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illustration of the sacred writers. He prepared the way for this achievement in the first edition of his Grammar, which appeared in 1822. This was a mere pamphlet, simply laying down the true idea on the subject, and pointing out generally the proper relation of the two branches of study to each other; but it found so much response, that he was called to issue a second edition in 1825, a third in 1830, a fourth in 1836, and finally, a fifth in 1844. The pamphlet had already become, in the fourth edition, a volume of 584 pages, and this number has now been increased to 734. Here, in addition to the use which has been made of the older works, we find upon almost every page the names of such men as Hermann, Lobeck, Matthiä, Buttmann, Bernhardy, Rost, who have done so much for classical Greek literature, as well as those of Scholtz, Fritsche, Lachmann, de Wette, Meyer, Wahl, Lücke and others, who have labored more directly either upon the text or the exegesis of the New Testament. The use of such a work is indispensable, of course, to every thorough Biblical student.

The work of Johannes Kirchhofer, Professor of Theology at Schaffhausen, containing the Testimonies of the first four centuries to the New Testament canon, we have examined with much interest. The work was commenced in 1842, and consists of three parts now brought together in one volume, the last of which appeared in 1844. Its German title is Quellensammlung zur Geschichte des Neutestamentlischen Canons bis auf Hieronymus. It gives in the original Greek and Latin all the passages found in the early writers, both Christian and pagan, which either afford evidence of the existence of the New Testament scriptures, or illustrate in any way the views of the first Christians in respect to their genuineness and authority. We have, first, the testimony of Christian writers, so far as it relates to the New Testament books collectively; second, their testimony in respect to these books individually; third, that of pagan writers, as Lucian, Celsus, Porphyry; and, finally, that of heretical sects or individuals, such as Marcion, Valentine, Heracleon, the Gnostics, Ebionites, Montanists, etc. A Latin Translation is placed in a parallel column to the Greek; and notes, not very extensive but appropriate, supply such historical and biographical information as the reader may need. Previous collections of the same general character, like Lardner's Credibility or Orelli's Selecta Patrum have been used, of course, in the preparation of the work; but the author has also read over the whole ground for himself, and has not been obliged to surrender himself blindly to the guidance of others. In these days, when it is so necessary to carry back the student to a survey of the historical ground

upon which our reception of the New Testament canon rests, such a book is adapted obviously to answer a very useful purpose. None of the Commentaries or Introductions to the New Testament contain the requisite amount of such material.

A new Life of the Apostle Paul, Sein Leben und Wirken, seine Briefe und seine Lehre, has been written by Professor Bauer of Tübingen. Of its particular character we have no information. The author is a different man from B. Bauer, whose name is associated with that of Strauss and Feuerbach.

We have from Dr. J. Fr. Röhr an enlarged edition of his Palestine, or Historisch-geographische Beschreibung des jüdischen Landes zur Zeit Jesu, embracing at the same time a particular account of the country as it now is. The discoveries of Professor Robinson have been made to contribute to the greater completeness of the present edition.

The review of Böhringer's Kirche Christi und ihre Zeugen oder die Kirchengeschichte in Biographien in No. 51 of Reuter's Repertorium, is highly eulogistic. The plan of the work is exceedingly attractive. In a series of biographical pictures it presents to us the most distinguished lights of the church, with so much collateral history interwoven as may be necessary to render them a full and fair representation of the times to which they belong. The first two parts exhibit in this manner the principal men of the earliest Christian age. The third, which is the particular subject of the notice here referred to, treats of Ambrose and Augustine. The fourth and last part will be devoted to Chrysostom, Leo, and Gregory.

Professor Winkelmann has been engaged for a long time in preparing a new edition of the Moral Writings of Plutarch. He has resigned his office in the gymnasium at Zürich, and removed to Dresden, where he will devote himself more entirely to this labor. Some fruit of his study in this field from which so much remains yet to be gathered, may be expected soon to appear.

The new edition of Rost's Greek Grammar, the seventh, is reviewed by Poppo in a late number of the Halle Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung. The author regards his re-construction of the Syntax as the distinguishing merit of this edition. The reviewer admits fully the claim asserted to improvement in this respect, as well as the title of the work in general to the great popularity which it enjoys; but he specifies some inadvertencies of statement, and suggests some changes by which he conceives that its excellence may be still further increased.

The Real-Encyklopädie der classischen Alterthumswissenschaft or Dic

tionary of Classical Antiquity, commenced by Pauly, will not be interrupted by his death. Arrangements have been made for its continuance under the direction of Professors Waltz and Teuffel, in whose hands the undertaking will suffer no loss of character. The two or three numbers which they have already issued, justify the most favorable expectations.

Krebs's Antibarbarus der Lateinischen Sprache, dritte Auflage is subjected to a thorough review by Dietrich, of Freiberg, in the first supplementary Heft of the Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft for the last year. Its general merits are fully recognized; but at the same time, important deficiencies and inaccuracies are pointed out. It has the character of a compilation rather than of an original, independent work. It contains much traditionary material, which has been adopted in some instances without due revision.

The same number of this periodical contains a valuable article on the most recent works illustrative of Pindar. It gives one an impressive idea of the philological activity of the Germans, to see how many productions of this character have appeared even since the beginning of 1840. C. L. Kayser, Professor at Heidelberg, Fr. Heinsoeth of Bonn, Theod. Bergk of Leipsic, Schneidewin of Göttingen, together with others, have published writings since that period, which occupy an important place in the study of this Greek poet.

It is interesting to observe the tendency which many of the German scholars manifest at present to make the study of antiquity subservient to the illustration of fundamental moral and religious ideas. Lasaulx, formerly professor at Würtzburg, but recently transferred to Münich, is setting an excellent example in this way. He has treated in this spirit the subject of the Pelasgian oracle of Jupiter at Dodona, the propitiatory Sacrifices of the Greeks and Romans in their relation to the one on Golgotha, the Sense of the tradition of Oedipus, the Prayers of the Greeks and Romans, the Curse among the Greeks and Romans, the Oath among the Greeks, the Oath among the Romans, and still other similar topics. Some of these treatises have just appeared. He has a noble co-adjutor in such labors in Nägelsbach, the well known author of the Homeric Theology.

Poppo, who is a master in Thucydidean studies, has honored, or at all events, distinguished Dr. Bloomfield's History of the Peloponnesian War, etc., by an extended notice in the Berlin Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik. It may be found in the July number of the last

volume. If this English scholar deserves the censure which he has received, he must be a great offender.

The entire works of Seneca are in a course of publication by C. R. Fickert. The text is revised, accompanied by notes, critical disquisitions, and an Index to the whole. Three volumes have been printed, and a fourth, which will conclude the series, is soon to be added.

The substance of what is important in Aristotle's Logic is contained in Dr. Trendelenburg's edition of the same, prepared for the use of schools. A first, second, and now a third edition of this work has made its appearance. Its title is Elementa Logices Aristotelicae.

Dr. Gustav Mühlmann has published a new Lexicon of the Latin language in two parts. The first contains the Latin-German, the second, the German-Latin portion. With the former is connected a copious appendix, containing the geographical, mythological and historical names embraced within the ordinary circuit of Latin studies. It is intended as a Manual for the use of schools, and is said to be distinguished for clearness and precision in the definitions, as well as method and convenience in the arrangement of the materials.

Bremi's edition of the Select Orations of Demosthenes has been revised and issued anew, under the care of Dr. Sauppe. The latter is a philologian of the Leipsic school, and has a reputation which will confer on the work an increased celebrity.

Professor Wagner, of Dresden, has prepared a very convenient edition of Virgil, for the earlier stages of Latin study. His larger work, published in 1841, was hot adapted or designed for such a use. He has excluded from this new edition the more critical materials of the first, and has endeavored to furnish the student with just such helps as are necessary for enabling him to understand the poet.

The recent biography of the philologian, August Matthiä in seinem Leben und Wirken, etc., by his son, will prove an interesting work to the lovers of classical learning. He was born at Göttingen in 1769, and died at Altenburg in 1835, He entered early upon his philological career and continued it till the close of his protracted life. His literary associations with men devoted to similar pursuits were extensive; and a good delineation of his history must throw important light upon the times in which he lived. In addition to his Grammar, by which he is best known in this country, he published an outline of Greek and Roman literature, the hymns of Homer, select portions of Cicero, and various other writings, both in Latin and in German.

The writings of Plutarch are studied with increasing zeal in the

German schools. His Life of Themistocles has been edited anew by A. F. Gottschicke, with an accompaniment of notes suited to the wants of the student. The faithful labors of Sintenis on the text of the Lives, have greatly facilitated the work of editing this portion of Plutarch's writings. A similar service is still needed for the Moralia. Dübner's text does not satisfy the critical public. He does not appear to have availed himself even of all the means of correcting it, which his residence at Paris rendered accessible to him.

Professor Schmidt has taken up, in a recent monograph, the vexed question of the relation of the Greek Aorist to the other tenses. It is too much to hope that he has disposed of the subject so as to leave no occasion for future discussion.

The eighth and last volume of F. Jacobs's Vermischte Schriften is advertised as printed. It consists of addresses, literary correspondence, and fugitive articles.

A new Griechische Grammatik für Schulen und Studirende, by Dr. Mehlhorn, Prorector in the gymnasium at Ratibor, is exciting great attention among Greek philologians. Only the first part of it has been published. His mature scholarship and long experience as a teacher have prepared the public to expect something from him, of which no scholar would willingly be ignorant.

Classical literature appears to be striking its roots also in France, which has long been an unpropitious soil for this species of culture. This country seems, at present, likely to win the honor of producing the most important work on Latin Grammar, which the world has yet seen. In a late number of the Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft, we find a description of an undertaking in this department which is truly magnificent, and which must attract the attention of every scholar. The author of this work is the Abbé T. H. Prompsault,* who has published some previous writings which have placed him in an honorable position before the public. His principle in the present Grammar is to scrutinize every thing, and admit nothing of the scientific correctness of which he is not fully convinced. The first part of the work only has been completed; and some idea may be formed of the extent of the plan, from the fact that this part alone consists of 1056 octavo pages, and yet treats only of the letters, orthography, and accentuation. The Latin Grammars of almost all ages and nations

For the convenience, perhaps, of some readers, we subjoin the French title in full: "Grammaire Raisonnée de la langue Latine par l'Abbé F. H. Prompsault, aumônier de la maison royale des Quinze-Vingts. Paris chez Gv. Martin.



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