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part of our West Indian dominions!) consecrated down from the high mountain-pass on the city of
The little chapel and its cemetery have received
When the bishop, with his clerical train, and the chief of the British residents, had passed on from the reat gate of the cemetery, repeating, the 24th Psalm, they entered the chapel, (the colonnaded front of which is quite open to the air;) and seated himself in the episcopal chair prepared for the occasion. The Venezuelan authorities sat on his right side, and the British consul and commodore, &c., on his left. The chaplains then recited the prayers, and read the chapters in the Bible appropriated to the consecration of the chapel and burial-ground. This was succeeded by a procession of the whole assembly, headed by the bishop, along the interior of the sepulchral-field; continuing the prayers for its sanctification, as they traversed the young cypress avenues, and the bright green-sward of the unshaded ground, where the little hillock, or the level stone, marked that a Christian brother had already been laid.
The most marked order and reverence prevailed amongst all present, during the whole ceremony; and when it closed with a solemn address and benediction from the bishop, there was not even a disturbing whisper heard. Every countenance, as it turned away from the now sacredly guaranteed spot, cast a look, whether from Catholic or Protestant, on each silent tomb, which seemed to say, May the sleeper rest in peace!"
We have seen a little account of the bishop's own writing to a friend, in which he describes the place, and the adjoining scenery. We cannot but enrich our own sketch with an extract. "Amidst a sublimity and richness of landscape almost unequalled in the world, which presents itself to the view of the astonished traveller, on looking
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AMONGST the beautiful Cathedrals of this country, that of Salisbury holds a very distinguished rank. The singular uniformity displayed in its design and style, the harmony which is found to pervade its several parts and proportions, and the striking air of lightness, simplicity, and elegance, which reigns throughout the whole, all conspire to invest it with a charm peculiarly its own; whilst the amazing elevation of its graceful spire renders it, without exception, the most lofty building in the kingdom.
History informs us that the spiritual affairs of the west of England were, for many years, under the sole direction of a single bishop, whose see was eventually fixed at Winchester; but on the death of Bishop Hedda, or Eadda, the diocese was divided, and a second bishopric established at Sherborne in Dorsetshire, comprehending the present counties of Wilts, Berks, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall. Again, about 905, on the three counties last mentioned receiving bishops of their own, a fifth see was soon after erected for Wiltshire, the bishops of which resided chiefly at Wilton, then the capital of the county to which it gave its name.
five years, a sufficient portion of it was completed for the celebration of public worship, and on the vigil of St. Michael, being Sunday, it was consecrated by Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury. Three years afterwards Bishop Poore was translated to Durham, but he left his friend Elias de Derham, to whom he had, from the first, intrusted the management of the work, to superintend its progress, which, indeed, he did for the first twenty years. Bishop Bingham carried on the building eighteen years; his successor, William de York, continued it during nine years; but the glory of bringing the undertaking to a happy conclusion was reserved for Bishop Egidius (or Giles) de Bridport.. In the second year of his elevation, on the 30th of September, 1258, he had the satisfaction of seeing this splendid fabric, after having been rather more than thirty-eight years in progress, solemnly dedicated to the Virgin Mary by Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury. The whole cost of the edifice seems to have been met by voluntary contributions, and this, according to an account delivered to Henry the Third, amounted to 40,000 marks, or about 25,6667. 13s. 4d. sterling.
It appears, however, that the greater part of the On the death of Elfwold, Bishop of Sherborne, tower, and the lofty spire, were not then erected. between 1050 and 1058, we find that Herman, Bishop The building was raised to its present elevation of Wilton, effected the re-union of that see with his about a century after its dedication, and chiefly from own, and thus obtained jurisdiction over the counthe remains of the Cathedral at Old Sarum, which ties of Wilts, Berks, and Dorset, upon which he were granted to the Chapter in 1331, for the imchanged his residence to Sherborne. There, how-provement of their church. Notwithstanding the care ever, the see did not long remain. For about the taken by the architect to meet the vast increase of year 1074, Herman removed it from Sherborne to pressure created by these additions, great alarm arose Searobyrig, the spot now known by the name of Old for the safety of the fabric soon after their comSarum, then a royal town, and one of the strongest pletion, and about the year 1417 it was found fortified places in the west. At Old Sarum the see necessary to represent to Henry the Sixth that "the continued till the year 1220, when it was transferred stone spire in the middle of the Cathedral Church of to its present situation. Sarum appeared to be in such ruin and danger, that unless it were repaired, it must speedily fall, to the utter destruction of the Church itself;" and consequently a license was granted to the Chapter to acquire lands to the amount of 50l. per annum to be appropriated to this object. Under this license, we find that amongst other benefactions, lands and possessions were ceded to the Chapter by Walter Lord Hungerford, in 1429, "to maintain the tall spire steeple in repair," and for other pious purposes; and thus, it seems, they were enabled to place the structure in a permanent state of security *.
The removal of the establishment, though long desired, was not, however, effected till the time of Bishop Richard Poore. The spot selected by him for the new foundation was a portion of his own manor, distant about two miles from the castle, and then, according to Camden, bearing the name of Merryfield. It lay at the juncture of the Avon with the Nodder, in the midst of a sheltered and fertile valley of considerable extent. Here, in 1219, a wooden chapel was erected; and to meet the expenses of the undertaking, the dignitaries of the Church bound themselves to contribute one-fourth of their revenues during seven years, and a number of the clergy were sent into different parts of the country, and even into Scotland, to raise contributions.
During the great Rebellion this Cathedral suffered its full share of calamity from the violence of malicious and misguided men. Whilst the members of the establishment were insulted and dispersed, and the possessions of the Church were alienated, the beautiful edifice was profaned, and its architectural decorations sadly mutilated and defaced. Yet even then persons were not wanting to interest themselves in the preservation of the building. Dr. Pope, in his Life of Bishop Ward, relates that workmen were often seen employed in making repairs, and when questioned by whom they were sent, they were accustomed to reply,-" Those who employ us will pay us, trouble not yourselves to inquire; whoever they are, they do not desire to have their names known."
At length the day was fixed for laying the foundation of the Cathedral in due form; and such was the national importance attached to the event, that the king himself (Henry the Third,) was expected. Henry, however, was prevented from being present, being engaged at Shrewsbury in arranging a treaty with the Welsh *. On the 28th of April, 1220, the bishop accompanied by the clergy, as well as by some of the nobility of the country, and a vast concourse of persons from all quarters, after having attended divine service, proceeded to the place of foundation chanting the Litany. There the bishop laid the first stone, and was followed by the nobility then present, and by the dean and chapter, and other dignitaries; both laity and clergy binding themselves to certain annual payments for seven years.
After that event, the Cathedral steadily advanced under the auspices of Bishop Poore, and in less than
Henry, however, did afterwards visit the new Cathedral a few days after its consecration in 1225, with his justiciary, Hubert de Burgh, and made several offerings. That of tubert is described as a GOLDEN TEXT,—that is, an ornamental copy of the Old and New Testament for the altar.
Happily, soon after the Restoration, the see was held by Dr. Seth Ward, a prelate of distinguished munificence and high scientific attainments, who directed his attention to the repairs of the fabric, and in this he was assisted by the dignitaries of the Church contributing the fifth part of their endowments. King Charles the Second, also, encouraged them by
It is supposed that the screens thrown across between the clus tered columns at the foot of the spire on the north and south sides, were then erected.
his presence, and Sir Christopher Wren, the King's | flat, and being each divided and subdivided by others surveyor, visited Salisbury in 1669 to examine the state of the Cathedral, and according to his report, some alterations in the building, as well as some repairs in the tower and spire were made.
of smaller dimensions, rest on short clustered columns. The range of the upper or clere-story is occupied by a series of triple lancet windows, with their centre light raised considerably above the other two. The vaulting is plain and simple, being turned with arches and cross springers only, but tufts of foliage mark the intersections. The choir and transepts differ but little from the nave. Our Lady Chapel consists but of a single elevation; but such is the height and almost incredible lightness of the marble columns, which divide the body and side aisles, and support the vaulted roofs,—the single pillars being nearly thirty feet high, and only nine inches in diameter,—that this part of the building excites the highest degree of admiration.
In 1736, new alarms having arisen, repairs were made at the expense of Bishop Sherlock, assisted by the Chapter, and the nobility and gentry of the neighbourhood. In the time of Bishop Hume, about 1776, amongst other changes, the pulpit and seats, which were till then in the nave, were removed; since which period, the sermon has been delivered in the choir. But perhaps the most extensive alterations and repairs, which of late years the Cathedral has undergone, took place under the auspices of Bishop Barrington, aided by the eminent architect, Mr. Wyatt. At this time two chapels, erected in the 15th century by Lady Hungerford and Bishop Beauchamp, were removed, and the present organ-screen, bishops throne, pulpit, stalls in the choir, and the altar-pieces, which, from their being taken from the decorations of those chapels, are of a more florid style than the building in general, were erected. Whilst these operations were in progress, George the Third visited the Cathedral; and, the good king, on learning that the improvements depended on the voluntary subscriptions of the gentry of the diocese, took advantage of his residence in the Royal Castle at Windsor, and begged to present to the Cathedral a new organ, being, as he said, “his contribution as a Berkshire gentleman *."
The number of windows with which the walls of this Cathedral are pierced, and of the marble pillars which adorn the interior, is very striking. Camden remarks, "They say this Church hath as many windows as there are days in the year; as many pillars and pilasters as there are hours; and as many gates as months." This has been celebrated in some Latin verses by the learned Daniel Rogers, thus translated by Dr. Heylin :
At the period of the erection of this Cathedral, the singularly beautiful pointed arch had just begun to prevail in this country over the massive circular arch of the Saxon and Norman styles, and consequently a mixture of the two was chiefly in use in buildings of that date. In Salisbury Cathedral this is not the case. It is admitted to be the only Cathedral Church which never had any intermixture of styles, and it is cited by Hawkins as the first instance of the pure unmixed Gothic in England. can be no doubt, that in this edifice the pointed arched Gothic is not only displayed in all its purity and beauty, but that it is carried to the highest degree of perfection; indeed it is generally considered as a model of its style.
This magnificent structure is in the form of a double cross, the long arm of which consists of the nave, choir, and Our Lady Chapel, following each other in succession from west to east. At the juncture of the nave and choir, this arm is crossed by the principal transept, and again near the centre of the choir by a second, of lesser dimensions. The nave, the choir, the eastern side of the two transepts, and Our Lady Chapel, are all ornamented with side aisles. The northern aisle of the nave is also broken by a very handsome porch, which is entered under a lofty and beautiful pointed arch, and is altogether admirably in character with the building t. The nave, choir, and transepts, rise in three regular tiers of pointed arches. The lower arches in the nave are of the lancet shape, and of very considerable elevation. They rest upon a succession of the most graceful clustered columns, each consisting of four pillars surrounded by as many slender shafts. The second tier is a kind of open gallery corresponding with the roof of the aisles, the arches of which are
How many days in one whole year there be,
At the intersection of the nave with the chief transept, and having, as it were, for its foundation, four lancet arches, on as many lofty clustered columns, 81 feet in height, from the pavement, rises the most remarkable feature of the building, the SPIRE, which Dallaway pronounces “has never been equalled." The original design seems clearly to have been merely a low tower, terminating in an embattled moulding about eight feet above the roofs. The walls of this tower, though six feet in thickness, above and below, are in the intermediate space reduced to only two feet, being, if we may so say, hollowed out into a colonnade or gallery, thirty feet in height, which was intended as a communication with the roofs. The whole was no doubt open to the interior of the Cathedral, forming what is usually styled a lantern. To give sufficient strength to this frail fabric, for the reception of the proposed superstructure, the architect found it necessary to supply 120 additional supports, in the form of flying and other buttresses, and to block up a number of doorways; thus adding not less than 387 superficial feet to the 260 of which the tower originally consisted. He also braced the upper part throughout with an iron bandage, which is represented as "perhaps the best piece of smith's work, and also the most excellent mechanism of any thing in Europe of its age." Upon this structure, so strengthened, he had the boldness to raise the present stupendous tower and spire.
The tower consists of two equal divisions, the lower of which is of much more solid workmanship than the upper, but rather less highly decorated. The spire is octagonal, and consequently, arches were thrown across the four angles at the summit of the tower, to form an eight-sided foundation; and in nothing has the builder more clearly displayed his taste and skill, than in the beautiful cluster of pinnacles which he placed on each of the angles, since they have the joint advantage of confining the arches, and causing the different forms of the tower and spire to blend and harmonize together. The
walls of the spire gradually diminish from two feet to only nine inches, which, after the first fifteen feet, is their thickness upwards. A timber frame, however, consisting of a centrepiece, with arms to the walls, and hanging from the iron standard of the nave, after it passes through the capstone, binds the whole together, and contributes materially to its strength and security.
The height of the cross from the ground was long supposed to be 404 feet, or twice that of the Monument of London. But according to the accurate measurements of Mr. Fisher, the present able clerk of the works, it is only 399 feet 10 inches. It is supposed to have been originally 400 feet, but to have lost two inches by a settlement in two of the columns below, which threw the structure no less than 24 inches from the perpendicular, towards the south, and 16 inches towards the west, or nearly 29 inches general decline towards the south-west. Happily, however, it seems not to have varied since its original settlement *. The summit is obtained first by stone staircases of 365 steps, to "" THE EIGHT DOORS" at the top of the tower, from thence by wooden ladders to THE WEATHER DOOR," 42 feet from the cross, and after that by iron rings fixed on the outside †.
On the south side of the Cathedral are the Cloisters, Amongst the benefits derived from Salisbury which form a complete square of 181 feet. The Cathedral, we may mention that it is the parishcharacter of their architecture is simple, but elegant. church of a very considerable community. The On the east side of them is the chapter-house, a" Liberty of the Close" contained at the last census, most beautiful octagonal building, 58 feet in diameter in 1831, no less than 538 souls, and hence the and 52 in height, supported in the centre by one Cathedral is regularly attended, in its parochial chainsulated clustered column of the most singular racter, by a highly respectable congregation of all lightness. Seven of its sides are almost entirely ranks and classes of society. occupied by large pointed windows; and in the eighth is the entrance from the cloisters. Under the windows, is a course of sculpture in high relief, representing portions of the Scripture history, from the Creation to the destruction of Pharaoh. In the Chapter-house stand the remains of a curious circular chapter-table of considerable antiquity.
Over part of the east side of the cloisters is the Cathedral library, the erection of which is ascribed to Bishop Jewell; but Bishop Gheast, it is said, supplied its earliest contents. It has at various periods received considerable additions from several bishops of the see, and other liberal contributors. The works most worthy of mention are a considerable number of ancient manuscripts, and some valuable specimens of the earliest printed books. As a whole, this library forms a noble collection of divinity and ecclesiastical history.
Interesting as are many of the monuments in this Cathedral, our space forbids any detailed account of
As might be expected from its pointed form and great elevation, it has been several times affected by lightning, particularly in 1741, but not since the erection of the present conductor.
+ The Dimensions of the Cathedral are as follow:-
There was till the time of Bishop Barrington, 2 belfry in the cemetery, apparently of the same date as the Cathedral, detached from the church on the north side, in which was a ring of bells. But at that period the belfry was removed, and the bells transferred to the church of St. Thomas in the city. In this belfry some of the parliamentary forces were stationed in the time of the Rebellion. See the interesting account of Old and New Sarum, page 75, just ublished by Mr. Hatcher.)
| them. We must, however, mention that of William
The Bishop of Salisbury has now jurisdiction over the two counties of Wilts and Berks, that of Dorset having been separated from the diocese at the Reformation, and made to form part of the See of Bristol. He is also assisted in his duties by the Chancellor of the Diocese, the Archdeacons of Sarum, Wilts, and Berks, and twenty-four Rural Deans.
The service of the Cathedral is conducted by the Dean, six Canons, and four Priest Vicars, each in their appointed turns, all of whom have residences in the Close; the other dignitaries are only called upon to preach once or twice in the course of the year, and, in general, derive but little regular income from their stalls, these being, for the most part, rather posts of distinction than of emolument *.
The members of the Cathedral establishment are the Dean, the Precentor, the Chancellor of the Diocese, and the Chancellor of the Church; the Treasurer, the three Archdeacons, the SubDean, the Sub-Chanter, forty-one Prebendaries, of whom six are residentiary, called Canons, four Priest-Vicars, seven Lay-Vicars or Singing-Men, one of whom is Organist, and eight Choristers.
LINES ON THE POOR BLIND MAN OF
BY THE REV. W. L. BOWLES, ONE OF THE CANONS RESIDENTIARY
THERE is a poor blind man, who, every day,
Through frost and snow, in sunshine and in rain,
Ask why, alone, in the same spot he kneels
His sad bereavement: FAITH and HOPE uphold
Oh! happy if the vain, the rich, the proud-