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gone far beyond the limits which he original intercession of the blessed and ever-glorious virgin, thority of him who taught it, for it came from fear. We find the prayer in many very old liturexpressions, for it is easily learned, and spend not being in the canon, it was not so brought into refrom the sufficiency of its petition, for it cantasi Fiew and under observation as that portion was until that is necessary for this world and the next; about the year 600. It was only after the condemthe richness of its mysteries, for it contains wat nation of Nestorius at the council of Ephesus in 431,
that the faithful were in the habit of styling the bles. The celebrant says it in a loud voice or any sed virgin “ Mother of God;" but Nestorius having to impress the meaning and object of the person denied her being the “Mother of God," though he repeating the last petition, " But deliver # in consequence of his heresy in asserting the double upon his hearers, and at the end they anske bal acknowledged her to be the mother of Jesus Christ,
personality of the Saviour; to evince their adherence The deacon goes up to the right hand side or to the ancient doctrine, and the condemnation of his celebrant, before the conclusion of this per error, thenceforth they addressed the blessed Vir
gin, saying " Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for deacon now also carries up the Patten med Us, lic. The prayer continues, and through the below; the deacon having wiped the patter, plain and of Andrew, and of all the Saints.” The special gives to the deacon, and then returns to las puer intercession of the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, it in the right hand of the celebrant, who cinta
mention of those three apostles is almost distinct eviin a low voice the next prayer, after having a
dence of this prayer having been originally drawn up in the city of Rome, for we have St. Peter who found
ed the church in that city, St. Paul who aided him He desires to be delivered from all evils, estet
during many years in its administration, and who been just concluded, “ past" evils, which are
there suffered martyrdom with St. Peter; and St.
Andrew, the brother of Peter, who on that account consequence of the sins we have committed. I habits, disturbed imaginations, and evil propeest,
was specially honoured in that city, so much so, that
his festival was kept with almost equal solemnity, "present" evils, temporal calamities and testing
and on the festival of St. Andrew, it was marked in
one of the most ancient copies of the Ordo, that the Хcviii in this place would for most of the readers eltal kiegs under which we labour; and “ future" evils, sertation be unnecessary, and would be sure which we trust may be averted by the power of the from the great object of the compiler, plaidos nest high. We are taught to seek farther protecmerely to explain what could not otherwis il mion, and to specify more particularly what we most easily discovered, and in doing which he has to desire ; and we implore those blessings through the scribed for himself
: he shall only say with 1e Mary mother of God.” This phrase, “ Mother of
; and these
Pope should commence the office at the church of St. Andrew, and conclude it at that of his brother items! Peter. However soine very old copies of this prayer have been found with the names of other Saints after that of Andrew.
The great object of the prayer was, peace, that we may always be free from sin and secure from all disturbance," which are both concomitants of war. The celebrant in repeating this prayer signed him to self with the Patten which he held in his hand, and drilling kissed it as the emblem of peace and charity; for upon it that oblation had been made, which exhibited the union and peace of the congregation ; and to de now it was to be placed under the holy sacrament, whence we expect that peace which the world can not give. The prayer concluded in the usual way: ** Through Christ our Lord, who with thee in the in unity of the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth God, world without end-Amen."
In repeating the last words of this prayer, the celebrant perforins a ceremony which has subsisted from you the time of the institution by our Saviour. He breaks the sacrament over the chalice; formerly it was over the Patten, but it was about 1100 years ago re gulated to break it over the chalice, that any particles separating therefrom might be received into that sacred vessel; and in putting a small particle into the chalice the celebrant as usual concludes the prayer in a loud voice, “for ever and ever-- Amen:" and then as he puts the particle into the chalice, he thrice makes the sign of the cross therewith, wishing the congregation“ May the peace of the Lord always be with you :" to which the usual answer was given, “and with thy spirit.” Formerly upon this being said the hiss of peace was given through the congregation, in token of unity and charity, by the men to the men, and by the women to the women, who for this purpose sat at different sides of the church, Mention is inade of this by Tertullian and Other very uncient writers.
was the same.
find no trace of its introduction ; but we find it always customary-and on many occasions. First,
bishops living at a distance, frequently sent each to The great object of the prayer was, "peace, the other, in token of communion, a consecrated we may always be free from sin and secure fra host, by a priest or deacon, and the person to whom
it was sent put it into his chalice, and took it there
from at the next Mass that he celebrated. self with the Patten which he held in his band a ly, it was customary in many churches to keep a kissed it as the emblem of peace and charty, portion of what had been consecrated at one mass to upou it that oblation had been made, which erst be consumed in the chalice at the next, to shew that ed the union and peace of the congregatio :
the sacrifice, though continued on different days, whence we expect that peace which the wore the sick was generally consumed in this manner. not give. The prayer concluded in the usual Fourthly, it was the custom in many churches where * Through Christ our Lord, who with thee : unity of the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigned by them in the chalice, and to give the communion
therefrom; and fifthly, there was from the com
mencement a powerful mystic reason for the prac. rbrant performs a ceremony which has subsistat's
tice. The death of Christ had been shewn by the the time of the institution by our Saviour. He has
mystic separation of the body and blood, his reani. the sacrament over the chalice; formerrit 18
mation and resurrection were to be shewn by their over the Patten, but it was about 1100 years mystic union, which took place in this manner.
Thus," writes Pope Innocent III. " the chalice cles separating therefrom might be recere's
represents the monument, whence the deacon, who that sacred vessel; and in putting a small
is the angel of the church removes the pall, as the into the chalice the celebrant as usual conchased heavenly messenger removed the stone from the prayer in a loud voice, " for ever and ever
mouth of the sepulchre" and here Christ hayand then as he puts the particle into the chalet. ing died for our sins, and offered himself for our ini. thrice makes the sign of the cross therewith, and
quities, is now re-animated, and gives us that celes. the congregation--- May the peace of the Let's ways be with you :" to which the usual answer
fied by the spirit, is profitable to those who prove given, “and with thy spirit." Forraerly rate
It was on the day of his resurrection that Christ being said the kiss of peace was given thread
Lirst addressed his apostles, in those memorable men to the men, and by the women to the en: congregation, in token of unity and charits, br>
Words, “ Peace be to you," and celebrating that rewho for this purpose sat at different sides :
surrection, the celebrant prays that this peace mar church. Mention is inade of this by Tertullia
Pope should commence the office at the cher
The mixing the host with the contents of the chaSt. Andrew, and conclude it at that of his beren lie, is very ancient, indeed so much so, that we can Peter. Ilowever some very old copies of this have been found with the names of other after that of Andrew. disturbance, ** which are both concomitants of The celebrant in repeating this prayer sigtet now it was to be placed under the holy
Thirdly, what had been reserved for
given, under both kinds, to mix world without end--Amen." In repeating the last words of this praçer
. Her gulated to break it over the chalice, that are otacriery ancient writers.
and try themselves.
remain always with them, being derived from the blessed trinity through the cross of the Saviour.
He now prepares for communion, and first bowing, he thrice in a penitent manner, strikes his breast, ali bez calling upon “ the Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, to have mercy on bim, "_but on the third occasion to “grant him peace"-that peace which the world cannot give-and then bow. ing down before the altar, he prays for peace
and unity for the whole church.
In masses for the dead, we offer for those in pur. gatory, and hence instead of saying “have mercy on us"_
grant us peace"-the celebrant says " grant them rest"_" grant them eternal rest ;" and the prayer for the peace of the church is omitted, but the celebrant proceeds to read the two other prayers before communion, and then receives the holy sacra. ment.
In high Masses, after this prayer for peace, the deacon, who during its repetition has been on his knees at the celebrant's right hand, rises, and they both kiss the altar, the celebrant, as it were to receive the spirit of peace from Jesus Christ, the dea. con through respect, and after embracing each other the celebrant kisses the deacon, saying, “ Peace be with thee."
The deacon answers, “and with thy spirit;" and having made his reverence to the altar, gives the peace in like manner to the subdeacon in his place below; and they then come up to assist at the altar, the celebrant continuing his prayers for communion, which are so plain as to need no ex. position. In putting the particle into the chalice the cele
“ May this mixture and consecration of the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, be to us that receive it, eternal life.” The meaning of the word “consecration" in this place, has always been understood to be the patting of two holy things
ed. * Send forth, O Lord, the Lamb, the ruler of the
been understood to be the patting of two holy tin
fore Sergius has this passage.
The Agnus Dei &c. “ Lamb of God &c. was orhe thrice in a penitent manner, strikes bis in dered to be sung at the Mass, by Pope Sergius I,
who came to the chair in 687. But the custom of on the third occasion to “grant him peace viously to this, because we find very clear allusions peace which the world cannot give-and then thereto in works and liturgies of a much earlier ing down before the altar, be prays for peace date. St. John Chrysostom who lived 300 years be
In masses for the dead, we offer for those that we make commemoration for the dead at the gatory, and hence instead of saying " have
sacred mysteries, or that we approach the divine
Lamb who is there, and who takes away the sins of prayer for the peace of the church is omitted, kes the first general council of Nice in the year 325, them rest_grant them eternal rest;" the world, to beseech his inercy for them." And celebrant proceeds to read the two other prases de calls upon us " by faith to conceive and to know that
on that holy table is placed that Lamb of God who
away the sins of the world, and who is immolatIn high Masses, after this prayer for peace, ed in an unbloody manner by the Priests." deacon, who during its repetition has been call
Mass of St. Severus, Patriarch of Alexandria, the knees at the celebrant's right hand, rises, and
words prescribed for the priest when he breaks the both kiss the altar, the celebrant, as it were ? ceive the spirit of peace from Jesus Christ, the
takest away or blottest out the sins of the world."
In fact, the number of figures was so great, and the the celebrant kisses the deacon, saying, " Perera
expressions upon which its introduction must have with thee." The deacon answers, and the been founded, are so strong, that it is next to imposspirit;" and having made his reverence to the
ssible that the prayer should not have been one of the gives the peace in like manner to the subleast first formed in the Church, and it appears in one of
the ancient liturgies of St. Peter. the altar, the celebrant continuing his prapes i
was a male lamb that Abraham substituted for Isaac;
It was probably a lamb that Abel sacrificed; it it was a lamb that was sacrificed in Egypt, and it
was instead of the Paschal lamb that the Eucharist brant says “ May this mixture and conseCTRIN In putting the particle into the chalice the content
was established; a lamb was the morning and the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, da
evening sacrifice of the Jews, and these were all us that receive it, eternal life." The menas!
figures of that Lamb, for whose arrival Isajas praythe word “ consecration" in this place, has a
remain always with them, being derived from
logetier ; not a blessing or separation for religious blessed trinity through the cross of the Sarica
purposes—consecrare, quasi simul sacrare. He now prepares for communion
, and first bor calling upon the Lamb of God, who takes the sins of the world, to have mercy on bir: 4
saying it must have prevailed in
many places preunity for the whole church.
“ It is not in vain us"- grant us peace"—the celebrant says" fore communion, and then receives the basis ment.
“ Thou art the Lamb of God who con through respect, and after embracing each his place below ; and they then come up to see communion, which are so plain as to need an position.
* Isaias xvi, 1.