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free; but Christ is all and in all.” The nature of the Christian religion seems to take away the necessity for the restoration of the Jews to the Holy Land, and for every presumed arrangement by which the distinction is to be recognized between Jews and Gentiles.

In the conclusion of this chapter, our author exhibits those signs of the times, as he denominates them, which seem to him to indicate the near approach of the conversion and restoration of Israel.” These are

" the present state of the Jewish mind; the sentiments of Christian nations and churches towards the Jews; the state of Palestine; and the condition of the Turkish empire.” Under each of these heads, he brings out many interesting facts. He shows that the Jewish mind is in a state of decided progress; but their progress evidently leads them more and more to the adoption of Christian institutions. Many begin to faint in the hope of a Messiah to come.” Some are inquiring, "whether the promises of a Messiah have not been fulfilled in the blessings of a German fatherland, in many parts of which they have been emancipated from all civil disabilities, and enjoy perfect toleration of their religion.” And

many others, whose hope of a Messiah to come has well nigh perished, are beginning to inquire whether Jesus of Nazareth may not be the Messiah." Many secret inquirers diligently read the New Testament; and numerous conversions to Christianity take place among them. These things all indicate the approaching conversion of the Jewish race; none of them, so far as we can see, their restoration. It is true that there exists among them a traditionary expectation that they shall once more inherit the Holy Land. This expectation, however, may be deemed only a natural yearning for a land, once given them by Jehovah, the scene of stupendous miracles, and the seat of their nation in the golden days of its prosperity and splendor. It can easily be traced to the literal interpretation of prophecies, which were designed of God to be understood only spiritually. We see no good end to be answered by their restoration. Few of them would be willing to retire from their lucrative business relations, for the sake of it; and the conversions to Christianity which occur among them seem to us not only to make it needless, but to render such a return wholly unlikely and improbable. The attention of Christians is drawn more and more to seek the welfare of the Jews; but their efforts are directed to their conversion, rather than to their colonization in Palestine. Neither the London Jews' Society, the most important institution of this kind, nor any other association for the amelioration of their condition, so far as we know, aims to reëstablish the Jews in the Holy Land. We find, therefore, in the interest manifested by Christians, no tendency at all to the end in question. Palestine, it is true, is bereaved of its inhabitants; its rich valleys have become barren, or are covered with weeds. The terraces of its hills are broken down. Its cities are in ruins. While it is capable of sustaining a vast population, it nourishes only a scattered few. In the gradual advancement of the human race, and especially in the progressive influence of Christianity, the Holy Land is destined again, as in ancient times, to “send forth men like a flock.” Its hills will be terraced again and bring forth fruit abundantly. Its vallies will be tilled and sown. Its cities will rise from their ruins, and be filled once more with busy inhabitants. Christian temples will take the place of heathen fanes and the mosques of the false prophet; and the hymns of spiritual worshippers will again resound over the regions that echoed, in ages past, the high praises of God. Of this we have not a doubt. But it is not necessary that the Hebrew race should be gathered out of all nations and carried thither to accomplish it. In Christ, the wall of partition is broken down. În him, the Jews are no more than their Gentile brethren. God is held to Jewish saints by no higher promises than those which he has vouchsafed to Gentiles. Christianity melts down national distinctions. It associates all nations in one brotherhood. It binds together the most distant tribes and diverse people, as one family. In the universal prevalence of the gospel, Palestine will be no more, except for the associations connected with it, than any other land. No good end could be answered by a separation of its inhabitants from their fellow Christians; no benefit could arise from a distinction which should hold them aloof from the family of believers. They will have no higher privileges, they will enjoy no peculiar favor from God. The present and prospective state of Palestine presents, therefore, to our mind, no indication whatever that the Jews will return again, to form a political state within its borders.

The present feeble state of the Turkish empire seems to us to have little bearing on the question of the restoration of the Jews to Palestine. The Turkish power will doubtless fall into early decay. It has in it few elements of strength or permanency. It cannot compete with Christian nations. The sceptre of the False Prophet has cast a blight over it, whose shadow is the shadow of death. But Britain and France, Austria, Prussia and Russia, have no interest in making conquests for the Jews. Should the Sultan fall, they will make partition of his dominions according to their individual interests ;they will be guided by a regard to the prosperity of trade and commerce, and the balance of power; not by a desire to secure a home for a despised race, scattered among every nation under heaven. The allied powers would not offer Palestine to the Jews for the foundation of an independent state. We doubt whether the Jews would accept it at their hands. Or even should the Jewish state be erected, we doubt if the nation could maintain it.

VOL. XI.-NO. XLI.

10*

ARTICLE VI.

An Examination of the Review of the Minutes of the

Southern Baptist Convention, held at Augusta, Ga., May, 1844. Published in the December No. of the Christian Review, 1845.

[It has hitherto been deemed proper, in the conduct of the Christian Review, to lay down principles which we have supposed to exhibit essential truth, and not to afford its pages as an arena for the contests of opponents. In all points pertaining to literature, theology, or philosophy, we regard this as the true policy. In a point of opinion and of measures, however, where something admits of being said on both sides without a violation of truth, we see no objection to the admission of candid and fair discussion between persons of sincerity, talent, and piety, who see cause to differ from one another. The present case is one of those in which we feel at liberty to depart from our course, so far as to exhibit to the extended denomination which we represent, what may be said on the other side in a discussion which has wrought a very serious influence on the economy of our benevolence. In a publication in which every part of our country has an equal interest, it is just that the two classes of views which divide us should be exhibited, if it were only as a matter of record for future time. The following article, by an eminent Southern Baptist, may be regarded as containing the sentiments of the part of the country in which he is widely known and esteemed. Ed.]

The leading article in the Christian Review for December, 1845, is a review of the Minutes of the Southern Baptist Convention, held at Augusta, Ga., May, 1845. The design of the article is to vindicate the decision of the Acting Board of the Baptist General Convention, touching the resolutions of the Alabama Convention, and to cast the responsibility of the recent division of the Baptist denomination, in the missionary enterprise, on the South. This is the first vigorous attempt which we have noticed, to justify the proceeding of the Board. The defence was tardy in making its appearance.

It

has, no doubt, been carefully prepared. Every thing which legal knowledge and ingenuity can do, has been done, to make good the defence. The article merits a respectful notice. It is a grave and ingenious discussion of a deeply interesting subject, published in a permanent form, and likely to produce an impression, very unfavorable to the Southern Convention, on those who have not an opportunity of seeing the other side. We had hoped that the subject would be permitted to sleep, not because we felt unprepared to vindicate the course of the Southern Convention, but because the discussion is likely to arouse and perpetuate feelings which all good men desire to see allayed. The Board, or their friends, however, have deemed it proper to pursue a different course. They had a perfect right to do so. We feel imperatively called on to buckle on our armor for the defence of our course; and we will solemnly endeavor to be governed in the combat by the principles of fairness and generosity.

The reviewer maintains, that the action of the Boston Board was constitutional; but if it were otherwise, that the South did not seek the proper remedy for the evil. We join issue with him, on both these points. We assert that the decision of the Acting Board was unconstitutional; but even if it were not, that the South adopted the only prudent and feasible course.

We address ourselves, without delay, to the discussion of the question, Was the decision of the Boston Board, in reply to the Alabama resolutions, constitutional ?

The General Convention of the Baptist denomination was formed for the promotion of “Foreign Missions, and other important objects relating to the Redeemer's kingdom.” For many years, its attention has been directed, almost entirely, to the work of Foreign Missions. Its constitution was originally framed, and from time to time it has been so amended as to promote this object. The constitution provided for the appointment of a Board of Managers. This Board is the creature of the Convention. It is appointed solely to execute the purposes of the body creating it. It has no power but from the Convention; and only so much as is plainly expressed, or implied in the action of the Convention. The members of the Board have, as individuals, all the rights which they possessed previous to entering the Board ; but, as a Board, their

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