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and his brother-in-law Philip, Duke of Burgundy, who was then in possession of Flanders. The commission styles them ambassiatores, procuratores, nuncios, deputatos speciales.
During his residence in Holland, he resided at the Court of Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, sister of Edward IV., and acquired a knowledge of the method and process of the art of printing. At the request of the duchess, he translated from the French, “ Recuyel of the Historyes of Troye, by Raoul le Fleure." This was the first book printed in the English language, a copy which formerly belonged to Elizabeth Gray, Queen of Edward IV. was bought from the Roxburgh collection by the Duke of Devonshire, for £106). 18s. Od.! This work was printed at Cologne, and as it appears from his own statement, “ at great charge and expense to him.” He printed several other works abroad, and having provided himself with all the required apparatus for printing, he removed to England, and at length had a room granted him in Westminster Abbey, being in great favor with the abbot. There he published the first book ever printed in this country, which was a translation from the French, of a work“ On the Game and Play of Chesse,” a curious book, purchased for forty guineas by the Earl of Pembroke. He was the undoubted inventor of fusile types, and persevered in practising his art for twenty years, during which period he produced upwards of fifty specimens of his labor, which "infused a taste for literature and promoted good orals.” His last work was “The Holy Lives of the Fathers Hermites living in the Desertes," published in 1491.
Caxton preserved the character through life, of an honest, humble man, aiming to the utmost to benefit his country, by diffusing among the people such works as appeared likely to promote religion and morality, he is consequently entitled to respect and gratitude, and his memory to be cherished in the bosoms of Englishmen, who owe so much to the introduction of printing. His assiduity recommended him to the notice of the great, under whose protection and at whose expense many of his works were published ; some of them are addressed to Edward IV., his brother the Duke of Clarence, and the Duchess of Burgundy, their sister; he was likewise patronized by Henry VII. and his son Prince Arthur, as well as by many of the principal nobility and gentry.
Caxton died in the year 1494 ; there is no certain account of his age, but he was very old and above fourscore. In the year 1471, he is said to have complained that the infirmities of age were creeping upon him, and enfeebling his body, though he lived twenty-three years after, and pursued his labors with laudable diligence in Westminster Abbey to the last year of his life; this is attested by the following lines at the end of a book, entitled “ Hilton's Scale of Perfection,” printed in the year 1494.
Enfynite laud with thankynges many folde
I pield to God, me socourong with his grace,
"Scale of Perfection” calde in every place,
And Winkin de Worde this hath sette in print
Impressus anno salutis MCCCCLXXXXIIII. How deeply interesting is the above account, in connexion with the astonishing efforts of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and the Society for the Circulation of Religious Tracts : where the power and the facilities of the press will end, no one can conjecture. By the means of printing how many have been enlightened and brought to the knowledge of Him, whom to know is life eternal. In proportion to the efforts of superstition and infidelity to spread their poisonous exhalations, should be the anxious, earnest, prayerful exertions of enlightend christians to disseminate by means of the press, the knowledge of Christ and of Him crucified. Penryn.
THE YOUTHS OWN BIBLE.
Never was a free Bible press more needed than in the present day, when so many forms of error, which can be successfully combated by the Law and Testimony alone, are rife on every hand. And never were Bibles so cheap before. The difficulty is now, how to select, not how to obtain. But among the many beautiful and useful editions, we know of none more admirably suited to the Youth of our own day, than that now in course of publication by the Religious Tract Society, " The Pocket Paragraph Bible,"* complete for four shillings. The advantages it possesses over all others, are its unprecedented cheapness; its convenient size ; its arrangement in paragraphs and parallelisms ; its new and copious selection of references and notes ; its judicious interpo. lation of marginal and other improved readings ; its prefaces to the several books; and its illustrative maps and tables. As regards the printing, it is one of the most perfect little volumes we have ever seen ; and though our older friends may object to the minute beauty of the type, its very smallness will serve as an additional recommendation to the class of readers to whom we are most anxious to recommend it.
As a specimen of the introductory prefaces, we give the following clear and concise analysis of the book of Job, p.
353 :“The first part of the book describes the character and sufferings of the patriarch. He is a man of large possessions, whose life has been one of remarkable prosperity; and is greatly honored by all. He is, moreover, a man of eminent holiness, whose character would bear the severest scrutiny. Satan having brought an accusation against Job, that his religion was mere selfishness, is permitted to deprive him of his children, and of all bis possessions. The faith of the patriarch, however, sustains the trial. Satan then obtains permission to inflict on him a most painful disease ; and Job becomes an object of disgust and abhorrence. Still it is seen that fidelity to God can be maintained in the deepest distress.
“In this state of things, three of his friends come to condole with him. The overwhelming calamities which had come upon so good a man seem to have confounded them. His case was contrary to all their maxims and views with respect to God's way of dealing with the just. But it was not until Job made his first speech, bitterly cursing his day, and indulging in the language of complaint, that they seem to have any doubt of his integrity. That speech of the patriarch, in connexion with his remarkable sufferings, seems to have satisfied them, that so far from being
• The Holy Bible, according to the authorized version, arranged in paragraphs and parallelisms, with an entirely new selection of copious references to parallel and illustrative passages, Prefaces to the several books, and numerous notes. Parts 1 and 2. ls. 4d. each. Religious Tract Society.
upright and holy, as they had supposed, he was in fact a wicked man and a hypocrite. This, therefore, opened the whole field of debate, and suggested an important inquiry, with reference to the principles on which the Divine government in this world was conducted; whether a life of piety was not attended with corresponding prosperity ; and whether extraordinary sufferings such as these, were not demonstrative of corresponding guilt.
" Eliphaz leads the way in the argument; and is followed by his two friends. They hold the doctrine of a strict retribution in the present life ; and that it is reasonable to infer what a man's character is, from the present dealings of God with him; and they do not hesitate to declare that the calamities of Job must have overtaken him in consequence of his secret wickedness.
"Job replies to each of the speakers, and boldly asserts his innocence. He is unable to explain the reasons why calamities come upon good men ; but he maintains that they are no certain indication of the character of the sufferer. He regards himself as unkindly treated by his friends; complains that instead of offering him consolation, they aggravate his woes by false accusations; and expresses a desire to carry his cause directly to God himself, assured that He would do him that justice which was denied him by his friends.
“His friends are offended at his sentiments, and undertake to vindicate the conduct of the Deity towards him : they repeat their charges with greater asperity, and even accuse him of particular sins. But, the more they press their arguments, the more confidently does Job assert his innocence, and appeal to God to vindicate his character. His friends are finally reduced to silence.
" Elihu then, who appears to have been an attentive auditor, comes forward to reply to what had been advanced by Job. The leading principle in Elihu's statement is that afflictions are for the good of the sufferer; and that, if those who are afflicted will hearken to the counsel which God thus sends, and turn from their sins, they will find their afflictions to be sources of great benefit. He reproves Job for justifying himself rather than God; and vindicates the character and government of the Most High. To illustrate his views, and to show the necessity of submission, he closes his speech with a sublime description of the greatness of God.
“After this the Lord himself answers Job; not condescending to enter into any particular explanation of his conduct, but from the consideration of his infinite and unsearchable wisdom and greatness, as seen even in the works of creation, convincing Job of his presumption, his ignorance, and guilt, in arrainging the dealings of his providence.
“Job, subdued and humbled, confesses that he is vile. His confession is accepted, and his general course approved. His three friends are reproved; and Job is directed to make intercession for them; and restored to double his former prosperity."
THE SUNBEAM'S MISSION.* Gerard was a quick, clever boy, but very idle. He was not lazy or indolent, like some little girls, for in his amusements, or in pursuits that pleased him, he spared no pains, and thought no exertion too great to attain his object. But, at his studies, or when obliged to do any thing he disliked, he thought every thing a trouble, grumbled over every little difficulty, and in short, was in great danger, with all his cleverness and sense, of becoming a useless, idle, selfish being. One bright day, early in summer, when all the leaves were in their richest, freshest dress, this young idler wandered out alone into a field, and lay down to enjoy, in the perfect luxury of doing nothing, the beautiful sights and sounds around him. He lay for some time, thinking how disagreeable it was to have difficult lessons to learn, or to be forced to exert himself and make himself of use to others. And as he watched the bright particles that appear to float up and down in the air on a warm day, he exclaimed, “Oh, how I should like to be a sunbeam, to have nothing to do but dance up and down in the air, glide out and in of dark shady nooks, and float on the surface of cool waters.” While thinking of this, lying comfortably on a soft bed of moss, his eyes gradually began to close, his thoughts became confused; he fell asleep. He slept and dreamed. He dreamed that as he lay there, a lovely fairy came flying towards him, and lighted on the turf beside him. She was clothed in a
We need add nothing to this pleasing extract, in order to recommend the beautiful little volume from which it is taken—" An Autumn at Karnford,” just published by Hamilton, Adams and Co.