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Scanderbeg the countryman of Alexander, who was born at Pella in Macedon, but Mr. Gibbon terms him so, and adds Pyrrhus to the list, in speaking of his exploits. Of Albania Gibbon remarks, that a country “within sight of Italy is less known than the interior of America.” Circumstances, of little consequence to mention, led Mr. Hobhouse and myself into that country before we visited any other part of the Ottoman dominions; and with the exception of Major Leake, then officially resident at Joannina, no other Englishmen have ever advanced beyond the capital into the interior, as that gentleman very lately assured me. Ali Pacha was at that time (October, 1809) carrying on war against Ibrahim Pacha, whom he had driven to Berat, a strong fortress which he was then besieging: on our arrival at Joannina we were invited to Tepaleni, his highness’s birthplace, and favourite Serai, only one day's distance from Berat; at this juncture the Vizier had made it his headquarters. After some stay in the capital, we accordingly followed; but though furnished with every accommodation, and escorted by one of the Vizier's secretaries, we were nine days (on account of the rains) in accomplishing a journey which, on our return, barely occupied four. On our route we passed two cities, Argyrocastro and Libochabo, apparently little inferior to Yanina in size; and no pencil or pen can ever do justice to the scenery in the vicinity of Zitza and Delvinachi, the frontier village of Epirus and Albania Proper. On Albania and its inhabitants I am unwilling to descant, because this will be done so much better by my fellow-traveller, in a work which may probably precede this in publication, that I as little wish to follow as I would to anticipate him. But some few observations are necessary to the text. The Arnaouts, or Albanese, struck me forcibly by their resemblance to the Highlanders of Scotland, in dress, figure, and manner of living. Their very mountains seemed Caledonian, with a kinder climate. The kilt, though white; the spare, active form ; their dialect, Celtic in its sound, and their hardy habits, all carried me back to Morven. No nation are so detested and dreaded by their neighbours as the Albanese; the Greeks hardly regard them as Christians, or the Turks as Moslems; and in fact they are a mixture of both, and sometimes neither. Their habits are predatory—all are armed; and the red-shawled Arnaouts, the Montenegrins, Chimariots, and Gegdes, are treacherous; the others differ somewhat in garb, and essentially in character. As far as my own experience goes, I can speak favourably. I was attended by two, an Infidel and a Mussulman, to Constantinople and every other part of Turkey which came within my observation; and more faithful in peril, or indefatigable in service, are rarely to be found. The Infidel was named Basilius, the Moslem, Dervish Tahiri; the former a man of middle age, and the latter about my own. Basili was strictly charged by Ali Pacha in person to attend us; and Dervish was one of fifty who accompanied us through the forests of Acarnania to the banks of Achelous, and onward to Messalonghi in AEtolia. There I took him into my own service, and never had occasion to repent it till the moment of my departure. When in 1810, after the departure of myfriend Mr. Hobhouse for England. I was seized with a severe fever in the Morea, these men saved my life by


frightening away my physician, whose throat they threatened to cut if I
was not cured within a given time. To this consolatory assurance of post-
humous retribution, and a resolute refusal of Dr. Romanelli's prescriptions,
I attributed my recovery. I had left my last remaining English servant at
Athens; my dragoman was as ill as myself, and my poor Arnaouts nursed
me with an attention which would have done honour to civilisation. They
had a variety of adventures; for the Moslem, Dervish, being a remarkably
handsome man, was always squabbling with the husbands of Athens; inso.
much that four of the principal Turks paid me a visit of remonstrance at
the Convent, on the subject of his having taken a woman from the bath—
whom he had lawfully bought however—a thing quite contrary to etiquette.
Basili also was extremely gallant amongst his own persuasion, and had
the greatest veneration for the church, mixed with the highest contempt of
churchmen, whom he cuffed upon occasion in a most heterodox manner.
Yet he never passed a church without crossing himself; and I remember
the risk he ran in entering St. Sophia, in Stambol, because it had once been
a place of his worship. On remonstrating with him on his inconsistent
proceedings, he invariably answered, “Our church is holy, our priests are
thieves;” and then he crossed himself as usual, and boxed the ears of the
first “papas” who refused to assist in any required operation, as was always
found to be necessary where a priest had any influence with the Cogia
Bashi of his village. Indeed, a more abandoned race of miscreants cannot
exist than the lower orders of the Greek clergy. -
When preparations were made for my return, my Albanians were sum-
moned to receive their pay. Basili took his with an awkward show of
regret at my intended departure, and marched away to his quarters with
his bag of piastres. I sent for Dervish, but for some time he was not to be
found; at last he entered, just as Signor Logotheti, father to the ci-devant
Anglo-consul of Athens, and some other of my Greek acquaintances, paid
me a visit. Dervish took the money, but on a sudden dashed it to the
ground; and clasping his hands, which he raised to his forehead, rushed
out of the room weeping bitterly. From that moment to the hour of my
embarkation, he continued his lamentations, and all our efforts to console
him only produced this answer, “M& paya,” “He leaves me.” Signor
Logotheti, who never wept before for any thing less than the loss of a
para (about the fourth of a farthing), melted; the padre of the convent, my
attendants, my visiters—and I verily believe that even Sterne's “foolish
fat scullion” would have left her “ fish-kettle,” to sympathise with the
unaffected and unexpected sorrow of this barbarian.
For my own part, when I remembered that, a short time before my
departure from England, a noble and most intimate associate had excused
himself from taking leave of me because he had to attend a relation “to a
milliner's,” I felt no less surprised than humiliated by the present occur-
rence and the past recollection. That Dervish would leave me with some
regret was to be expected: when master and man have been scrambling
over the mountains of a dozen provinces together, they are unwilling to
separate; but his present feelings, contrasted with his native ferocity,
improved my opinion of the human heart. I believe this almost feudal
fidelity is frequent amongst them. One day, on our journey over Parnassus,

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an Englishman in my service gave him a push in some dispute about the baggage, which he unluckily mistook for a blow; he spoke not, but sat down leaning his head upon his hands. Foreseeing the consequences, we endeavoured to explain away the affront, which produced the following answer: — “I have been a robber; I am a soldier; no captain ever struck me; you are my master, I have eaten your bread, but by that bread! (an usual oath) had it been otherwise, I would have stabbed the dog your servant, and gone to the mountains.” So the affair ended, but from that day forward he never thoroughly forgave the thoughtless fellow who insulted him. Dervish excelled in the dance of his country, conjectured to be a remnant of the ancient Pyrrhic : be that as it may, it is manly, and requires wonderful agility. It is very distinct from the stupid Romaika, the dull round-about of the Greeks, of which our Athenian party had so many specimens. The Albanians in general (I do not mean the cultivators of the earth in the provinces, who have also that appellation, but the mountaineers) have a fine cast of countenance; and the most beautiful women I ever beheld, in stature and in features, we saw levelling the road broken down by the torrents between Delvinachi and Libochabo. Their manner of walking is truly theatrical; but this strut is probably the effect of the capote, or cloak, depending from one shoulder. Their long hair reminds you of the Spartans, and their courage in desultory warfare is unquestionable. Though they have some cavalry amongst the Gegdes, I never saw a good Arnaout horseman; my own preferred the English saddles, which, however, they could never keep. But on foot they are not to be subdued by fatigue,

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As a specimen of the Albanian or Arnaout dialect of the Illyric, I here insert two of their most popular choral songs, which are generally chanted in dancing by men or women indiscriminately. The first words are merely a kind of chorus without meaning, like some in our own and all other


1. 1.
Bo, Bo, Bo, Bo, Bo, Bo, Lo, Lo, I come, I come; be
Naciarura, popuso. thou silent.

2. 2.
Naciarurana civin I come I run; open the door
Ha pen derini ti hin. that I may enter

3. 3.
Hape uderi escrotini Open the door by halves, that I
Ti win ti mar servetini. may take my turban.

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The last stanza would puzzle a commentator: the men have certainly buskins of the most beautiful texture, but the ladies (to whom the above is supposed to be addressed) have nothing under their little yellow boots and slippers but a well-turned and sometimes very white ankle. The Arnaout girls are much handsomer than the Greeks, and their dress is far more picturesque. They preserve their shape much longer also, from being always in the open air. It is to be observed, that the Aranout is not a written language: the words of this song, therefore, as well as the one which follows, are spelt according to their pronunciation. They are copied by one who speaks and understands the dialect perfectly, and who is a native of Athens.

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* The Albanese, particularly the women, are frequently termed “Caliriotes; ” for what reason I enquired in vain.

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I believe the two last stanzas, as they are in a different measure, ought to belong to another ballad. An idea something similar to the thought in the last lines was expressed by Socrates, whose arm having come in contact with one of his “ orozox riot,” Critobulus or Cleobulus, the philososopher complained of a shooting pain as far as his shoulder for some days after, and therefore very properly resolved to teach his disciples in future without touching them.

f Note [D]. See p. 100.

“Fair Greece I sad relic of departed worth 1
Immortal, though no more ; though fallen, great!”
Stanza lxxiii. lines 1. and 2.

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Before I say any thing about a city of which every body, traveller or not, has thought it necessary to say something, I will request Miss Owenson, when she next borrows an Athenian heroine for her four volumes, to have the goodness to marry her to somebody more of a gentleman than a

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