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BARBAROUS MODES OF PUNISHMENT IN PERSIA.

MANY barbarous modes of punishment now in use in Persia are of ancient institution. Rebels were burned alive, or sawed in two. The victims of political differences had their eyes put out, or their ears, noses, or hands cut off. These were amusements for the ancient, as they are for the modern sovereigns of this country. During the civil contests which followed the death of Kerim Khan, Zachee Khan, who usurped the government, coming to the town of Yezdikhast, made a sudden demand on the magistrates for a sum of money due to the government, which he accused them of secreting. They denied the arrears, asserted they had no money concealed, and it was out of their power to collect the sum he required. On finding the unhappy citizens firm in their declarations, he, without more ado, ordered a certain number of the most respected characters in the town to be taken to a rock, near the window where he sat, and immediately hurled to the bottom of the precipice, where they lay a mangled spectacle of horror. One of the wretched victims still survives, a circumstance which, to those who look at the height of the rock, appears miraculous. The present rulers are of a more benignant character, but the infliction of punishment is still often too summary.

Robbery is treated with the utmost severity. One of the princes, having, in a journey, found a band of mountaineers in the act of dividing their plunder, caused their bodies to be frightfully mutilated, and sent them to their friends and neighbours, to warn them of the consequences which that crime would be sure to bring after it in Persia.

How different this from the institution of regular trials, which, by the delay and deliberation they imply, accustom the offended, however powerful, and however justly indignant, to repress the acts which flow from their hasty resentment!-Mr. Kinneir tells us, that he saw two thieves built up in a wall, where they were left to perish.-MALTe Brun.

THE BLOOD-FISH, OR CARIBITO.

OUR Indians caught with a hook the fish known in the country by the name of Caribe, or CARIBITO, because no other fish has such a thirst for blood. It attacks bathers and swimmers, from whom it often carries away considerable pieces of flesh. When a person is only slightly wounded, it is difficult for him to get out of the water without receiving a severe wound. The Indians dread extremely these Caribes; and several of them showed us the scars of deep wounds in the calf of the leg, and in the thigh, made by these little animals. They live at the bottom of rivers; but if a few drops of blood be shed on the water, they arrive by thousands on the surface. When we reflect on the number of these fish, the most voracious and cruel of which are only four or five inches long; on the triangular form of their sharp-cutting teeth, and on the amplitude of their retractile mouth, we need not be surprised at the fear which the Caribes excite in the inhabitants of the banks of the rivers Apurê and the Oroonoko. In places where the river was very limpid, and where not a fish appeared, we threw into the water little morsels of flesh covered with blood. In a few minutes a cloud of Caribes came to dispute the prey. The belly of this fish has a cutting edge, indented like a saw; its body towards the back is ash-coloured, with a tint of green; but the under part, the gill-covers, and the pectoral fins, are of a fine orange. The Caribito has a very agreeable taste: as no one dares to bathe where it is found, it may be considered as one of the greatest scourges of those climates, in which the sting of the mosquitoes, and the irritation of the skin, render the use of baths so necessary.-HUMBOLDT.

THE HONEY-GUIDE.

IN the travels of Sparrman in the Hottentot country, the following interesting description is given of a bird, which is called the honey-guide. It is rather

THE HONEY-Guide.

larger than a sparrow, is very fond of honey, and it points out in the most sagacious manner the nests of the bees to the bears. When these brutes destroy a nest of bees, this bird feeds voraciously upon the honey which is spilt. As soon as it has discovered a nest of bees, it looks out for some companion to attack it. It entices a bear by its piercing cries, and conducts it to the vicinity of the nest. The bird flies before it, and rests at intervals, awaiting its companion in the chase, and exciting it, by fresh cries, to follow it. But, in proportion as it approaches the nest, it shortens the space of its stations, and its cry becomes less frequent. If, sometimes impatient of arrival at the nest, it has left its companion far behind it, it returns to him, and appears, by its redoubled cries, to reproach him for his slowness. Having arrived at the nest of the bees, it alights, and rests quietly on a neighbouring tree or bush, awaiting the end of the expedition, and that part of the booty which belongs to it. The Hottentots never fail to leave it that portion of the comb which contains the eggs and young, of which this bird is more voracious than of honey itself. M. Sparrman having offered to the Hottentots who accompanied him an ample recompense of tobacco and glass beads, if they would assist him in catching a honey-guide; they rejected his proposal, saying that this bird was their friend, and they would not betray it.

Ir is particularly worth observation, that the more we magnify, by the assistance of glasses, the works of nature, the more regular and beautiful they appear; while it is quite different in respect to those of art: for when they are examined through a microscope, we are astonished to find them so coarse, so rough and uneven, although they have been done with all imaginable care by the best workmen. Thus God has impressed, even on the smallest atom, an image of his infinity.- -STURM.

WHENEVER, (said Dr. Johnson,) whenever chance brings within my observation, a knot of young ladies busy at their, needles, I consider myself as in the school of virtue; and though I have no extraordinary skill in plain-work or embroidery, I look upon their operations with as much satisfaction as their governess, because I regard them as providing a security against the most dangerous insnarers of the soul, by enabling them to exclude idleness from their solitary moments, and, with idleness, her attendant train of passions, fancies, chimeras, fears, sorrows and desires.

LONDON:

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND.

Ir may justly be feared, that those persons never grieved PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS, for their own sins who can rejoice at other people's.

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Saturday

VOL. V.

SEPTEMBER

THE

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No 143.

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

Magazine.

27TH, 1834.

PRICE ONE PENNY.

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In 1717 Mr. Wotton gives a detailed description of
He notices the
the cathedral to Browne Willis.
seeming to be as old as the church ;'
Duke of Bedford's, or north-west tower; the south-
the nave and side aisles, 110 feet in length from the
west tower,
west door to the screen; the choir, with its stalls;
the bishop's throne, erected by Bishop Marshall in
Edward the Fourth's reign; the altar-screen, also
the work of Bishop Marshall; the organ-loft over-
shattered remains of an organ, given after the Resto-
the stalls on the north side of the choir, with some
ration of Charles the Second by Lady Kemeys, of
He enumerates various monuments, and
Cefn Mabley; the Chapter House, and the Lady
Chapel.
adds, that the roof of the nave and choir was of
timber, and that there was no painted glass in the
windows.

The cathedral had been much injured during the
great Rebellion. In 1697, Bishop Bull, Archdeacon
a true desire to see you, and discourse with you,
of Llandaff, observes, in writing to a friend, “I have
especially about our sad and miserable church at
Llandaff. Tremendous storms in 1703 and 1720

THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE.

LLANDAFF CATHEDRAL.

consecrated

THE early history of the See of Llandaff is involved
in considerable obscurity. Godwin adverts to the
rumour, that the church was founded by King Lucius
about the year 180; but as he could not discover
that any bishop sat there before Dubritius, it is
probable that he had no predecessors, since the
memory of his successors is so carefully preserved.
According to Fuller, Dubritius was
Bishop of Llandaff by Germanus and Lupus in the
year 426, and sat sometimes at Caerleon and some-
times at Llandaff. Usher, Godwin, and other autho-
rities, state that he was not appointed Archbishop of
Caerleon till 490, and that he held the two sees till
512, when he resigned Llandaff to his disciple, St.
Teilo. In 519 he resigned Caerleon to his successor,
St. David, (who removed the metropolitan see from
Caerleon to Menevia,) and retired to Bardsey Island,
His bones were
on the coast of Carnarvonshire.
removed from thence to Llandaff in 1120, and de-
posited before the high altar, where stood a monu-
ment attributed to him.

*

St. Teilo, to whom several churches in Wales are dedicated, (as Llandilo,) lived in great repute for sanctity till his death in 540. A ring was found on opening a tomb in the cathedral in 1764, supposed to be the episcopal ring of St. Teilo, a large, dull, heart-shaped amethyst, set in gold, and ornamented with enamelled leaves, probably of Italian workmanship; it was in the Strawberry Hill collection.

large portion of the
damaged the battlements, and expedited the ruin of
the nave and choir. In 1723
roof of the nave fell in, and the choir becoming use-
less, the service was removed to the Lady Chapel.

was

Strenuous exertions were made by Bishops Clavering and Harris, and the Chapter, to procure sub1737, £2000 had been expended, and about £1500 scriptions for the restoration of the cathedral. In more was required. It would be superfluous to The greater part of the nave observe, that the worst taste is exhibited in these reparations. suffered to remain a ruin. A Grecian façade deforms the entrance to the present nave and choir, while the Gothic windows and pointed arches in this part of the original building are unaltered, except the two over the altar and west door, are Grecian. The cumeastern arches. The clerestory windows, and those brous screen, stalls, bishop's throne, and pulpit, as same style; the old screen, stalls, altar-screen, and well as the stuccoed ceiling and cornices, are in the a portion of the painting on the latter representing Bishop Marshall's throne having been destroyed; but the bishop on his knees, addressing the Virgin in the of the heavy Grecian portico erected over the altar: clouds, was discovered a few years ago, on the removal Bishop Harris, in a letter to Browne Willis, written in 1736, says that the "conceit of this portico" was Josephus." taken by Wood the architect, "from a description in

St. Teilo was succeeded by St. Odoceus, and it is said by Godwin, "that during these three bishops' times, so much riches had been bestowed on Llandaff, that if it enjoyed the tenth part of that which it has been endowed with first and last, it would be one of the wealthiest churches in Christendom, whereas it has now hardly sufficient to repair itself." The date of the death of Odoceus is uncertain. Bishop Urban may fairly be considered as the founder of the present church. He was consecrated in 1108. He found the old cathedral (a structure of small dimensions), in a ruinous state; in 1119 he exerted himself to obtain funds for the projected edifice, which was commenced on the 14th of April, 1120, and dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul. The west front, (with the exception of the north-west tower, which was built by Jasper, Duke of Bedford, about the year 1485,) and the Lady Chapel, with its roof of groined stone, are favourable specimens of early English architecture; the south-west tower, which is in the same style, was tolerably perfect in 1787.

There are three circular enriched doorways in the nave; over that to the west is a small statue of St. Dubritius.

Among the individuals who have filled this see, we may also notice John de Monmouth, consecrated in 1296, who was recommended to the Pope by Archbishop Peckham* for his skill in the Welsh language. Nor should Bishop Morgan be passed over in silence, termed by Wood" a very learned man," and the translator of the Bible into Welsh. He was consecrated in 1595. His successor, Godwin, compiled the catalogue of the Bishops of England, " a work," says Wood, in his Athene Oxonienses, "which will ever be admired and read by all true lovers of antiquities.' Within the last seventy years, the See of Llandaff can boast of the distinguished names of Shipley, Barrington, Watson, Marsh, Van Mildert, Sumner, and last, though not least, of Copleston, the talented and munificent prelate who at present presides over this diocese.

Cole MSS. Brit, Mus.

To the east of the choir stands the Lady Chapel, mischief from the devastating hand of renovaseventy feet in length. It has sustained but little tion; a large Grecian window has replaced the pointed one at its eastern extremity. The circular arch which separated this chapel from the choir, is worthy of notice, from the peculiarity of its form.

The monuments suffered severely during these Matthew, and Jenette his wife, which stood in the operations. A beautiful monument of Sir William Sir W. died in 1500. Various old nave, was taken to pieces, and deposited in the chapter-house. elaborate monuments of Christopher Matthew, who tombs of bishops changed their position, but the died in 1500, and Elizabeth his wife, to the north side of the Lady Chapel; that of Christian Audley, of the time of Henry the Fourth, to the south of the Fourth's reign, at the end of the north aisle; the same; and that of David Matthew, in Edward remain untouched.

In the modern nave is a massive monument,

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JOHN W. PARKER, Printer, West Strand, London.

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Ir is impossible to estimate the amount of evil which mankind would experience in their civil capacity, were the Scriptures no longer considered of divine origin, nor constituted the ultimate standard of all moral and political obligation. All reverence for the laws would cease, for the lawgiver would have only his own authority, or the mere glimmerings of the law of nature, to enforce his commands; while those who had to obey the laws would soon have every just and equitable principle banished from their minds, and every sacred feeling obliterated from their boThe whole fabric of society would soon go to pieces, if men were removed beyond the sphere of the public and private sanctions of scriptural morality.-BLAKEY.

soms.

WHAT I have done is worthy of nothing but silence and forgetfulness; but what God hath done for me is worthy of everlasting and thankful memory.-BISHOP HALL.

THERE is no quality of the mind, by which men, even good men, are more apt to be misled than zeal; particularly zeal in religion, "zeal God," as St. aul terms it. Where the object is good, the quality is of high value: "it is good to be zealously affected always in good thing;" and beyond controversy, no object can be better than the promotion of God's glory, and the furtherance of his religion, But it ought not to carry us beyond the bounds of moderation. It ought to be regulated by a correct knowledge of the nature and character of the religion which we profess, and which we are desirous of furthering; and it ought to be brought into subjection to the dictates of that religion: a religion, not furious, fiery, implacable, cruel; but "peaceable, gentle, easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy." They who act for the furtherance of that religion, in a manner inconsistent with its dictates, show that however sincere be their "zeal of God," it is "not according to knowledge;" "that they know not what manner of spirit they are of." Every deviation from the rules of charity and brotherly love, of gentleness and forbearance, of meekness and patience, which our Lord prescribes to his disciples, however it may appear to be founded on an attachment to him and zeal for his service, is in truth a departure from the religion of Him, "the Son of Man," who "came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them."-BISHOP MANT.

or,

BETTER to be despised for too anxious apprehensions, than ruined by too confident a security.—BURKE.

A WORD OF ADVICE TO THE DISCONtented.

There's discontent from sceptre to the swain,
And from the peasant to the king again.
Then whatsoever in thy will afflict thee,
Or, in thy pleasure seem to contradict thee,
Give it a welcome as a wholesome friend,
That would instruct thee to a better end.
Since no condition from defect is free,
Think not to find what here can never be.
ALEX. NICCHOLES. 1615.

HOSPITAL FOR ANIMALS.

I VISITED at Surat, (in the East Indies,) a place called the Pinjra Pol, which is appropriated for the reception of old, worn-out, lame, or disabled animals. At that time, they chiefly consisted of buffaloes and cows; but there were also goats and sheep, and even cocks and hens; some of which latter had lost their feathers, and here, shorn of their plumes, walked

about the courts without molestation.

This establishment is supported by the Hindú Banians of Surat; and is situated in that part of the suburbs of the city called Gopipura, between the inner and outer walls. Animals of every description, and from all parts, are admitted to the benefits of this institution; as with their number, the Banians conceive they increase the general happiness, and their own reputation.

The establishment occupies a court about fifty feet square; to which there is a large area attached, to admit of the cattle roving about: it is strewed with grass and straw on all parts, that the aged may want neither food nor bedding. There are cages to protect such birds as have become objects of charity, but most of them were empty: there is, however, a colony of pigeons, which are daily fed.

By far the most remarkable object in this singular establishment is a house on the left hand on entering, about twenty-five feet long, with a boarded floor, elevated about eight feet: between this and the ground is a depository where the deluded Banians throw in quantities of grain which gives life to and feeds a host of vermin, as dense as the sands on the sea-shore, and consisting of all the various genera usually found in the abodes of squalid misery.

The entrance to this loft is from the outside, by a stair; which I ascended. There are several holes grain is thrown: I examined a handful of it which cut in different parts of the floor, through which the had lost all the appearance of grain: it was a moving mass, and some of the pampered creatures which fed upon it were crawling about on the floor-a circumstance which hastened my retreat from the house in which this nest of vermin is deposited. The Pinjra Pol is in the very midst of houses, in one of the most populous cities in Asia; and must be a prolific source of nightly comfort to the citizens who reside in the neighbourhood; to say nothing of the strayed few who manage to make their way into the more distant domains of the inhabitants.

It did not appear that there was any regular period for feeding the vermin; many Hindús being in the habit of throwing in handfuls of grain, at different times, as suits their notions of duty. It is an annual custom in Surat to convey to this place the refuse of all the Banians' granaries in the town; and, at all times throughout the year, to dispose of such grain as may have become unfit for use, in this manner. The house of which I have now been speaking is exceedingly warm; and has a most disagreeable closeness, which I attributed to the quantity of decayed vegetable matter that must have been accumulating for many years, as the people themselves are not aware at what time this establishment was first founded. There are similar institutions to the one I have just described, at almost every large city on the western side of India, and particularly at those places where the Banians or Jains reside. They have their origin, it is well known, in the great desire which possesses the minds of these people to preserve animal life; and though it is comprehensible to a native of Europe why aged cows and horses are preserved, from the circumstance of their having done their owners some service, still there can be no

stronger instance of human caprice than to nurture | size of the trunk, but it increases gradually until a noxious and offensive mass of vermin, which every the tree reaches maturity; after that period, it again other race but themselves are anxious to extirpate diminishes in volume, and in extreme old age comand destroy. The great body of Hindús do not pletely disappears. The structure of this portion of protect and preserve animal life as the Banians do; the plant is cellular; the cells in the outer part but it is a very common practice among them to feed being circular, and those in the centre of a hexagonal with regularity pigeons, and even the fish in rivers. form (six sided.) The celebrated Linnæus, endeaI have seen too, at Anjár, in Cutch, an establishment voured to discover some analogy between the pith in of rats, conjectured to exceed five thousand in num- a tree, and the brain and spinal chord in man, but it ber, which were kept in a temple, and daily fed with has been since proved to be an organ of secondary flour, which was procured by a tax on the inhabitants importance, and not by any means necessary to the of the town!! life of the plant. Surrounding the pith, we find the heart-wood, this is the portion of the tree that has been formed in previous years, and may be considered as dead wood, the fluids contained in its pores not being in active circulation. A series of circular marks of a lighter colour than other portions of the wood are likewise visible; these have the name of the spurious grain, and their number indicates the age of the tree, one circle being formed every year; other lines are also seen branching out from the centre in all directions; these constitute the silver grain. The next great circle is the alburnum or sap-wood; it is white, and full of moisture, and consists of innumerable tubes of various forms, through which the sap rises and falls, or is conveyed to different parts of the plant. The alburnum in the birch, contains so much sugar and mucilage, that by some of the inhabitants of the north of Europe. it is sometimes cut into junks, and used as bread

The following figures are supposed to represent the
different forms of Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

the tubes or organs of
nourishment.

[From a paper by LIEUTENANT BURNES, in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.]

ALTHOUGH vegetable life is considered inferior to animal life, and although the structure of a vegetable is far from being equally complicated, still, it consists of an infinitely greater series of organs, than is in general imagined. A vegetable has not, it is true, the power of moving from place to place, nor that of voluntary action, but every arrangement necessary for its growth and nourishment, and for the perpetuation of its species, is to be found in the most insignificant production of the vegetable world, as perfectly formed, and as beautifully arranged, as in the most elevated being in the scale of nature.

If we make a horizontal section of the trunk of a tree, or shrub, we shall find the parts of which it is composed, arranged in circles round a common centre.

Alburnum.

STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OF
VEGETABLES.

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The simple tubes, fig, 1, contain the resinous and oily fluids which are found in various plants; the porous tubes, fig. 2, are filled in the same manner, and are supposed to convey these fluids into the sap,

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

to produce new changes; the trachee and the
false trachea, fig. 3
and 4, are generally
filled with thin wa-
tery liquids, and pro-
bably, carry off the
superfluous mois-
ture, and allow the
harder parts to be-
come more solid.

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The outermost portion of the tree is called the bark,

and is itself composed of three parts; the innermost, formed by the cortical layers, is of a fibrous texture, and contains canals or tubes, running in various directions; the cortical layers are surrounded by the parenchyma, which is a soft substance, consisting of cells filled with fluid, and generally of a greenish colour. "The functions of these last two parts are of great importance. The tubes of the fibrous parts appear to be the organs that receive the sap, the cells seem destined for the elaboration of its parts, and for the exposure of them to the action of the atmosphere, and the new matter is annually produced in the spring immediately on the inner surface of the cortical layer of the last year."

The third, or outermost part of the bark, is the epidermis or cuticle, and varies much in different

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