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HISTORY OF THE WORLD,

FROM THX

EARLIEST RECORDS TO THE PRESENT TIME.

bY

PHILIP §MTTH, B.A.,

ONE OF THE PRINOIPAL CONTRIBUTORS TO THE DICTIONARIES OF THE GREEK AND ROMAN
ANTIQUITIES, BIOGRAPHY, AND GEOGRAPHY.

VOL U.

ANCIENT HISTOET.

FROM THE ACCESSION OF PHILIP OF MACEDON TO THE ROMAN
CONQUEST OF CARTHAGE AND ASIA.

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NEW YORK:
D APPLETON & CO., 443 & 445 BROADWAY.
1865.

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CONTENTS.

BOOK IV.

THE MACEDONIAN EMPIRE AND RISE OF THE HELLENISTIC

KINGDOMS.

From The Accession Of Philip To The Accession of Antiocthjs Sotee.

B.c. 359 To B.c. 280.

CHAPTER XV.
Philip Of Macedon.B.c. 359 To B.c. 336.

PAGH

Accession of Philip—His first successes—The Macedonian monarchy—Education

and character of Philip—His relations to Athens—Capture of Amphipolis and

Pydna—The Social War—The Sacred War—The Amphictyons—Philip in Thes-

saly—Stopped at Thermopylae by the Athenians—Sparta and Megalopolis-

Demosthenes—The First Philippic—Peace Party at Athens—Phocion—The

Olynthian war—JSschines—Peace between Athens and Philip—End of the Sa-

cred War—Demosthenes and Isocrates on the Peace—Progress of Philip—New

war with Athens—Philip in Scythia—The Locrian War—Philip general of the

Amphictyons—Capture of Elatea—Alliance of Thebes and Athens—Battle of

Chaeronea—Death of Isocrates—Demosthenes "on the Crown "—Philip general

of the Greeks for the Persian War—Death of Philip . . . 1—31

CHAPTER XVI.

The Conquests Op Alexander.B.c. 336 To B.c. 323.

Accession of Alexander—His character and education—His early public life—Quar-

rel with his father, and outward reconciliation—State of Greece at his accession

—Second congress of Corinth—Alexander and Diogenes—Campaigns in Ulyria

and Thrace—Revolt of Thebes and Athens—Destruction of Thebes—Submission

of Athens—State of the Persian empire: rebellions and dissolution—Greek mer-

cenaries—Bagoas, Mentor, and Memnon—Reconquest of Cyprus, Phoenicia, and

Egypt—Accession of Darius Codomannus—Events preceding the invasion—

State of feeling in Greece—Policy of Demosthenes—True view of Alexander's

conquest—Constitution of the Macedonian army—Antipater left as regent of

Macedonia*—Small force of Alexander—His departure from Pella, and rendez-

vous at Sestos—Alexander at Troy—Battle of the Granicus—Conquest of Asia

Minor—Siege of Halicarnassus—Death of Memnon—The Gordian knot—Battle

of Issus—Capture of Tyre and Gaza—Conquest of Egypt—Visit to the oracle of

Ammon—Foundation of Alexandria—Alexander passes the Euphrates—Battle

of ArbeUv—Alexander at Pcrsepolis—Death of Darius—March into Hyrcania,

Drangiana, and Bactria—Death of Philotas—Alexander crosses the Paropami-

sus and Oxus—Reaches the Jaxartes—Conquers Sogdiana—Murder of Clitus—

Marries Roxana—Death of Calisthenes—Invasion of India—Defeat of Porus—

Alexander is compelled to turn back from the Hyphasis—Voyage down the Hy-

daspes and Indus—Voyage of Nearchus to the Persian Gulf—March through the

Desert of Gedrosia—Return to Susa—Alexander marries the daughter of Darius

—Other intermarriages with Persians—Mutiny of the army—Death of Hephaes-

tion—Alexander at Babylon—His vast schemes—His death . . 32—81
CHAPTER XVII.

Division or Alexander's Empire. From The Death or Alexander To The

Accession Of Antiochus Soter,B.c. 322 To B.c. 280.

PAGB

Settlement of tho kingdom on Philip Aridreus—Perdiccas regent—Division of the

provinces—The Diadochi—Funeral of Alexander—Birth of Alexander .ffigus—

The Lamian war—Perdiccas and Eumenes, Antipator and Olympias—Death of

Perdiccas—New partition of the Provinces—War of Eumenes with Antigonus—

Death of Eumenes—Murder of Philip Aridreus—Cassander master of Greece,

Antigonus of Asia—Coalition against Antigonus—Demetrius Poliorcetes—Bat-

tle of Gaza—General pacification—Murder of Alexander JSgus—Renewal of the

war—Ptolemy in Greece—Battle of Salamis in Cyprus—The generals become

kings—Siege of Rhodes—Demetrius in Greece—Successes of Seleucus Nicator

—New coalition against Antigonus—Battle of Ipsus—The Hellenistic kingdoms

—Syria—Egypt—Pergamus—Bactria 82—92

CHAPTER XVIII.

Last Years Of Liberty In Greece. From The Death or Alexander To

THE RISE OE THE ACTLEAN LEAGUE.—B.c. 834 TO B.c. 280.

Condition of Greece at Alexander's departure—Athens and Sparta—Movements of Agis

—His defeat and death—^Eschines and Demosthenes—Affair of Harpalus—Ex-

ile of Demosthenes—Alexander's edict for restoring the exiles—Effect of Alex-

ander's death—The Lamian war—Victory of Antipater—Deaths of Hyperides,

Demosthenes, and Demades—Polysperchon—Proclamation of Greek liberty—

Death of Phocion—Cassander master of Athens—Demetrius the Phalerean—

Cassander in Peloponnesus—Fortification of Sparta—Affairs of Macedonia—

Restoration of Thebes—Successes of Antigonus in Greece—General pacification

—Cassander master of Macedonia and Greece—Demetrius Poliorcetes at Athens

—His second visit—Successful war with Cassander—Recall to Asia, and return

to Greece—Repulse from Athens—Death of Cassander—Philip III., Antipater,

and Alexander—Demetrius Poliorcetes takes Athens—King of Macedonia—His

wars in Greece—With Pyrrhus and Lysimachus—His flight to Asia, imprison-

ment and death—Expulsion of Pyrrhus by Lysimachus—Anarchy in Macedonia

—Antigonus Gonatas and his dynasty—Death of Lysimachus—Pyrrhus in Italy

—Irruption of the Gauls—Rise of the JStolian and Achaean Leagues—Connec-

tion of Greece with the West—Sicilian and Italian Greeks—Agathocles—Litera-

ture and art during the Macedonian period—Schools of philosophy . 93—128

BOOK V.

ITALY AND THE RISE OF THE ROMAN STATE.

From The Earliest Accounts To The Subjuoation or Italy By Roue, In

B.c. 264.

CHAPTER XIX.

Italy And Its Primitive Populations.

Rome and her empire—Its relation to Italy—Description of the Peninsula—The Alps
and Apennines—Comparison with Greece—Natural unity of Italy—Its primi-
tive inhabitants—Its three chief stocks—The Iapygian race—The Italian race
—Its two divisions, Latin and Sabellian—The Etruscans—Their country—Their
origin—Tyrrhenians and Rasenna—The Etruscan Language—Their early power
by land and sea—Relations to Greece and Carthage—Their decline and con-

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