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of Zion opposite. It is true, the city beloved of God, has disappeared, and with it all the hallowed spots once contained within its walls. Yet the face of nature still endures; the rocks, mountains, lakes, and valleys are unchanged, save that loneliness and wildness are now, where once were luxury and every joy; and though their glory is departed, a high and mournful beauty still rests on many of their silent scenes. Amidst them a stranger will ever delight to wander, for there his imagination will seldom be at fault : the naked mountain, the untrodden plain, and the voiceless shore, will kindle into life around him, and his every step be filled with those deeds, through which guilt and sorrow passed away, and life and immortality were brought to light ... The streets of the city are very narrow and ill-paved, and the houses, in general, have a mean appearance.

“On the east of the city runs the valley or glen of Jehoshaphat,—that of Hinnom, which bounds the city, on the south and south-west, and into these descend the steep sides of mount Zion, on whose surface the city stands. To the north extends the plain of Jeremiah, the only level space around; it is covered partly with olive-trees.

“Jerusalem is on every side, except towards the north, overlooked by hills, higher than the one whereon it stands. When about mid-way up mount Olivet, you are on a level with the city walls, and the disparity towards the south is still greater. The form of the town is more like that of a square than any other, and its walls are lofty and strong.

“The sides of the hill of Zion have a pleasing aspect, as they possess a few olive-trees and rude gardens, and a crop of corn was at this time growing there.

“ The valley of Hinnom and Jehoshaphat meet at the south-east corner of mount Zion. They are both sprinkled with olive-trees ... Over the ravine of Hinnom, and directly opposite the city, is the mount of Judgment, or of evil counsel—because there, they say, the rulers took counsel against Christ, and there the palace of Caiaphas stood. It is a broad and barren hill... On its side is pointed out the aceldama, or field where Judas hung himself; a small and rude edifice stands on it, and it is used as a burying-place. But the most interesting portion of this hill, is where its rocks descend precipitously into the valley of Hinnom, and are mingled with

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many a straggling olive-tree. All these rocks are hewn into sepulchres of various forms and sizes ; no doubt they were the tombs of the ancient Jews, and are in general cut with considerable care and skill. They are often the resting place of the benighted passenger. Some of them open into inper apartments, and are provided with small windows or apertures cut in the rock. There is none of the sadness or darkness of the tomb, but in many, so elevated and picturesque is the situation, that a traveller may pass hours here with a book in his hand, while valley and hill are beneath and around him, Before the door of one large sepulchre stood a tree, on the brink of the rock, the sun was going down on Olivet on the right, and the resting-place of the dead commanded a sweeter scene than any of the abodes of the living. Many of the tombs have flights of steps leading up to them.

“ Although the size of Jerusalem was not very extensive, its very situation, on the brink of rugged hills, encircled by deep and wild valleys, bounded by eminences, whose sides were covered with groves and gardens, added to its numerous towers and temple, must have given it a singular and gloomy magnificence, scarcely possessed by any other city in the world. The most pleasing feature in the scenery around the city is the valley of Jehoshaphat ... The climate of the city and country is in general very healthy. The elevated position of the former, and the numerous hills which cover the greater part of Palestine, must conduce greatly to the purity of the air." The Jews bury on mount Olivet; the Mohammedans, on mount Moriah, and north of it, along the outside of the city walls ; and the Christians, on mount Zion.- CARNE's Eastern Letters, pp. 259–265, 289— 296.


“Now, alas! by Siloa's fountain

Moslem worship bows the knee;
Now on Judah's hallow'd mountain,

Lo, a Turkish mosque we see.
Lord, behold thy land forsaken,

By the heathen trodden down;
Arm of God, thy strength awaken

As in days of old renown.” “FROM the place where I sat, this mosque was the only object that relieved the general dulness of the city, and all the rest was dark, monotonous, and gloomy. The mosque is regarded with the greatest veneration by the Mohammedans, and to this day the Koran or the sword is the doom of any intruder. At its northern extremity is the golden gate, for many years closed, and flanked with a tower, in which a Mussulman soldier is constantly on guard ; for the Turks believe, that, by that gate, the Christians will one day enter and obtain possession of the city_city of mystery and wonder, and

still to be the scene of miracles ! It shall be trodden down of the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled ;' and the time shall come when the crescent shall no longer glitter over its battlements, nor the banner of the prophet wave over its walls.” — Incidents of Travel.

“Having left Mr. S-M, I went straight on to what I thought to be a gate, when I was stopped by the screams and cries of several Mahometans, 'Do not proceed, do not proceed—this is the most holy of our places.' It was the mosque of Omar, built on the ruins of Solomon's temple. I asked how far I might proceed without giving offence, in order to have at least a look at the place where my fathers once adored Jehovah, which was pointed out to me. There I stopped and looked in, and my feelings were such as cannot be described.”—Missionary Labours, &c. p. 79.


“I have seen the portion of the wall of Solomon's temple where my brethren, according to the flesh, go every Friday to weep and to pray: they have paved the place, which is ninety-two feet long and fifteen broad; there are two holes in the wall, which, as they say, lead toward the Holy of Holies; through these they pray, for they believe that this is the gate of Heaven through which all prayer must pass, and even those prayers which are offered up in any other place must come to the Holy City, and enter these gates of Heaven.” Alas! they know not Him who alone is the way of access to the throne of God. “The wall consists of twenty-three rows of stones; nine rows are of an immense size, some of the stones nine feet long and six broad ; sixteen of them form the foundation, and lie apparently in their original order, whilst it is evident that the other rows

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