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the remaining airs, added water to them, prored, that inflammable gases are in order, he favs, to absorb the muri formed of a great quantity of tire ; that, acid gas. Still imore furprising! When according to the quantity of fire, they he fired these airs, viz. the hydrocar- will be inflammable, or light; ihat, by bonate and oxymuriacid gas, lie did not ackling fire to those aiready formed, you obrain half the quantity of fixed air will make them more infiammable and from them, as he did by simple mix lighter; therefore, that airs producent ture. But then (as they are never at a from charcoal under an iminense delots for reatons, however ablurd), he gree of heat, will have more fire in finss that there was a deposition of ihem. This I very forcibly thewed in Cirarcoal. No doubt but there woull my oblervations on Mr. Henry's paper. le lich an allertion, as their theory To palling the electric fire virough the moti be fupporied. “ luthis instance, air, it became to much lighter, and (ne says,) the hydrocarbonate did not receiring water for its aërial compoíivied above hali ibe proportion of car tion at the time. bonic acid which it ouglit to have done. But I muli make another observation But this is fiifficiently accounted for

upon

Mr. C's experiments. This gafrom the copious deposition of char- teons oxyde conld not be fired by him coal." Dere, Vr, Urban, are the time in thicos muriatic acid air ; though they identical airs, and in the very fame pro tay, that iis oxygen is more easily ai. portion; then, as they allow, the pro tracire by charcoal, than when in the cois being the time, ought not also the Taic of oxygeir gars; for charcoal burns refiduum to be the fime? Should not in the former in any temperature, all the oxygen gas of the oxmuriatic but requires a red locat in the latter. acid have united with the charcoai; Pray, Mr. C. how comes it that this more particularly when burned, than gaseous oxvile is to light an air, as it is when timply mixed? But that it inutt, Tormed of oxygen gas and charcoal ? according to them; as the muriatic gas you lay the charcoal malzes the oxygen vas equally decompounded; then what gas heavier, as the fixed air is heavier. became ol'ins oxygen?

Surely then, if we are allowed to re.lI proved in my former paper, that fon júlily, when it got half its fàuras fixed air, though ever to strongly heated tion, it should have been leavier than with iron, will not form the gaseous oxygen gas, as its full proportion makes oxvde. But Mr. C.lays, that, by passing it lo much heavier. But, as I observa fixed air through iron, he formed thised before, I can lay with greater proair. But, Mr. Crban, how qvas this priety, that some heads have no brains dove? Why thus; by having two in them, than that this galeous oxyde bladdlers and a great quantity of water has no iutlanmable air in it! So also 10 cool the iron tube applied to the ends those heads are light, who can believe of it, where the bladders were placed. that oxygen gas, boy receiving charcoal, Now, Mír. Urba!), I allert, that ine fix- should become lighter! And I would ed air, when heated, will imbibe moit: aik (for numerous absurdities are till

ture from the bladders. From Mr. C's rearing us in the face) how comes the ailertions, he does not seem to kno''oxygen of the muriatic acid gas

to burn that chalk contains fixell air and smer with charcoal, with this great brilliancy in chemical combination.

of light and beat, even more fo than Mr. Lavoiner, their master, whose when it burns in oxygen gas ? is its great character, they lay, was correct (xygen is condensed in ihe acid, or nets in his experin.ents, and a nice united to it; and evon the gas it remathematical precision, has been di-ceived was froin lead; and oxygen gas rectly contradicied by Mr. C bis in metals gives out all its fire in its conIcading experiments, which gave birth denfation, or when it is in bibed. This to his theory. I have mentioned one is trikingly exemplified in the burning in my former paper; the other is, that, o iron; ihe fire produced by it is to in burning oxygen gas and charcoal, immenie, that the iron when burning the fise air produced is heavier than will pass through the fides of the glads the oxygen gas. Now they agree with it is burning in, the same as if it were me that it is lighter. But then, by Soft patie. And all this fire and light, their doctrins, then try to prove what vou say, resided in the oxvgen gas; and, is conally abfurd, that charcoal pof- when condented in the metals, i paris feftes what ihey call hydrogen. Nir. ed with them. Urban, I baye, by experiments, clearly I have clearly thewn in my works,

that

that charcoal is formed of an immenfe. unexceptionable manner in my Galvaquantity of fire; therefore in pafling nie oblervations, even from your exwater ihrough it, the airs, which in periments on the Pile, that the oxmucanteguence are formed, will pofieis a riatic gas is formed from the marine quantity of fire, according as the char- acid, and the earth of the lead and coal is heuted at the rime it gives out manganese, and not from any fupposed air; confequently, by.its giving out lets oxygen gas. Mr. Rupp acknowledges air, it will be so much more faturated that, 'pon its decomposition, it always with fire.

depofits an earth. Now, by these being Mr. C's experiments New he could united, they have a great attraction for not decompound the hydrocarbonate phlogition, or fixed fire : therefore, and the oxmuriatic airs by burning when expared to phingiltic bodies, as thern together; for neither of thein in Haminable airs, ihey will regularly were lowly decomposed. He is alio attract the fixed fire of these airs, ană obliged to acknowledge the very dit- decompound them. The fermentation ferent refulis, in firing small propor- produced-will set a great part of their tions of oxigen gas and the oxniuristic fire looie, and a plalogiliicated marine 925 with the hydrocarbonate. In the acid, with a linali deposition of earth, former threre is a small production of be the residuum. So allo, (as I have carbonic aciil gas; and, as he fays, thewn in my ellays,) the nitrous air o the whole volume of gas initead of decomposinds pure air ; its acid attracts berug diminished; is confiderably in the tixed fire of the pure air, and they crealed." Which increase is owing to decompomd each other. For if the the too finall quantity of oxygen gas to

acid of the nitrous air is neutralized burnthe hydrocarbonate; consequently, with more phlogifion, as the dephios: part of the fire of both is fèt loole, and giiiicated air* (as Dr. P. abfurdly calls from the explosion they are intimately it), fo as to have lof its acidity, and mixed, and the fire fet loose is partly become of a fiveetish talie, they will imbibed by them, and increates their not act upon each other. So alsó, the violence ; also the water let loose from nitrous acid, upon the fame principle, burning part of the oxygen-gus aids decompounds volatile oils;

a well the increase.

known fact*. Now Mr. C. to prove how unable According to their theory, the oxytmur theory is to explain the phaeno- gen of the oxmuriatic acid mena, even from your own fiatement tronger action upon inflammable air, of the experiments ; let us try how than oxygen gas; as tlie one acts upon my theory agrees with then. I have, inflammable airs under a low degree of I Autter myself, shewn in the moft · heat, while the other requires a red .

gas, has

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* I must here remark with respect to Mr. Davy's treatise upon the phlogidicated air, as I call it, it being somewhat similar to the nitrons ether, I do not know how far Dr. Beddoes and he have gull:a tbc credulous world, in his relation of theis feeling upon breathing it; or if the goud lady with the pally continues to mount the hill with more alacrity than usuai; as dire maid otserved. But I desire every reader of common sense to reflect (for the aërial Aights of sirench theorists I have nothing to do with, Paracelsus was a modest man compared with them) upon this fand, which Mr. Davy himself allows, that it kills animals (which have no fligrits of imagination, and no theory to establish,) in four or five minutes. If it was so wonderfully pleased, how should it kill? Is death attended with these wonderfully picaraat sensations. I think they themselves allow that life consists in excitement, and death in collapse. But I refer them to Dri Haygarth's detection of Mr. Perkins's metallic tracters. This air is made from the bitrous ammoniac, and therefore formed of the nitrous acid, and the volatile alkali; as Mr. Davy allows that it may be all formed into this air. But Dr. Austin proved that fome fixed air was always produced. He makes a wonderful dance or play of attivities, as he calls it, like a baille royal between a number of cocks. These great theoritts are conocimually differing about ihe play of attinities (see his observations upon Vanquolin and Hur beld's experiment:,) cach differing from the other.

Only to attend to Mr. Davy's opinion of the composition of atmospheric air, nitrous oxyde, &c. Atmospheric air cofuits of 73 nitrogen, and 27 oxygen; nitrous oxyde, 63 nitrogen, and 37 oxygen; nitrous gas, 56 oxygen, and 44 nitrogen; nitric acid composed of i nitrogen, and 23 oxygen. And all these, he says, are uinted by chemical union. Then how comes that air with the least proportion of oxygen to bs the proper air for ans val life, and the others to produce instant dealdad Away with such absurditics.

heats

heat. Then how comes the oxmuri- general outlines of the works may be aic acid gas not to unite iitellindian- easily made out. If we may form an Laueoully to the inflammable airs, as opinion of the design of the castle itfelf oxygen gas does? for, as it is capable of from the remnant gateway, it must have oping under a low degree of heat, been on a very grand fcale; and it was why does it not infiantly unite? Does imposible to overlook the excellent quanol this imply that they are chemically lily of the nuafonry, in its compolure uniting together, in the fane flow and of materials, and that juft principle by gradual manner, as an acid dissolves a which the whole of the parts are commetal? for it appears that heat did bined ; thek, like Abergavenny's defenpot affili the union of the oxmuriatic five relicks, appearing to bid T'ime keep gas, and the gafeous oxyde ; for Mr. aloof, if man forbear his force. StandC. could not inflame them; but they ing in the area of these rains, 1, as I acted upon each other gradually, in a turned, full beheld encircling inounlow temperature. Mir. C. says he was tains, many of which thewed themfurprised; and certainly he ought to be, felves in lapes most strange and marunder his theory. Bur they will meet vellous. with nothing but surprile and mortiti The CHURCH. Being desirous to fee calion.

some monuments of the Herberts, · Now, Mr. Urban, I hope if the which I had been given to underland candid reader will attend to both our were in the chancel, I firfi observed one explana ions of the phænomerta, he will which stands on the North lide, where, fird mine perfectly confortable to ibe on the tomb part, or pedefial, is a reexperiments, even of Mr. C's. filement clining statue of Sir John Herbert; he of ineur ; thewing a clear, forple, and relis on his left side, and a fiatue of filf-evident explanation, according to Joan his wife lays in the usual reall the known and acknowledged laws cumbent attitude: there are likewise of chemiliry; so that I will not trou two half-length figures at the East end ble him with the immediate applica of the pedesial. Sir John is in armour, tion, it must be so evident and fatisfac- which, with the drelles of the other wory. But indeed my former paper figures, then the fashion to be Olive. must be clear and demontirative in every rian, as the date in the inscription impartial chemisi, and which Jir. C. (1666) evinces that he died not long cannot, or dare not refute. Ir. C. after the termination of the Usurper's found a quantity of azote in his experi. exittence. I cannot precisely deterinine ments; from whence did it proceed? as I now write whether, at ihis regicide but, jodeed, their hypotheses are a hour of change in political and religious bundle of abfurdities. For instance, affairs, sepulchral' fiatues began to be iney suppose that vegetable bodies con put up in our churches in that indecent lift principally of churcoal, and the way we are contirained to witness, of office of respiration is to receive oxygen their either turning their heads from, into the fysieni, io discharge this char of their backs againli the altar, or Comcoal; and that animal boilies conbilt munion Table; but so it is; in the inprincipally of azote. Then from whence stanice before us, Sir John is in the acdid this azote prosec, or what pro- tion of quirting his appeal to so holy a ducked it? Aud how comes the oxygen, Ipot; and his lady reports with her received into the system, not to form head to the East, and fier feet to the with it ale uitrous aciel?

Weli, her aris remaining in careless But if the reader wi: peruse my ap- ur employ, inftead of that reverential peodix to my planetary life, its price raising of the hands we in antient being only fixpence, he will there fee fistues are wont 10 behold. Here, the wonderful operation of fire demon no doubt, some enlighitoud readers will Strated. Rob. HARRINGTON. I'mile at my weakness in leaning (by

this my remark) fo near the verge of The Pursuits or ArchiTECTURAL that dreadful gulph fuperftition. . I beg INNOVATIN. No. XLIV. theru to be merciful to me, a frail morCRIÇK HOWEL.

tal, in their fiern conclusions on this "HE Carilc, the left half of the gate- point, and impate error as the cause of

wav, and some usintelligible parts in manifeii a iranigrellion. of wallsofthis building, are allibat are lo Not being fatisfied with the right of be met with; though the mound where- fuch n memorial as I have here deou svod the keep is in being, and the feribed, I searched about for those mo

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nu mental works which fo admirably as forth we walked towards this warCombine antient devotion and fculp- like fructure. A guide led the way, a ture together; and it was fome time worthy foul, an open and a chearful before I could fatisfy my curiofity, this heart, a learned too, and one who vepart of the fabrick' being so filled up nerated in truth our anticnt works ; with pew lumber, and the other usual now the merry tale, anon the serious obitructions of ragged mats and mat record ; combining thus the entertainfocks. On each tide of this chanceling and iostructive ways of men to keep then I perceived, under arched recef alive that genial tlow of fpirits, fo nefes, ftatues of a lady on the North, and cellary to bear us out in lite's pilgrima knight on the South fide ; but they age, with dire fortitude and refignation, were covered with all kinds of rubbith, towards “ that bourne from whence no and it was not until the fexton brad clear- traveller returns." ed out the recefies that I could have a This cafile is now far removed from proper view of them; and before I was all resort of nen, tare a few cottagers, enabled to pa's any opinion on their who with their huinble roofs were nid. merits, I wasobliged to reintrate the mu- by their intignificance from standing in tilated parts, by tixing on the lady's head, any seeming before its mighty front. and putting together the several extremi. Around we went the frong enduring ties of the knight. How was I grieved and circle; hold every lower, wall, and charmed at the same time, in witnelling loop-hole; an arduous task it was, the fuch neglect and havock! fueh elegance circuit being of fich a prodigious girt. and grace! Yet, in this abale of these The works are divided into three difftatues, I obtained much information, tinct courts ; one of which has liule to as they had not been thought worthy mark iis order but the hafe line of deby church-warden anthority of being nolifbed malonry. The other courts white-washed, to decypher out many à ftand almost entire in their exterior derare embellishment, either of the rav- figu, fimple in architectural forms, but ment of the lofter tex, or the maily fublime in effect. The grand entrance guise of manhood. By the arms on into the centre or principal court is ro the surcoat of the knight he was a flere mantic to a degree; and, as I ellayed to lert. In this way I added store to my gain its rughed afcent, teeing on either antiquarian hoard, a fioek which I have hand no objects but wild underwood but few opportunities to lay out to use, and a deep-cut fofs, and besore me iwo or to benefit our pretenders to antiquity, tremendous towers, and an arched entwho in general, and the more to it pro- trance which seemed to grin deitrucfeshonal men, presume too much on tion, I wholly gave into the imvulle their own notions of improving on autient of the moment, that I was an advenlore, than taking up apon credit from tireus being of old times, about to atmy firm of selections worked out of the chiese fome perilous exploit. I already mine of science known among us in hear the truinpet found, and the clang elder times. Well, another age may of the irou defenders of the dreadful think less of themelves, and more of país. My nerves, however, foon told their ancestors; lels of the "new Fantalo me I was no valorous knight; and, tic order of architecture," and more of full of modern fear and trembling, I the old Englis!: order of architecture ; ferambled up the height I had thus less of “capricious laney," and more of fought to gain. And now a new fancy refined taste.

took bold of my weak ideas; for, not beW'kite CASTLE.

ing able to trace out any vestiges of eiWhen we are in a disposition to be ther the great hali, chamber, or bower, morose, fociety dloes not always drive the inner lines of the exterior walls away to ungracious a patlion : therefore aone remaining, and looking round we are beft left to ourselves till this in vain for my guide (who, by the phlegmatic propeatly bas fubfideei, and by, had taken fome other route about a return of our natural gaiety inclines the ruins), I concluded that I was left us to think all we find addreiled to our here to enjoy at icifire my propensenfes pleasant and agreeable. In this lity, in contemplate on the pleadires mood of fullen restraint I have trod of Antiquity, mul the shades of nigire many a weary diep: I welcome now and the bedling of repose thould inthe other operation of the inind, a dif- vite me to fureci nuv-present titlation. poßtion to be happy. Quick Hew the Getting rid of this thought, I was abont noments, and lightly tripped our feet to return the way I came; but that

was hazardous beyond measure; and to the statue before us was discovered. scale the stone-wrought mouinds impof- Four men emploved themselves to raise fible. Several times did I call on my ab- it up, who afterwards casi it out into the fent friend ; when Echo answered with church-yard, and otherwise facrileher hundred tongues, that my voice giouíly used it. Some une afier this (which, like the babbling reeds, told transaction, these four persons all met nought but hateful truths) Itill cried with violent deaths; one was loft at out in vain, for no one heeded what I fea, another was drowned in Lincolnfaid. In this dilemma, looking into an shire, a third drowned himself in an avenue cut through the thickness of the acljoining brook, and the fourth hairge wall on the left within the portal, fo ed himself. Whether from these warnbewildered and deftracted as I was, I ings, or from whatever cause it may pictured to myself that I saw hollow. be, this ftatue has a Thew of much eyed Envy, pushed on by uwieldiy veneration paid to it; which is fufArrogance, fialking through the gloomy ficiently made appear by the very peraperture to end at once nay laboars and feet taie it is in at present, although my troubles. Deiermining, however, placed in the way ahore fpecified. (thus apparently defertedin fight my We Antiquity-lollowers pow preown caute, I advanced forward io mect pared to reach our quarters. Enlivening the hideous fpectres, when, aining to converse on the business of the day heid seize the Furies by their fvaly throais, us out unul we arrived at thai turn I received fuch å death-cicaling blow where we irere detined to bid each from tome undeen adreriary, that I fell other firewell. Niglit law us part: and fentelets to the ground. On recovering under her wings I pulled the rest of the my tenies, I found ins kind guide with way (fome luif niile or 10), liticuing foine reiiorative cordials (which he had by curns to murmurios brook, or ruths taken with him at our outfit, ready to ing ride; io whispering breeze, or nightadivinitier confolariou and relief. is bird's fong - was chicerto!, nas colle foon as I had made my friend acquaint- tented!

AN ARCHITECT. ed with my mit-hap, hc, after a hearty

(To le contine'u.) laugh, easily brought me to own that I had been orercome by weariness, and Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 20. had laid down to indulge me in a short NOW bey leave to troulsle you with flumber. He then pointed out I a few remarks upon Clericus Leicefme on the opposite lide of the court trienfis's account of Gouda and Rotanother gate of entrance, through which terdam. The road from Utrecht to he had without the least difficulty (af- the former place pafies through llocr ter having firti been to a veighbouring den, a very firong forurets, and Bodehamlet on fome agriculucral matters) graren. (This village was burned by made his entry to ine. Through this' the French in 1672, in their retreat fecond oulet at lali ne returned,

and in froin an expedition which they had our way back to Abergavenny we were taken upon the ice against Leyden). induced to look at Lanvetrin church; llere the road divides ; one branch the tower of which, forming the left leads to Leyden and the Hague, the front, is remarkable, as are inany other other through a very fwampy country particulars both on the exterior as tv Gouda. Several of the windows of well as the interior of the cliurch. Ple the churclı, to juftly celebrated for their were moti a!trucied by a very antient beautiful paintings, were greatly da. monumental fiatue of religions, maged fone vears ago by a violent placed in a filly way on its edge againfi tioun of hail, thunder and lightning, the South exterior or wall of the build- which fet fire to be sleeple, and threating. There are some readings on ii, ened the wizole building with definicwhich have exercised the learning as tion. The flames were extinguished by well as the wit of many literary men. great exertions, and the windows reHere Sir H. Spelman's “ Hiftorrand Fare ired as well as poflible. The pott of Sacrilege” reminds me to follow his waggon, which goes from this place to example, by repeating a circumfiance Rotterdam, is ihe worst vehicle which which the clerk of the church acquaint- I ever faw. In Holland the public ed me with, relative to this Tatue. carriages are in general very bad, and About an hundred years ago, a grave

in the fainc fiate in which they were was dug at the East end within the fa:

100 véars ago. bric, when, coming to a certain depth, Rórtcrdrin derives its name from the

Rotte,

a

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