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our nature, or our actual observation, the inference will return upon us, that whatever amends the heart improves also the intellectual powers, and that these are not capable of their perfect development and action without religion to bring them out. This is the spring of all intellectual improvement, the source of all mental energy. No one is capable of putting forth all his strength, until having his mind linked with the divine mind, he feels an intimate and filial communion with the Father of spirits; rises in noble independence of all interested and personal aims; regards himself as an accountable and immortal being, and lives not for himself and for time, but for God and eternity. The conceptions of such a mind are clothed in forms which the dimness of an earthly eye cannot see. Glowing, glorious thoughts are there, pervading the soul like sunshine. It travels into the distant, the vast, the infinite, and kindles with the love of the perfect and the pure, the true and the eternal. This principle is superior to all other intellectual incentives. The conceptions of the classic authors rose only to Jupiter and to other imaginary deities,-beings to whom were attributed human passions, infirmities and lusts. Of the future, they had no adequate conception; and consequently, whatever excellencies their writings may have had in other respects, they partook of the grovelling character of their mythology.

They were neither rich nor noble, because they did not recognize the immortality of the soul. If there is an exception to this remark, it is in such men as Cicero, whose "aliquid immensum infinitumque" was the sole secret of the most splendid displays of his genius; and Socrates, to whose extraordinary illumination and independence on the subject of religion, we are indebted for his just and sublime philosophy. But how different is the Christian! He has before his mind the habitual contemplation of an ever-present God, possessed of the most endearing and exalted attributes; a being, whose character gives splendor to all that is fair, subordinates to itself all that is great, and enthrones itself on the riches of the universe. Besides this, he has before his mind eternity, not dimly discovered, but brought clearly to light by the gospel. Thus it is that the intellect, when disengaged from the heavy mists of sensuality, tends upward to its Parent Intellect; the power that pervades it comes from VOL. XI.-NO. XLI.

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the Supreme Power ;-the communion which it holds is the communion with the infinite and Eternal One; and the light which it sheds abroad is an emanation from the throne of God. The union of education and religion promotes our happiness. Superior intellectual gifts and attainments are insufficient to procure it. It does not spring from the splendid creations of fancy, or the deep researches of science. But it is the portion of the man who, in cultivating his intellect, subjects it to the discipline of his Creator. Wayward though it be, the power That regulates it is infallible and divine. If he looks to " the Father of lights,” its darkness and doubts flee away. If he seeks for hidden treasure, for the choicest gems of literature, he finds them in the page of eternal truth. If he catches the inspiration of the Muse, his harp vibrates with tones of sweeter harmony, when he strikes it to holy themes. Every effort of his mind, when made in dependence upon the Supreme Mind, is adorned with the stamp of beauty and the glow of love.

Learning has borne such fruits in other days
“ On all her branches. Piety has found friends
“ In the friends of science ; and true prayer
“ Has flowed from lips wet with Castalian dews."

And the attainments of learning are auxiliaries of rational enjoyment. We know, indeed, that happiness may, and, perhaps oftener than elsewhere, does dwell with the humblest cottager,—of whom it may be said that

“ Knowledge to his eyes its ample page,
“ Rich with the spoils of time, did ne'er unroll."

Yet we cannot but think that intellectual culture would render a pious cottage still more happy. We have been accustomed to associate an imaginary pleasure with the keeping of flocks and other rural occupations. Some have even contended that happiness is the offspring of ignorance, as ignorance is said to be the mother of devotion. But nothing is more fanciful. Every man's sources of enjoyment are within himself; and, as no change of condition can essentially alter them, it is necessary only that they should be touched aright, to make them send forth their refreshing streams over the soul. He who keeps the energies of his mind enchained, and the affections of his heart frozen, nor once lays them open to the genial influences of education, can never improve,-can never be truly happy. It is from contact with thoughts and characters elevated above the common standard, that we derive cultivation. Thus the mind is formed insensibly to dignity and virtue. But he who seeks no communion with superior intelligence, whom neither the influences of science nor religion have raised above the low level of sensuality, is a stranger to rational and substantial pleasure. In order, therefore, to be happy, we must add to our virtue knowledge; we must think and investigate. We must improve in every element of Christian character, and every practicable department of useful learning. It is the exercise of our faculties and affections that gives them a healthful tone ;-and our happiness, agreeably to this law of our nature, will be in proportion to the perfection which they attain.

S. P. H.

ARTICLE IV.

ADVANTAGES OF THE BAPTIST CHURCH POLITY.

An Historical Discourse, delivered at the celebration of the

Second Centennial Anniversary of the First Baptist
Church in Providence. By WILLIAM HAGUE. Provi-

dence: B. Cranston & Co.
A Discourse, delivered at the One Hundredth Anniversary

of the organization of the Baldwin Place Baptist
Church. By BARON Stow, Pastor. Boston: Gould,

Kendall & Lincoln.
A Pure Christianity the World's Only Hope. By R.

W. CUSHMAN, Pastor of Bowdoin Square Church,

Boston. New York : Lewis Colby.
A Discourse, delivered at the dedication of the nero

Church Edifice of the Baptist Church and Society in
Warren, R. I., May 8, 1845. By Josiah P. TUSTIN,

Pastor. Providence: H. H. Brown.
A Discourse, delivered at the One Hundredth Anniversary

of the organization of the First Baptist Church in
North Stonington, Ct. By Albert G. Palmer. Boston:

Gould, Kendall & Lincoln.
The Position and Peculiarities of the Baptists, defined

and illustrated. By SEWALL S. CUTTING.

Gould, Kendall & Lincoln.
A Discourse, embracing the History of the Baptist

Church of Christ in Homer, N. Y., for about thirty
years from its commencement. By Rev. Alfred BEN-

Utica : Bennett, Backus & Hawley.

Boston :

NETT.

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We have placed this list of recent publications on the general subject of Church Polity at the head of this article, partly for the purpose of showing that the subject is receiving a large share of the attention of observing and reflecting minds among us at the present time. In the term, Church-Polity, we include all that relates to the

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existence, the functions, and the organization of a Christian Church, according to the Scriptures, together with the principles by which the relations and intercourse of churches should be regulated.

The kingdom of Christ we understand to include all who obey Christ—all the truly good, wherever found. A church is an ideal representative or model of that kingdom. The first principle in the theory of a church of Christ is, that it be made of “lively stones, built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.” None but the spiritually regenerated should be admitted. A church is a union of saints in holy covenant to maintain the worship, doctrines, ordinances, and discipline, of the New Testament. A covenant is from its nature voluntary; yet a church is by no means a mere voluntary society, in the ordinary modern acceptation of that term. As the desire to join a church is voluntary on the part of every candidate, so his reception or rejection is voluntary on the part of the church. As there can be no church in the scriptural sense, without a voluntary covenant, so it necessarily follows that the members of each church must judge and decide on the admission of members.

When a church is formed in accordance with these principles, it has the right to elect its ministry, send forth missionaries, preserve Christian discipline, expel offenders from its fellowship; in short, to perform all acts which properly belong to any ecclesiastical power or body on earth. It is independent of all earthly control, being accountable, collectively and individually, directly to Christ, the only Head of the church.

These principles are very simple, yet if universally adopted, would produce the greatest social and political revolution which the world has ever witnessed. The separation of civil from ecclesiastical affairs, would, in many countries, entirely change the form of government, and the aspects of society. The explosion of the mischievous theories of ecclesiastical catholicism, and of all the absurdities which have grown out of attempts to establish territorial churches, either universal, national, provincial, or diocesan, would effectually uproot many of the hoary errors with which priestcraft has enslaved the world. The abolition of ranks and orders of ministry, VOL. XI.-NO. XLI.

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