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foreign languages. This raised such a feeling against me, that I was at last deserted by every person except two or three Scotch friends, to whom, and the nation to which they belong, I always feel grateful.

The ground which I took in all my controversies was, not that of opposition to Brahminism, but to a perversion of it; and I endeavoured to show that the idolatry of the Brahmins was contrary to the practice of their ancestors, and the principles of the ancient books and authorities which they profess to revere and obey. Notwithstanding the violence of the opposition and resistance to my opinions, several highly respectable persons, both among my own relations and others, began to adopt the same sentiments.

“ I now felt a strong wish to visit Europe, and obtain, by personal observation, a more thorough insight into its manners, customs, religion, and political institutions. I refrained, however, from carrying this intention iato effect until the friends who coincided in my sentiments should be increased in number and strength. My expectations having been at length realized, in November, 1830, I embarked for England, as the discussion of the East India Company's charter was expected to come on, by which the treatment of the natives of India, and its future government, would be determined for many years to come, and an appeal to the King in Council, against the abolition of the practice of burning widows, was to be heard before the Privy Council ; and his Majesty the Emperor of Delhi had likewise commissioned me to bring before the authorities in England, certain encroachments on his rights by the East India Company. I accordingly arrived in England in April, 1831.

“ I hope you will excuse the brevity of this sketch, as I have no leisure at present to enter into particulars; and

I remain, &c.


(B)-P. 10.

The Reader is requested to erase this reference.

(C)-P. 19.

For the vindication of these views, and for important information respecting the means employed at that period by the Missionaries in Calcutta and the extent of their success, the Reader is referred to a pamphlet entitled the “ Correspondence relative to the Prospects of Christianity, and the Means of promoting its Reception in India" ; first published at the University of Cambridge, N. E., 1824; and the next year reprinted in London. The Rev. Dr. Ware, Professor of Divinity in Harvard College, having addressed to the Rev. W. Adam and to Rammohun Roy, a number of questions designed to elicit information on the topics specified in the above title, both of them-Mr. Adam at great length-furnished him with a series of replies, which appear to me to point out the only sure methods of promoting the cause of Christianity in India, and to have fulfilled their object with sound judgment and faithfulness. This correspondence is still, probably, accessible through the ordinary channels. Mr. Adam published his own portion of it in Calcutta, in 1824, under the title of “ Queries and Replies respecting the present state of the Protestant Missions in the Bengal Presidency"; with such additions as were suggested by the intended circulation of it in Calcutta, or required by further knowledge.

Mr. Adam had been one of the Baptist Missionaries. He was led, I believe, to that investigation which made him a Unitarian, by communication with Rammohun Roy. This change of sentiments, which was publicly avowed at the latter end of 1821, brought down upon him much bitterness of opposition ; but nothing transpired to throw any stigma upon his principles or his conduct, and some of those whose creed he had left, bore honorable testimony to them. He enjoyed the cooperation and friendship of Rammohun Roy; and in reference to his qualifications for the work which he executed, and for missionary labours, the Brahmin stated that he possessed a thorough acquaintance with the language, manners, and prejudices of the natives of India. See Corresp. p. 136.

The following are extracts from the Correspondence. In Rammohun Roy's letter to Dr. Ware, dated Calcutta, Feb. 2, 1824, is the following characteristic passage :

“ I have now prepared such replies to those queries as my knowledge authorizes and my conscience permits ; and now submit them to your judgment. There is one question at the concluding part of your letter, (to wit, . Whether it be desirable that the inhabitants of India should be converted to Christianity ; in what degree desirable, and for what reasons ?') which I pause to answer, as I am led to believe from reason, what is set forth in scripture, that ' in every nation he that feareth God and worketh righteousness is accepted with him,' in whatever form of worship he may have been taught to glorify God. Nevertheless, I presume to think, that Christianity, if properly inculcated, has a greater tendency to improve the moral, social, and political state of mankind, than any other known religious system.Corresp. pp. 125, 126.

The following passages are from his Replies :

“ The chief causes which prevent the natives of India from changing their religion, are the same as are found in the numerous class of Christians who are unable to give an answer to any man that asketh the reason of the hope they profess, viz, their reliance on the sanctity of the books received among them as revealed authorities, and the variety of prejudices planted in their minds in the early part of life. These are strongly supported by the dread of the loss of caste, the consequence of apostacy, which separates a husband from his wife, a father from his son, and a mother from her daughter. Besides, the doctrines which the Missionaries maintain and preach are less conformable with reason than those professed by Moosulmans, and in several points are equally absurd with the popular Hindoo creed. Hence there is no rational inducement for either of these tribes to lay aside their respective doctrines, and adopt those held up by the generality of Christians.” Corresp. p. 134.

“Unitarian Christianity is not exposed to the last-mentioned objections ; for even those who are inimical to every religion admit, that the Unitarian system is more conformable to the human understanding than any other known creed. But the other obstacles above-mentioned must remain unshaken, until the natives are enabled by the diffusion of knowledge to estimate, by comparing one religion with another, their respective merits and advantages, and to relinquish their divisions, as destructive of national union as of social enjoyment." Corresp. p. 134.

The following passage shows in what light the doctrines of the Missionaries appeared to intelligent Hindoos :

“ The natives of Hindoostan, in common with those of other countries, are divided into two classes, the ignorant and the enlightened.

The number of the latter is, I am sorry to say, comparatively very few here ; and to these men the idea of a triune-God, a man-God, and also the idea of the appearance of God in the bodily shape of a dove, or that of the blood of God shed for the payment of a debt, seem entirely Heathenish and absurd, and consequently their sincere conversion to [Trinitarian] Christianity must be morally impossible. But they would not scruple to embrace, or at least to encourage, the Unitarian system of Christianity, were it inculcated on them in an intelligible manner. The former class, I mean the ignorant, must be enemies to both systems of Christianity, Trinitarianism and Unitarianism. As they feel great reluctance in forsaking the deities worshipped by their fathers for foreign Gods, in substituting the blood of God for the water of the Ganges as a purifying substance ; so the idea of an invisible Being as the sole object of worship, maintained by Unitarians, is foreign to their understanding. Under these circumstances it would be advisable, in my humble opinion, that one or two, if not more gentlemen, well qualified to teach English literature and science, and noted for their moral conduct, should be employed to cultivate the understandings of the present ignorant generation, and thereby improve their hearts, that the cause of truth may triumph over false religion, and the desired comfort and happiness may be enjoyed by men of all classes.” Corresp. pp. 135, 136.

After stating that he expected great advantage from the services of " serious and able teachers of European learning and science, and christian morality, unmingled with religious doctrines"; and that missionary schools for corresponding purposes would be of great use, being, in his judgment, the only way of improving the understandings of the native children and ultimately meliorating their hearts; Rammohun Roy continues

There are numerous intelligent natives, who thirst after European knowledge and literature, but not many who wish to be made acquainted with the Christian religion and to examine its truth ; being chiefly deterred by the difficulty (if not utter impossibility) attached to the acquirement of a correct notion of the tremendous mystical doctrines which the Missionaries ascribe to their religion". Corresp. p. 137.

Respecting the translation of the Scriptures into the languages of the East, Rammohun Roy virtually says (p. 138) that to the best of his knowledge no benefit had arisen from it, and that no advantage could be expected from the translations then in circulation ; that they were neither accurate, nor free from sectarian influence as to the expression of christian doctrine : adding, “I at the same time acquit these transJators of wilful neglect or intentional perversion ; they were,

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