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the senses and memory are quite per- | how long any case of this kind will fect, and the excess of rudeness and require. Even those that seem most vindictiveness is a sure symptom of promising, I have found in a hundred insanity.

and fifty perfect recoveries, of what The distinction betwixt insanity and were deemed recent cases, that four inflammation of the brain, is of great months was the average length of time importance in the treatment; for what- taken for the cure, but some of these ever may be proper in the treatment took twelve months. Still the greatest of brain fever, in the treatment of cause of so many not recovering is, no nervous fever or insanity, the antiphlo doubt, the extremely defective state gistic treatment must be improper, of our public and other large asylums, and if practised with severity, will in which the curative means are most frequently prove fatal,-will in every shamefully, or ignorantly, neglected. instance do injury, and render ultimate In a large prison, where, perhaps, recovery more difficult and doubtful. more than two-thirds of the inmates If, upon an attack of spontaneous are idiots, or incurable lupatics, it mental disease, the medical attendant, cannot be expected that the moral without any investigation but what treatment can be good, the thing is relates to the symptoms present, talks out of the question ; but the medical of having the head shaved, or blister treatment might surely be the best ing the head, or using the cupping- which the present state of medical glasses, or leeches, to the head, or of knowledge can afford. Yet, in many using the lancet, or of keeping the of them there is no medical treatment patient very low;- he had better be at at all, in reference to the mental disonce dismissed, or he will most likely ease; the very idea of it is disclaimed. prove the messenger of death, or at I was lately in company with two least the messenger of an inveterate learned physicians, both attached to a disease, which might have proved public asylum, and they severally told slight under a more gentle treatment. me, with the greatest confidence, that Nor must the attendant be fattered no medical treatment could be of any by the violent symptoms subsiding use in the cure of insanity; and, as a under severe depletion, and other anti-proof that they were consistent, there phlogistic measures; they would most were no medicines kept at the asylum likely have subsided if nothing had which they attended. Without conbeen done, and with a much better tending that there is no medical spechance of not returning. The most cific for the cure of a mental disease, confirmed cases of insanity generally yet, if there are physical impediments intermit, more particularly so at the to recovery, which I contend there commencement; and the best efforts are, and if medicine is useful and even for preventiug the disease becoming necessary in the removal or prevenpermanent, are to be made during the tion of those physical impediments to lucid intervals.

recovery, then medical treatment must Another cause of many not perma- be useful and necessary. And as a nently recovering, is, that those who, proof of the utility of medical treathaving used the severe antiphlogistic ment, I will state a fact: treatment, and finding it to do no At the Retreat, the moral treatment good, then cease to use any medical has, no doubt, been brought to as great means,-not appearing to have any a perfection as in any other place in knowledge of medical treatment that the world; and from the steady habits is not calculated to reduce the patient of the superintendants and servants, in constitution; and, not unfrequently, we may rest satisfied that it has been when the means are proper, they are good, At first they practised the not persisted in long enough to have severe antiphlogistic treatment as metheir full effect; and many never have dical means of cure, but finding no recovered, for want of a little more good from it, they gave up all medical patience and perseverance in the right treatment, and trusted, for success,

I have known many who entirely to moral treatment. In the never have perfectly recovered, who first sixteen years, they only diswould, no doubt, if the medical and charged, recovered, fifty-six. In the moral treatment, under which they first sixteen years, the number diswere convalescent, had been continued. charged, recovered, from Spring-Vale, Nor does it seem possible to foretell was two hundred and twenty-four, in iise.


and upwards of seventy removed, so patient to sit op; the necessary remuch improved, as to require no fur- straint should be disguised as much ther restraint. Spring-Vale is only as possible, and there should be po half the size of the Retreat, and seldom solitary confinement, except in cases more than two-thirds full, while the of great rudeness and noise, and then Retreat is generally quite full, with only while they last. I would forbid patients waiting for admission. At shaving the head, blistering the head, Spring-Vale the medical treatment or bleeding the head, either with cupwas gentle, but unremitting. Had it ping-glasses or leeches. I would forbeen the same at the Retreat, no ques. bid the use of the lancet, for though tion, the recoveries would have been a single bleeding in some cases would upwards of four hundred and forty- of itself do no injury, but rather good, eight, instead of fifty-six, that is, eight still the good will not balance the times as many as there were; for, no risk and inconvenience of it. Setons doubt, they would have had plenty and issues are admissible in very parof patients, it being always under- ticular cases, indicating the want of stood, that the best medical means them. I would forbid more than one are such only as are quite consistent emetic, and that a gentle one; I would with the best comforts of the patients. forbid violent drastics ; I would forbid Medical treatment is both useful and too all preparations of mercury, unnecessary, upon two fixed principles, less some visible symptom shewed the the one mental, the other physical: want of them. I would forbid all First, the giving of medicines operates opiates or narcotics, most strictly. As as a cordial of hope to the mind of the food, I would forbid salt-meat and patient, who, in the use of it, is made cheese, and any thing hard of digesto believe that means of recovery are tion. I would entirely forbid strong And it may be taken for malt liquors, and spirits of all sorts

, granted, that, in all cases of insanity, and only allow porter, small table-beer, particularly those of the melancholy or wine, in very moderate quantities. or desponding cast, there is a tendency The diet should be light and nourishto a want of healthy tone in the diges- ing, and in quantity ample, it being tive functions, and to a want of healthy necessary to take the greatest care action in the secretions. And if these that the patient does not sink under are not causes of the disease, they the violence of the disease: if the most assuredly aggravate and retard, bealth of the body sinks, hopes of or prevent, recovery; and to counteract recovery from the mental disease must this tendency, the aid of medicine is sink with it; for, as physical debility required, nor can I think that there is increases, nervous irritability will inany disease more certainly requiring crease too. The patient should not be the aid of medicines, or in which they indulged with more than a moderate may be more certainly useful. I grant quantity of sleep. Activity, exercise that they should be administered with in the open air, employment, amusea gentle hand, and with due discrimni- ments, and constantly diverting the nation, as alteratives; but I consider thoughts by strong and opposite, and the regular use of mild tovics and pleasurable sensations, the cordial of aperients, and the occasional use of hope, and the consolations of religion,diuretics and sudorifics, as quite in are the life of recovery; personal cleandispensable for the best means of cure. ness too is strictly to be observed. Such, however, is the nature of insa- To describe an institution for the nity, and tbe very errroneous treat- best means of cure for insanity, as a ment it has so frequently met with, public and national measure, the flights that it may be of more consequence to of imagination, or the efforts of invenpoint out what is absolutely wrong tion, are not required; we have only ihan what may be right. I would of to copy what has been done long ago, course forbid all severity in the ma- and is now doing by other nations. I nagement of the insane; all coercion will, however, give a short indulgence of itself does injury, and the use of it to fancy. I will suppose, that, instead should never go beyond what is abso- of that very expensive building in lutely necessary. No tight ligatures St. George's Fields, as if to make a should be used in any case, nor should proud display of the aberrations of the the patient he ever bound down; liberty human mind, a large tract of land had should, in every case, be given for the been purchased some ten miles or more


from London ;-this land enclosed so as the least resembling those which are to prevent escape;—that it should have at present ander review. We are led had the advantages of " bill and valley, to consider pride as causing the lapse fountain and fresh shade," be bealthy of angels. Their minds being finite, and airy, with delightful prospects of and therefore susceptible of mutation passing objects in sight, of a much and degeneracy, might at certain times travelled road, or water navigation, have been destitute of that efficiency with plain buildings; and that the which their clear and elevated intelbest medical, as well as moral, means lects were naturally calculated to had been used; the lands affording afford, and thus pride, or the feeling employment for some, and active of inordinate self-esteem, might have amusement for others ;-and not only been engendered, and consequently would it have done much good in the moral deterioration would have been cure, but it would have served as an the natural result. excellent example for other parts of Pride may be distinguished from the kingdom; and, instead of so many vanity, by considering the former as large prisons, as if intended to “fright inordinate self-esteem, and the latter the isle from her propriety," we might as inordinate self-complacency. The have had desirable institutions, that source of the former is an erroneous should have been acceptable to the estimate of certain properties or quafeelings and imaginations of the weak lifications, one's own judgment being and nervous, and the admittance to the test; while the source of the latter which should not only have been con- is an erroneous estimate of certain sidered as a valuable privilege, but a properties or qualifications, the judggreat blessing, and a source of happi- ment of others being the test. The

Thomas Bakewell. feeling which forms an ingredient in Spring-Vale, near Stone,

the former disposition, has become 22d Oct. 1825.

closely allied to hatred or malevolence, and that which forms an ingredient in the latter, is closely allied to love or

benevolence. Hence, pride frequently Pride and vanity are tempers of the exhibits itself under the form of a mind, which, it may be justly said, repulsive quality ; while vanity often maintain a more general occupancy appears in the aspect of an attractive of the hearts of men, than any other one. The proud man says in his heart, dispositions whatever; but although “Stand at a distance, and cast not their existence is universal, yet their your eyes upon me;" while the vain peculiar difference seems not to be man whispers, “Listen to my story, generally known or observed. It and applaud me.” Excited pride prois, however, evident that both have duces, displeasure, anger, and fury; their foundation in the intellectual while excited vanity causes delight, defection of the human mind. That affection, and attachment. The objects part of each disposition which belongs of the former have often been subjected to the sensibility of our nature, may to degradation, oppression, and death be considered not only as innate, but itself; while the instruments of the innocent. The original feeling is, latter have frequently been elevated to doubtless, the gift of the Creator, as familiarity and honour. much so as the capacity to reason or Pride has been considered as noble judge ; hence the evil lies in the mis- and magnanimous, and vanity as mean direction of the feeling, in consequence and empty; for it bas been said, that of its union with the degenerate intel- great minds are more susceptible of lect of man.

the former, and little minds of the latThe Divine Being himself has com- ter. But it may be doubted whether placency in the works of his own pride and vanity are the causes, or the hands; for, on a survey of them, he effects, of those qualities. Perhaps beheld them as perfectly adapted to circumstances have more influence the purposes for which they were than the structure of the mind, on the designed; and, as a proof of his appro- existence of pride and vanity. If a bation, declared that they were very person possesses an excellence, real good.” But the perfection of the na- or supposed, that is calculated to tural and moral attributes of Deity excite the respect, reverence, or fear necessarily excludes dispositions in J of others, pride is likely to be the


resulting disposition; but if he pos- | There can be no doubt that the sesses an excellence that is calculated most of our deeply-rooted dispositions to excite love, admiration, or wonder, are formed in infancy and early years; on the part of others, then vanity is altbough it sometimes happens that a likely to be formed. Thus one man change of circumstances, connexions, is apt to be proud of his station, rank, pursuits, &c. will completely alter the wealth, or influence; another is vain character in any period of advanced of his honour, talents, learning, and life: yet the poet betrayed no inconacquirements: and a woman, of her siderable knowledge of human nature, connexions, beauty, ornaments, and when he said, " as the twig is bent, the accomplishments. It must, indeed, tree's inclined." To admire, in an be admitted, that the irascible are sel- infant's ears, its beauty, sprightliness, dom vain, and the gentle seldom proud; dress, &c. is a direct attack made on but an irritable temper may be the its moral nature, and will inevitably fruit of pride, and a gentle one the produce the disposition of inordinate fruit of vanity. But as distance and self-complacency: whilst, on the other unfrequency of approach are favour- hand, to lay too much stress on the able to ideas of dignity, so the proud adventitious distinctions which the man, being difficult of access, gains providence of God has made in its the ignorant homage of the spectator. favours, or to require abject submisOn the other hand, as familiarity sion on the part of those who are its exposes one's weaknesses, so vanity, inferiors, is the most effectual method descending too low in its search for of sowing and cherishing pride in the food, excites contempt for the subject predisposed soil of the human heart. of it. Thus pride may be considered The aitention of parents and instrucas noble, and vanity mean.

tors cannot be too assiduously directed It is frequently said, that a little to the consideration of this view of the pride is necessary. This assertion, subject. viewed in connexion with the pure It is worthy of remark, that men are and holy law of God, is preposterous. more apt to esteem natural endowPride, being a vice, cannot be neces- ments than moral excellencies, and sary to the practice of virtue, on Chris accordingly to value themselves in the tian principles. Pride is a transgres- same respect, when they are the subsor of both tables of the law, It does jects of them; although the scriptures not give God the glory due anto him; represent moral conformity to the and it robs man of the benevolence Divine will, as the great end which due to bim. It is also a sin against Jesus Christ had in view by taking natural truth, for it is founded on upon him our nature, and becoming error. Prudence would no doubt suf- the captain of our salvation. The ficiently perform the office, which the reason seems to be, that natural exceladvocates of pride desire it to do; but lence being restricted to few, is more there is this difference, pride has always apt to be discerned by the outward feeling in its composition, while pru- man; while moral excellence is the dence is the mere dictate of the under result of arduous labour only; and standing. Prudence, in this respect, man's moral nature being more diffiis as much superior to pride, as intel cult of recovery than his intellectual, lect is to feeling, or as the man is to the moral sense of mankind is generally the animal.

weak and imperfect. It is generally believed, that pride As these dispositions are seated in is more consistent with merit than the heart, and derive their nourishvanity is. Pride, having a repulsive ment from the exercise of a disordered quality, has a tendency to increase the understanding, it will, of course, be distance which it makes between the necessary to enlighten the understandsubject of it and other persons, and ing, and also to render the knowledge thus encourages a progressive ad thus communicated constantly etivapcement in real or fancied excel- cient. lence; while vanity, using a gratula- The proud man should more fretory retrospection, dwells so much on quently consider the relation in which the acquisitions already in possession, he stands towards the Divine Being, as to delight in passive enjoyment, than that in which he stands towards rather than exert itself in making bis fellow-creatures, especially those further acquisitions.

beneath him; and let him fervently pray for the aid of the Holy Spirit to source of true felicity. But indepengive vividness to bis ideas of the Divine dently of the express declarations character, and permanence to the im- and implied intimations of the scrippression produced by the presence of tures, the alarming fact might be fully those ideas in his mind. He must established by the light afforded us also reflect on the wonderful conde- from the volume of nature. The scension of Jesus Christ, who, although varied, complicated, and pungent cahe was from eternity in the form of lamities, to which the human family God, took upon him the form of a ser- are subject, demonstrate, beyond the vant, and, in this form, humbled him- possibility of a doubt, that man hath self unto death, even the painful and wofully departed from the fountain of ignominious death of crucifixion. Such all good;—that he hath lifted up the a contemplation, conducted in a spi- weapons of rebellion against his bounritual manner, will most effectually tiful Benefactor; for the dictates of repress and subdue the tumultuous reason and revelation concur in assurrisiugs of pride.

ing us, that had man never sinned, he Let the vain man also consider the never would have been the subject of spirituality and extent of the divine suffering. law, together with his own fruitless It is not, however, the writer's intenendeavours at perfect conformity to its tion, at this time, to direct the reader's requisitions: let him contrast the esti- attention to the apostasy of man. He mate which the Divine Being forms of intends rather to consider the consehuman actions, with the erroneous one quences which have resulted from that which doting and short-sighted mortals apostasy, as they are displayed in the indulge; and let bim glance at the sufferings of the human family; and purity, and humility, and simplicity of then to deduce some important inferHim in whom dwelt the fulness of the ences from them. Godhead bodily. In short, that the “Man," says an individual, who, in vain or proud man may be cured of the righteous dispensations of Provihis distemper, he must undergo a dence, had his own share of the afllicradical moral change: he must be tions of life,~"man is born to trouble, born again, and renewed in the spirit as the sparks fly upwards.” And of his mind, after the image of him though the scriptures had preserved who at first created man in righteous- an unbroken silence on the subject, ness and true holiness.

we might have been fully persuaded Aberdeen, 13th Sept. 1825.

of the truth of the above remark, from our own individual experience, and from the scenes which we daily wit

ness: for where is the man, who, in (Continued from col. 997.)

some shape or other, has not expeNo. VI.-On the Afflictions incident to rienced the calamities incident to the Human Nature.

present probationary state? or where “God proclaims

is the individual who has been entirely His hot displeasure against foolish men,

exempt from the painful spectacle of That live an atheist life: involves the beavens witnessing the sufferings of some of In tempests ; quits his grasp upon the winds, bis hapless fellow-creatures ? In vain And gives them all their fury; bids a plague should we traverse the wide range of Kindle a fiery boil upon the skin, And patrify the breath of blooning health.

human existence in quest of so fortuHe calls for famine, and the meagre fiend

nate a being. Blows mildew from between bis shrivellid lips, The afflictions to which the family And taints the golden ear. He springs bis of Adam are subject, are of the greatest mines,

variety, and affect both the corporeal And desolates a nation at a blast.” Cowper.

and mental part of our nature. Our The doctrine of the depravity of man, bodies are in every part susceptible and his consequent alienation from of suffering; and if we ourselves have the Supreme Being, is invariably in- not experienced all the variety of pain, culcated throughout the volume of in- of which our material nature is suscepspiration. There is scarcely a page of tible, we may witness it in the calasacred writ that does not bear either mities of our fellow-men. direct or indirect testimony to the In one corner of yonder hospital, mournful truth, that the human mind the receptacle of diseased beings, you is awfully estranged from the alone witness an individual suffering the




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