi, 34, Mark xiv, 30, passages evidently parallel, and where the same bird is undoubtedly intended, the restoration was forgotten.
TESTAMENT. In 2 Cor. iii, 6, we have Testament; in verse 14, testament.
CIRCUMCISED. Gal. vi, 12, they constrain you to be Circumcised. Verse 13, for neither they themselves who are circumcised, &c., but desire to have you circumcised, &c.
Saviour. It would seem as if there could possibly be no doubt of the propriety of commencing this word with a capital. We never saw it otherwise until we read in the edition before us--God my saviour. Luke i, 47.
Book. In Luke iv, 17, we have the following unaccountable blunder; there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias, and when he had opened the Book, &c. Was not the Book which he opened, the same book that was delivered unto him?
The restoration of italics is another reason given for the publications of the new society. Words thus printed are supposed to be wanting in the original, and added by the translators. How many such restorations may have been made in the Old Testament we have not examined. There are a few certainly, and some of them very curious, in the society's pica octavo.
The Saviour's dying exclamation, Eli, Eli, lama sabacthani is printed in italics in Matthew's gospel, xxvii, 46. Why? Is it not in the original ? Certainly it is. But in one of Barker's editions, printed more than two hundred years ago, when the typographic art was in its infancy, this exclamation is given in italic letters, and therefore, perhaps, the committee of three directed their printer to restore them in their edition. But strange to say, in the parallel passage in Mark xv, 34, the same expression is given in the common characters. Surely if the restoration was needed in the one place it was equally necessary in the other.
In Galations i, 8, Any other gospel is printed in italic charac
ter, as though it were not in the original. In the following verse, where the original is the same, the Roman character is used.
Again : The new society give us the superscription written over the Saviour on the cross, in all four of the evangelists, in italic letters. For this we cannot find any reason whatever. Even the old edition of Barker (1612) does not fall into this absurdity. The new society has indeed the merit of being uniform in this matter, praise which, as we have seen, can be very seldom awarded them. We would suggest the propriety of adding to the society's commentary, in the next edition, a note explanatory of what is to be understood by words printed in italics in “this version.”
Having thus presented the results of our investigations, we leave our readers to make up their opinions, and to pass their verdict upon the American and Foreign Bible Society.
We have endeavored to confine ourselves closely to the object before us, and are, therefore, not aware that any apology is needed for the length of this article. We know that such details as are here spread before him are dull and uninteresting to the general reader; and we can assure him that the task has been by no means pleasant to the reviewer. But although our time might have been more agreeably occupied, and these pages more profitably filled with the discussion of some other subject, the cause of truth demanded that such serious charges as have been brought against the three prominent Bible institutions of our globe, should be rigidly investigated. Christian courtesy, moreover, seemed to require that the magnificent pretensions of the new society should be weighed in the balances; and that those pretensions should be carefully compared with the actual results. Without such examination, the intelligent and candid reader could not certainly be prepared to decide, whether he ought in justice to allow the claims of our Baptist brethren, or to inscribe upon the forehead of their precocious bantling_TEKEL.
F. Vol. I.-36
Art. IV.—The Analogy of Religion, natural and revealed, to
the Constitution and Course of Nature. By JOSEPH BUTLER, LL.D., late Lord Bishop of Durham. New-York and Boston, 1833.
Sir James Mackintosh, in his View of the Progress of Ethical Philosophy, says, This great work on the Analogy of Religion to the Course of Nature, though only a commentary on the singularly original and pregnant passage of Origen, which is so honestly prefixed to it as a motto, is, notwithstanding, the most original and profound work extant in any language on the philosophy of religion.” Our principal object in this paper is, to introduce the book more generally to the notice of ministers of the gospel, and recommend it to their frequent and patient examination. We ourselves have read it several times, and always with enlargement of views, increase of faith, and improvement of heart. Our introduction to it was singular and impressive. It was at a time when we were passing from impetuous youth into manhood, with a bosom beating high for the acquisition of knowledge and the improvement of the mind. A friend, looking into his library, said, “Here is a book which I purchased some time ago, having heard it recommended as one of the greatest of this or any other age: I have commenced reading it twice, and have twice desisted. It made my head ache : I cannot comprehend it. I will give it to you, if you will study it.” We received it, little knowing what a treasure we had acquired. If a very sensible clergyman could say to a young theological student who was reading with him, “I recommend you to study the Bible and Shakspeare thoroughly,” we will take the liberty of adding to this recommendation, the patient and thorough study of Butler's Analogy. The study of the Bible will teach us our duty toward God, each other, and ourselves, and assure us of immortality and eternal life: the study of Shakspeare will disclose to us all movements of all hearts, and furnish us with the natural and expressive language of passion and feeling : the study of the Analogy will convince us, that what religion teaches is in strict accordance with what we know by experience to be wise and good in the established constitution and course of nature.
It was a piece of great good fortune to the world that Joseph Butler was born at the close of the seventeenth century, (1692) during the development of those terrible elements which were shaking all Europe, which had already, in England, brought the first Charles to the block, produced and destroyed the commonwealth, banished the Puritans, and given birth to Quakerism, the opposite extreme of the pomp and ceremony of the Church of England ; and which, in France, had brought about the horrible massacre of the Huguenots on St. Bartholomew's day, and was shortly to explode in the still more horrible French revolution. There are occasional periods in the progress of civilization marked with an irresistible power which loosens the foundations of society, unsettles the weak, destroys the unsound, and even puts to the severest test the strong and permanent, and thus develops the extremes of human nature. Hence this period is remarkable for the most splendid array of the brightest names in every department of literature, science, religion, and politics : and for every thing that is revolting and terrible in the history of humanity. These results are perfectly natural, and can be easily explained when past, and might be as easily anticipated by an enlarged and well-instructed mind placed in the midst of the forming elements.
During this eventful period, the entire mass of European mind was quickened beyond any example in the history of the world. It was pregnant with inexpressible feelings and brilliant thoughts. Men speculated on all subjects with great freedom and power, and acted with precipitancy and impetuosity. There was no mediocrity in either evil or good. Every thing was subjected to the test of a violent and rigid examination. In this general state of mental excitement and overstrained action, the public mind took a distinguished turn in favor of literature, science, and politics; and finding new and enchanting fields opening indefinitely in these several directions, the master spirits of the times walked forth into them with a freedom and success until then forbidden by the popular sentiments of religion and the disciplinary forms of the Church, which had for centuries restrained and guided public sentiment. Amid their ecstasies in this new world of liberty, literature, and science, is it at all surprising that the public feeling and judgment should first call in question and then reject Christianity, to which had been referred the degradation and slavery of Europe for many centuries? The peculiar state of affairs in England facilitated this result. The violence and animosities of the Catholics and Protestants, and the severity and moroseness of the Puritans and Independents, had disgraced religion; society was driven to the extreme of austerity during the commonwealth ; and upon the restoration of the licentious and witty Charles the Second, corruption and irreligion overflowed the land. The sense of religion was nearly extinguished in the nation, which is graphically expressed by Dr. Butler in the following paragraph, in which he explains the origin of his great work :
" It is come, I know not how, to be taken for granted, by many persons, that Christianity is not so much as a subject of inquiry; but that it is now, at length, discovered to be fictitious. And accordingly they treat it, as if, in the present age, this were an agreed point among all people of discernment; and nothing remained, but to set it up as a principal subject of mirth and ridicule, as it were by way of reprisals, for its having so long interrupted the pleasures of the world.”—P. 103.
The Analogy was written to bring back the nation to a proper sense of God, and to the observance of his worship; and it was eminently successful by producing conviction in the minds of men of genius and learning. It is not a book for the multitude: it is acceptable to those only who think profoundly and reflect patiently; and he who will thoroughly possess himself of it so as to comprehend its bearings, and experience its power, will feel himself a
The Analogy is a text-book in all the respectable colleges of our country, making a most valuable part of the course on the evidences of Christianity, during the senior year. It should be studied before the proper evidences. Unfortunately, it is usually very unpopular with most students, because it is too profound for them, and requires too hard thinking. We are satisfied, however, that much of the difficulty is owing to the want of ability, or tact, or both, in the instructor. Let about ten pages of it be carefully read and prepared by the class : at their recitation let the professor, in easy and familiar conversation, fully explain and further illustrate the proposition and the reasoning : at the following recitation let the professor lecture half an hour on the preceding one, giving the class a clear and full analysis of the argument, with illustrations of his own. In this way let the students be conducted through the Analogy, and then let each one be required to produce a full and clear analysis written in his own language ; and the work will not