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to put an end to his life. The length of this sary animal, from the nose to the root of the tail, was five feet four inches, and from the bottom of the foot to the top of the shoulder, thirty-one inches. Its head was round, and much like that of a cat, the upper lip being entire, and supplied with whiskers; the nose flat, the eyes large, of a brownish hue, but very much suffused with blood; the ears short and pointed. It had no mane. The neck, back, and sides were of a dusky ash colour, with some yellowish spots; the belly of a dirty white; the hair on his buttocks long and shaggy. Each jaw was armed with four cutting, four canine, and sixteen grinding teeth; each of its fore-paws and hind-feet with five toes, and very strong talons.
Four lassos, attached to the girths of the saddles of two horses, were fastened to the lion, which was thus dragged to the village, where we arrived about nine o'clock, and were received by the whole of the inhabitants with shouting and rejoicing. The remainder of the night was spent in dancing and carousing.
The people informed me that the favourite food of the lion is horse-flesh; that watching a good opportunity it jumps upon the back of its prey, which it worries, tearing the flesh with one paw, whilst it secures its hold with the other; after sucking the blood it drags the carcase to some hiding-place, covers it with leaves, and returns when hungry to devour it. If it enter a place where horned cattle are kept, the bulls and cows immediately form a circle, and place the calves and young cattle in the centre; they then face their enemy boldly, and not unfrequently oblige him to retreat, on which the bulls follow him and often gore him to death. It would therefore appear to be more from fear than choice that he is attached to the flesh of horses. The animal was never known to attack a man; so timid is he of the human race, that he runs away at the apearance of a child, which may, perhaps, be accounted for from the abundance of cattle supplying him so easily with food, that he is seldom in want of flesh.
[STEVENSON'S Residence in South America.]
THE cheerfulness of heart which springs up in us, from the survey of Nature's works, is an admirable preparation for gratitude. The mind has gone a great way towards praise and thanksgiving, that is filled with such secret gladness. A grateful reflection on the supreme Cause, who produces it, sanctifies it in the soul, and gives it its proper value. Such an habitual disposition of mind, consecrates every field and wood, turns an ordinary walk into a morning or evening sacrifice, and will improve those transient gleams of joy which naturally brighten up and refresh the soul on such occasions, into an inviolable and perpetual state of bliss and happiness.-ADDISON.
In the wildest anarchy of man's insurgent appetites and sins, there is still a reclaiming voice; a voice which, even when in practice disregarded, it is impossible not to own; and to which, at the very moment that we refuse our obedience, we find that we cannot refuse the homage of what ourselves do feel and acknowledge to be the best, the highest principles of our nature.-CHAlmers.
ONE reason why God hath scattered up and down several degrees of pleasure and pain, in all the things that environ and affect us, and blended them together, in almost all that our thoughts and senses have to do with, is, that we, finding imperfection, dissatisfaction, and want of complete happiness in all the enjoyments which the creatures can afford us, might be led to seek it in the enjoyment of Him with whom "there is fulness of joy, and at whose right hand are pleasures for evermore."-LOCKE.
GRECIAN ARCHITECTURE. ARCHITECTURE has been divided into Civil, Military, and Naval. Civil architecture, of which we are about to speak, refers to the building of churches, palaces, private houses, &c., and the different varieties of style may be said to be four, namely, Egyptian, Chinese, Grecian, and Gothic. On referring to the more permanent buildings in these different styles, we shall find the peculiarities of each can be easily traced to the more ordinary dwellings of the original inhabitants of the countries to which they respectively belong.
The Egyptian style is massive, and the buildings are frequently excavated from the solid rock, thus following the practice of the people who dwelt in caverns cut out of the sides of rocks and hills, before the art of building habitations was practised. The Chinese formed their lighter dwellings after the fashion of the original Tartar tent, with awnings and verandahs. The Grecian orders of architecture are referrible to buildings of wood, and the Gothic to bowers formed by the bending over and entwining together of the upper branches of trees.
In the present paper we shall confine ourselves to the Grecian style, which was also adopted by the Romans.
The buildings of these ancient nations are distinguished by five varieties of columns, and as many different modes of arranging the mouldings, and other ornaments with which they are decorated. These various methods of decoration have acquired the name of the Five Orders of Architecture, and, in well-designed buildings, the ornaments and mouldings belonging to one order are never found confounded with the columns of another.
The Greeks seem to have derived their ideas of architecture from the Egyptians, and some of their earlier buildings partook of much of the Egyptian character; but as the climate of Greece was subject to frequent rains, it was found necessary to raise the whole structure on an artificial platform, and to cover it with an inclined roof, with projecting eaves. The different materials, also, of which the buildings were constructed, as we have already noticed, produced a great difference in the relative proportions of the various parts. The edifices of the Egyptians being chiefly formed of immense blocks of granite, the heaviest kind of stone; the supports of the superstructure were necessarily massive in proportion: the mysterious character, also, of their idolatry, was assisted by the dismal grandeur of their stupendous temples. The stone, of which the Grecian temples are constructed, is of a much lighter description, and many parts of their buildings show, that before they had learnt the method of working in marble, the material usually employed was wood; so that, partly following the design of their original wooden buildings, and partly importing the style of the Egyptians, a structure, partaking of the character of the architecture of both nations, was the consequence.
In noticing the progress of the art, we find the plain and sturdy Doric column succeeded by the more graceful and ornamented Ionic, and that, again, by the richly decorated Corinthian and the Composite order of the Romans.
The principal feature in an order of architecture is the perpendicular support, or column. The bottom of this column rests upon a square plinth, sometimes ornamented with mouldings; this is called the base; the top of the column is also covered in the same manner, and this ornament is the capital; body of the column is named the shaft. That part of the building which rests on the column is the
entablature, and is divided into three parts, the | placed, shot up its leaves and covered its outer architrave, the frieze, and the cornice. "The archi- surface, in the manner represented in the engraving, trave consists of a lintel laid along the tops of the while at the same columns; the frieze is above this, and represents time, the tile, opposthe ends of the cross-beams of a wooden building, ing the free growth resting upon the former, and having the spaces be- of the longer leaves, tween filled up, having also a moulding fixed, so as to forced them to curl conceal the horizontal joint, and divide it from the round, so as to bear architrave. The upper member, or cornice, re- some resemblance to sembles the projecting eaves of a Greek house, the volutes at the showing the ends of the rafters." angles of the capital. This appearance, it is said, was noticed by a sculptor of the
The mouldings with which a bui.ding is ornamented have obtained various names, according to their forms: we subjoin a few, to illustrate the subject.
The IONIC order is much more graceful than the last, and the ornament of the capital more elaborate. It has been fancifully said, that the intention of the architect, in the proportion of these two orders, was to give an idea of the male and female form, the sturdy unornamented Doric having a masculine character, and the more slender Ionic a feminine, and the volutos, the spiral ornaments of the capital, were said to have been suggested by the appearance of the curls on each side of a lady's head. The CORINTHIAN column is still slenderer and more decorated than either of the former, and the beautiful capital with which it is decorated, adds materially to its elegant appearance. The origin of the Corinthian capital has been attributed to accident. A basket, it is said, was placed on the ground covered with a tile, to protect its contents from insects, and being, from some cause or other, forgotten, a plant of the Acanthus kind, on which it had been
The Cima Recta.
The Cavetto. The Cima Reversa The most ancient of the three orders is the DORIC. The column of this order was generally formed, when employed by the Greeks, without a base, resting directly on the flat surface of the platform, and it was usually fluted with twenty very shallow flutings. It is the strongest in proportion of any of the being about six times the
name of Callimachus, who, struck with the beauty of the group, immediately imagined the Corinthian capital.
The TUSCAN column was invented by the Romans, and was formed upon the model of the ancient Doric, with such alterations as suggested themselves to the architects of those days. The chief of these consisted in the alteration of the proportions of the shaft, by making it of a slenderer form, and by constantly forming it with a base.
The COMPOSITE order is the most ornamented of the whole five, and was designed from various parts of the Corinthian and Ionic. It is employed in many of the most splendid edifices of the Roman capital.
THE warmth and protection which birds receive from their parent, is beautifully illustrative of the security afforded by a superintending Providence, to those who apply to him for help: "He shall cover thee with his feathers, and under his wings shalt thou trust." To my feelings there is not in the whole Bible a more elegant or delightful metaphor than this, or one which the human mind, especially when in a state of affliction and distress, may dwell upon with greater comfort and satisfaction. When I have seen a bird of prey hovering over some newly-hatched chickens, and perceived them run for shelter under the wings of their parent, I am forcibly reminded that in the hour of danger and temptation I may fly, by prayer, to my heavenly Father for refuge and protection. Those who have made the works of creation their study, will have had many opportunities of appreciating the truth of the remarks I have ventured from time to time to make, respecting the lessons of instruction which may be derived from the delightful contemplation of the various objects with which we are perpetually surrounded.-JESSE'S Gleanings.
FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATURAL PHENOMENA.
No. XIII. WATER IN ITS SOLID STATE.
A WINTER, in the northern parts of Europe, offers natural scenes of great interest and beauty. The sky is pure and clear: a bright sun lights up the prospect: the earth is covered with snow of dazzling whiteness and the rivers and lakes are hidden beneath a barrier of solid ice. The whole face of the country presents a surface, over which the traveller may glide with rapidity, ease, and security, defended from the cold, and seated in a commodious sledge: so that winter, instead of being there a period of "home-born happiness," is selected, by the natives of Russia and Siberia, as the time to undertake journeys on tracts which are nearly impassable in the summer-months. If the traveller passes through a forest, he perceives every bough and sprig to be wrapped in a glassy case, caused by the congelation of the vapour in the atmosphere. A thousand vivid colours are reflected from every twig; and, if a breeze springs up, the icy crystals are detached, and fall with a tinkling sound upon the solid surface of the hardened snow. In the cities, rich equipages glide along without noise. The horses are decorated with plumes of feathers; and ladies, wrapped in furs, and attended by a numerous escort, are swept rapidly along, in cars made in imitation of swans, or in other fanciful shapes. Artificial hills are formed of ice, down which those who are sufficiently adventurous are hurried with a force which carries them up an opposite ascent of the same kind. And, it is said, that even a palace has been constructed, sufficiently large to contain many hundred persons, of no other materials than ice and snow.
All these remarkable phenomena are caused by a difference of a few degrees in the temperature of the air. If that temperature continues for a considerable time below the freezing point, all the water which is exposed to the action of the air becomes solid, and takes some of the different forms of which it is susceptible, as ice, snow, hail, hoar-frost, or congealed vapour. This scene, however, is as fugitive, as it is remarkable and beautiful. As soon as a thaw sets in, a very few hours are sufficient to break the charm, to destroy all this variety, and to reduce the water to its more usual form.
Facts of this nature, which, however well known, are often overlooked, show us, practically, with how great accuracy the Providence of God has arranged all the parts of the natural world. It is of vital importance to all the processes of vegetation and of animal life, that water should usually be found in a fluid state; yet the mean temperature of the earth, in order that this may be the case, must have been fixed within certain limits, which are very narrow, compared even with the heat or cold with which we are acquainted. And yet, in those parts of the world where the water is sometimes frozen for many weeks or months together, the temporary change is often a convenience. The surface of the snow forms a natural rail-road for the Laplander, the Russian, and the Canadian: the Esquimaux, during his long winter, forms his hut of snow, and glazes the window of it with ice. We have already noticed, that heat and ice together may be said to form water, and hence we might expect that however contrary to our prejudices-the freezing of water should produce an increase of sensible heat, in the bodies near that which is so frozen, since the act of freezing separates the heat which was unobserved, or latent, in the water. Experiment shows that this is actually the case; if a very delicate
thermometer is suspended above the surface of freezing water, it is found to indicate a current of air, rising from the water, of a higher temperature than that of the rest of the air. It is proved, by other means, that a pound of water, at the temperature of 32°, or at the freezing-point, gives out 140° of heat in being converted into ice. This effect is often made very sensible, by a rise of the temperature, when a sudden fall of snow comes on, in a hard frost. The snow is commonly said to bring down the cold. The real cause is the heat given out by the vapour of water suddenly frozen.
Now consider what effects follow from this fact in the great laboratory of nature. Bodies already solid, when exposed to cold, grow continually colder and colder, parting with their heat at different rates, according to their powers of conducting or radiating heat. But when, as in the case of water, a change of form from fluid to solid takes place, there is a sudden interruption in this uniformity of sensible cooling. After the surface of water is cooled down to the freezing-point, giving out its heat all the time as it grows colder, it continues to give out heat during the time of freezing without growing sensibly colder in the least, and thereby retards the influence of the cold upon surrounding objects. Thus the freezing of vast lakes in North America, and of the Polar seas, is an operation which, to a certain, and probably to a considerable extent, diminishes the intensity of cold which would otherwise be felt.
It is true, that, when a thaw takes place, the operation is reversed, and the heat necessary to liquefy the ice is taken from surrounding objects, occasioning them to be cooled. Every one knows the uncomfortable sensations of a cold thaw, which really arise from part of the heat of our own bodies being taken away to turn ice into water. But, in the parts of the earth where this change takes place on an immense scale, the check thus given to a sudden rise of temperature does not seem to be more than is necessary to prevent injurious consequences. The climate still undergoes a very speedy change, passing from the depth of winter to an intensely hot summer in a few days; and vegetation springs forth with a rapidity unexampled in any other parts of the world.
The good effects of ice, in its various forms, to prevent the too-rapid communication of cold, do not. cease after the change from the fluid to the solid state is completed. Ice is a very imperfect conductor of heat, and, since it floats upon water, it prevents the water beneath it from being cooled. When frozen water is in the form of snow, its good effects are still more evident. Farmers well know what protection to their plants is afforded by a coating of snow. Nothing is more common than to see, during a hard frost, great injury done to the wheat or turnips in exposed places from which the snow has drifted away, while those parts which are well covered by it, are perfectly unhurt. And the reason is plain :-the parts below the snow will usually be subject to a degree of cold which is very little, if at all, below 32°, the freezing point. This is a temperature which plants, in general, can endure without injury, and some can continue to carry on the process of vegetation, and even of flowering, as we often see snowdrops in blossom beneath the snow. Those parts of a field, on the contrary, which are exposed, become intensely cold, not only by parting with their heat to the cold air with which they are in contact, but by the radiation of heat into the cold regions of the upper atmosphere, as we have seen in the case of the formation of dew*.
• See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV, p. 117.
When water freezes, it crystallizes; that is, its particles arrange themselves in such an order as to produce certain regular forms. The small needlelike spikes of which it is composed, are found to cross each other at angles of sixty degrees, or at the same inclination as that of two sides of a triangle, which has its three sides equal to one another. By the combination of a number of these, the beautiful feathery forms are composed, which may be seen upon a window, on a frosty morning. These form objects of great beauty, when viewed through a microscope, even of small magnifying power. And if the particles be melted, by gently breathing upon the glass, and then be suffered to freeze, the spiculæ of ice will be observed darting forth with immense rapidity. The effect may be seen very well, even with the naked eye. Another beautiful form of frozen water is snow. If a large flake be observed just as it falls, it will be found to consist of a great number of minute spikes, loosely adhering together. A flake of snow occupies about nine times as much space as the water of which it is composed. These spikes are probably formed by the freezing of vapour in the upper parts of the atmosphere, and collect into masses as they descend. In very clear and calm weather, it is not uncommon to have pieces of ice fall, crystallized in the form of stars, and in other shapes arising from the combination of particles arranged according to the laws of crystallization. Hail appears to be formed by the freezing of drops of rain, in their descent. The formation of hail is closely connected with electricity. In a thunderstorm hail frequently falls. An attempt was made in France, some years ago, to defend tracts of country from the ill-effects of hail-storms, which are very injurious to the vines. It was supposed, that by erecting numerous conductors to draw off the electric fluid, it would be prevented from accumulating to such a degree as to form hail. Conductors for this purpose were called Para-gréles, or Hail-defenders; but they do not appear to have answered the expectations of their inventors. C.
NATURE never deceives us; the rocks, the mountains, the streams, always speak the same language; a shower of snow may hide the verdant woods in spring, a thunderstorm may render the blue limpid streams foul and turbulent; but these effects are rare and transient: in a few hours, or at most in a few days, all the sources of beauty
are renovated. And nature affords no continued trains of misfortunes and miseries, such as depend upon the constitution of humanity; no hopes for ever blighted in the bud, no beings, full of life, beauty, and promise, taken from us in the prime of youth. Her fruits are all balmy and sweet: she affords none of those blighted ones, so common in the life of man, and so like the fabled apples of the Dead Sea, fresh and beautiful to the sight, but when tasted, full of bitterness and ashes.-SIR HUMPHRY DAVY.
NEAR our encampment, in the beautiful wood of Freemantle, was a tree of singular, though not very ornamental, form; it was called "grass-tree," from its grassy head, and "black-boy," from the dark colour of its stem. The manner of its growth is peculiar, showing itself above the surface of the sand in bunches of grass, which are gradually thrust up by the stem, and form the head. After a time, a long black stick rises from the centre of the grassy head, and contains the seed. I was told that the stem was formed of layers, something like Indian corn, and was filled with a resinous substance. This accounts for its being such excellent fire-wood, emitting an exceedingly bright light when burned. Its usual height was about
Two Years at Sea.
POWER OF HABIT.
THAT balancing moment, at which pleasure would allure, and conscience is urging us to refrain, may be regarded as the point of departure, or divergency, whence one or other of the two processes (towards evil, or towards good,) take their commencement. Each of them consists in a particular succession of ideas, with their attendant feelings; and whichever of them may happen to be described once, has, by the law of suggestion, the greater chance, in the same circumstances, of being described over again. Should the mind dwell on an object of allurement, and the considerations of principle not be entertained, it will pass onward from the first incitement to the final and guilty indulgence, by a series of stepping-stones, each of which will present itself more readily in future, and with less chance of arrest or interruption by the suggestions of conscience than before.
But should these suggestions be admitted, and, far more, should they prevail, then, on the principle of association, will they be all the more apt to intervene, on the repetition of the same circumstances, and again break that line of continuity, which, but for this intervention, would have led, from a temptation, to a turpitude or a crime. If, on the occurrence of a temptation, formerly conscience did interpose, and represent the evil of a compliance, and so impress the man with a sense of obligation, as led him to dismiss the fascinating object from the presence of his mind, or to hurry away from it; the likelihood is, that the recurrence of a similar temptation will suggest the same train of thoughts and feelings, and lead to the same beneficial result; and this is a likelihood ever increasing with every repetition of the process. The train which would have terminated in a vicious indulgence, is dispossessed by the train which conducts to a resolution and an act of virtuous self-denial.
The thoughts which tend to awaken emotions and purposes on the side of duty, find readier entrance into the mind; and the thoughts which awaken and urge forward the desire of what is evil, more readily give way. The positive force on the side of virtue is augmented, by every repetition of the train which leads to a virtuous determination.
The resistance to this force, on the side of vice, is weakened in proportion to the frequency wherewith that train of suggestions, which would have led to a vicious indulgence, is broken and discomfited. It is thus that, when one is successfully resolute in his opposition to evil, the power of making the achievement, and the facility of the achievement itself, are both upon the increase, and Virtue makes double gain to herself by every separate conquest which she may have won. The humbler attainments of moral worth are first mastered and secured, and the aspiring disciple may pass onward, in a career that is quite indefinite, to nobler deeds and nobler sacrifices.CHALMERS.
WHAT action was ever so good, or so completely done, as to be well taken of all hands. It concerns every wise Christian to settle his heart in a resolved confidence of his own holy and just grounds, and then to go on in a constant course of his well-warranted judgment and practice, with a careless disregard of those fools'-bolts which will be sure to be shot at him, which way soever he goes.—BISHOP HALL.
MISERY is caused for the most part, not by a heavy crush of disaster, but by the corrosion of less visible evils, which canker enjoyment, and undermine security. The visit of an invader is necessarily rare, but domestic animosities allow no cessation.-DR. JOHNSON
NEW CHAPEL AND BUKIAL-GROUND OF THE BRITISH PROTESTANT RESIDENTS AT CARACCAS,
THE CAPITAL OF VENEZUELA, IN SOUTH AMERICA.
"RIGHT dear in the sight of the Lord, is the death of his saints:" and "He shall gather them out of all lands, from the east and from the west, from the north and from the south."-PSALMS CXVI. and cvii.
It is not much more than fifteen years, since we first had any established residents in Venezuela. From the period of the Spaniards becoming masters of that portion of the New World, its shores were closed to the rest of Europe, particularly to Protestant England; and the mutual rivalries, and religious prejudices, between our mariner-adventurers on the Atlantic Ocean and those of its Spanish Catholic terra-firma, continued for many generations to augment into actual antipathy, until time, and almost an entire absence from any relative communication, sunk both parties into a reciprocal oblivion of each other.
This was the state of things until the heroic fidelity of the South American Spaniards to their ancient dynasty of kings, when called upon to acknowledge a brother of the emperor of the French for their sovereign, aroused the recollection of Englishmen, and filled them with respect for the conduct of men whose existence they had nearly forgotten.
Many brave Britons had gone out, and proffered their aid in the war of liberation; and when that was crowned with an apparently assured independence of the country, then the British merchant, and industrious artisan, followed the British military volunteer to the land of commercial promise. They were received with welcome, but, until within these last two years, the old wall of partition between Catholic and Protestant continued to be so determinately retained, that the Protestant settlers had neither a place for Christian worship, according to the forms of their own church, nor a spot of ground wherein to bury their dead.
The English consul, Sir Robert Ker Porter, though a civil officer, was the only representative to the British residents there, of their own church, as well as of their state. He baptized their children, performed their marriage ceremony, and buried those who died amongst them. The first two duties might be respectably solemnized in the hall of the consulate; but the last was overwhelmed with a double weight of affliction to the mourning survivors; the land which had received the living Protestant with hospitality, seemed to deny his dead body the common right of human nature,-a decent grave. A cellar floor, the pavement of the stable-yard, or at best, the garden's most hidden nook, were the only places which might afford a last bed for the remains of a friend or relative. Alas! perhaps not the last receptacle for such sacred relics! for they must be left there at the caprice of any future tenant of the premises, to dig up, and cast they knew not where.
To remedy this distressing state of things, the British Consul directed his serious attention; and when the ameliorating character of the Venezuelan government warranted the attempt, and he had obtained the sanction of his own government, he lost no time in proposing his wishes. The result was, that he succeeded in purchasing a plot of ground, conveniently situated near the city of Caraccas, with an express guarantee from the President and Senate of the Republic, that it should hereafter remain inviolably the possession of the British Protestant residents at Caraccas, for a cemetery, or burial-place for their dead. A sum of money was advanced by our Government, towards the security of the spot, with walls, &c., in aid of the means which the English mer
chants, whose dust was to mingle within them, had subscribed.
Sir Robert Ker Porter obtained the land in the summer of 1832. It was a beautiful green expanse, on a gentle slope in the valley of the mountain; a sequestered spot, promising the sanctity and the rest to be sought there. He made no delay in drawing the plan, and laying the foundations for the walls and gates; and he planted young trees, of the Cypresspoplar order, to afford shadowy avenues from the gates to the little building, erected for the performance of the funeral service, in a climate in which the bared heads of the mourners and their functionary were exposed to a vertical sun at one season, or a plunging rain at another.
Our sketch represents the little building, or chapel, just mentioned, in the form of a colonnaded portico, with the symbol of the Holy Trinity cut on its stone pediment. It stands at the hither end of the ground, whence the sepulchral field slopes gently down in the shape of a parallelogram. The whole is surrounded by a handsome wall, of a secure height and thickness; and the gates by which it is entered are of the Grecian porch architecture, like the chapel, only without columns. The principal gate at the lower extremity of the ground, immediately facing the chapel, is surmounted by a cross. The second gate opens on one side of the parallelogram, and is partly shown in the sketch by one of its pillars, buttressed by a noble old tree of the country. A few grave-stones, in neatly arranged lines, are also seen, their compartments being divided by chain-railings; for Sir Robert had several of his countrymen to commit to this safer sepulchre, before it became, like our English churchyards, "consecrated ground."
That it might be so hallowed, was the wish, but hardly the expectation, of many a pious individual, who, in that stranger land, remembered the dear familiar homes of their childhood, the parish-bell gladsomely summoning them to the Sabbath-duties of morning and evening prayers, or solemnly tolling the passing knell of the decent funeral, moving with reverent pace to the consecrated spot of the body's rest! To have such a sanctuary, even under seclusion in the land of their distant sojourn, every heart yearned; and their indefatigable consul and friend completed the work by, in due time, obtaining this sacred object also, from the Venezuelan government. Dr. W. H. Coleridge, our Protestant Bishop of Barbadoes, was invited from that island to perform the rite.
As soon as his duties in his own wide diocese, the Leeward Islands, would permit his absence, he embarked in H.M.S. Forte, Commodore Pell, on the 27th of January in this year, and arrived at La Guayra, the port of Caraccas, on the 22nd of February. On the evening of his reaching La Guayra, he proceeded across the mountains (a journey of twenty miles,) to the city of Caraccas, and became the immediate guest, with his official attendants, of the Consul. On the 24th, his lordship received the respect of an especial audience by General Paez, the President of the Republic of Venezuela. Similar reverence, by visits, &c. was paid to him by the other chief authorities; and on the 26th of the month, in the presence of his Excellency the President, and the Ministers of the Republic, with other great officers, civil and military, and of Sir Robert Ker Porter, his Majesty's Consul, with Colonel Stopford, and the Commodore and officers of H.M.S. Forte, and of the British residents, male and female, young and old, and a large mixed concourse of the inhabitants of the city, the Bishop of Barbadoes, (the first bishop our church ever sent to that