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obferved; without extending the fuppofition to the earth in general.
Learned men, not fufpecting any caufe, or occafion, on which the mountains could be thus feparately, and exclufively of the reft of the earth, thrown into their prefent fhapes; took it for granted, that the whole terreftrial globe, which they think was always invariably the fame, obtained the figure it appears in, at one and the fame time, that it came into existence . not knowing how to account for its various appearances in any other manner.
From thefe confiderations, and this view of the opinions of fome of the most diligent and fagacious obfervers of nature, it feems to be most probable, that the mountains in general were the effects of an earthquake; and that they did not proceed from any other caufe.
Having now gone through the whole argument of this Theory concerning the Mountains, it may not be amifs, for our
better recollection of it, to bring it into review, and fee how it ftands.
To clear the way, it was fhewn, that all the chief hypothefes, which have hitherto appeared concerning the origin of mountains, are liable to fuch objections, as evince the futility of them.
1, That they could not be coeval with the creation, is fhewn, as from other arguments, fo especially from one internal evidence, that many parts of their contents were not then extant in nature, as fuch. 2. That they were not the effects, nor confequences of the deluge, because, as was fhewn, it appears from fcripture, that they existed before; neither, having exifted, were they diffolved by the waters of it, and reformed again; because many other bodies, of a fofter and more yielding contexture than the rocks and minerals contained in the mountains, furvived the efforts of the deluge, and even ftill continue in a perfect state.
3. It was fhewn, that the mountains were not raised gradually, nor in any M. 4
manner, by the winds, or waves; because there are no data fufficient to fupport fuch a notion; and fuch, as it refts upon, counteract each other.
Thefe opinions having, for the above reafons, been rejected; and the date of the origin of mountains having been reduced within the period between the creation and the deluge *; the account of them which is here propofed, is, that they
*This period may be reduced within yet a narrower compafs. Fire being the inftrumental caufe of the earthquake, which raifed the mountains; and all metals being likewife the effects of fire; both were produced at the fame time, as well as by the fame cause : But the metals of brafs and iron were extant in the time of Tubal Cain, who taught the ufe of them, Tubal Cain was the feventh from Adam, in the same degree with Methuselah; whose birth happened in the year 687 of the creation; and 969 years before the flood. The mountains therefore were produced before this time.
But were there not metals, and minerals, even gold and precious stones, it will be afked, before it is here fuppofed there were mountains, or earthquakes to raise
they were produced on occafion of the fall of man; and were thrown up, by an univerfal earthquake, as a part of the curse denounced on the ground for man's fake.
In proof of which, the following confiderations have been offered - That as there is no other affignable cause of them within this period; fo that there is a moral propriety in this-That the curfe is more visible, and more felt, in this part of the creation, than in any otherThat the mountains, from the confused ftate of their feveral ftrata, as well as
them; even in the paradifiacal ftate; as mention is made of gold, bdellium, and the onyx ftone, in the defcription of paradife? To this it may be replied, that this part of the defcription doth not refer to the time when that state existed; but to the time of Mofes; there being no verb in the original, nor other word, to fix the time. And therefore all tranflations run in the prefent tenfe, as being the most proper. tranflate-The land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good: There is bdellium, and the onyx-ftone. Gen. ii. 11, 12. It is not faid there were any fuch productions there originally.
from their outward appearance, bear all the marks of ruins-That the effects of fire appear very vifibly in many of the contents of them. And that therefore these feveral phenomena were the productions of thofe fubterraneous fires, which burst into an earthquake; and produced the mountains And that this hypothefis beft accounts for thefe pher nomena It hath been farther fhewn, that, from an attentive examination of the hiftory of the fall, it appears to have been attended with great commotions in the earth and air. with thunder, tempeft, and eruptions of fire; and therefore probably with an earthquake toowhere, by the way, an attempt was made to find out the fituation of paradife That there are fome other paffages in fcripture, which feem likewife to give an account of an extraordinary presence of the Almighty; and of his descent in dreadful Majefty, accompanied with an earthquake, thunder, and lightning, when he