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tion (Sistema del contrastimolo,) invented by Rasori, and followed by his numerous pupils, in a great number of cases, certainly a less free use of the lancet, the more frequent exhibition of calomel and of similar medicines, prevented much mischief.
It is only since the year 1825 that some eminent German practitioners and medical writers have hinted that diseases, from displaying a strong inflammatory nature, seem to be changing into a more nervous character, and that, consequently, retrograde steps in the treatment are required.
Meanwhile, the doctrine of Broussais, or the Physiological Medicine, as it has been foolishly called by his adherents, exerted only a very limited influence on the medical men of Germany; another sect arose amongst them, the Homoeopathic. The inventor of this new theory was Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, to whose clever and original mind Science is indebted for the discovery of an excellent test of the smallest quantities of lead contained in wine (Liquor probatorius Hahnemanni), and for a new and sometimes very useful preparation of mercury, (Mercurius solubilis Hahnemanni.) This gentleman, so well acquainted with the different qualities of drugs, and disgusted by the lavishness wherewith the Brunonian and the Antiphlogistic School prescribed immense quantities of them, took the opposite plan. The principle of his system is to give extremely small quantities of medicines, and such drugs as are supposed to be able to excite in a healthy man the same diseases which they were now given to contend with.
The pupils of Hahnemann, which called themselves Homoeopathic (similar) Physicians, and their medical brethren of a different creed, Allopathic (different) Physicians, are to be found mostly in Bohemia, Austria, and in the hereditary provinces of that monarchy. But this leads us to the great change which has taken place in the Vienna School of Medicine by the demise of Peter Frank, in the year 1820, and by that of both the Schmitts, of Boer, Beer, Goelis, and others, who constituted its principal ornaments. Since that period, and even some years before, the most flourishing schools have been at the University of Berlin, erected in the year 1810, at Goettingen, Heidelberg, Halle, and Bonn.
Few are now remaining of the old sterling physicians and pillars of science. The most eminent among them are Vogelat, Rostock, Hufeland, at Berlin, whose great merit consists in admitting, with a rare modesty and impartiality, the good parts of any system, forming from these materials, and the extent of his experience, an eclectic doctrine, productive of immense advantage, which is propagated by his pupils, admirers, imitators, and the readers of his monthly journal, in which he is accustomed to deposit his sagacious · Observations on the Form and Pressure of the Times.'
CONTINENTAL LITERARY INTELLIGENCE
Amsterdam. M. Koning has, in a work entitled Geschiedenis van het Slot de Muiden, given an interesting historical account of the chateau of Muiden, so celebrated in the annals of the Netherlands, both from the events connected with it, and from its having been the residence of Cornelius van Hooft, the Tacitus of Holland.
A volume of historical memoirs and documents, Bydragen tot de Geschiedenis dér Niederlanden, by M. van Cappelle, Professor of National History at the Athenæum of Amsterdam, contains several curious and im
portant portant papers, and one or two literary essays relative to historical composition. Among the latter, that in which M. van Cappelle draws a comparison between the history of the Netherlands by Van Hooft, and that by Schiller, is an excellent piece of criticism, and highly instructive, as showing the different views taken of the same subject by those two distinguished writers.
Berlin. During the past summer, Professor von Schlegel has been engaged in delivering a course of lectures on the theory and history of the fine arts, a summary of which has been published in the Berliner Conversations-Blatt, This analysis has proved so exceedingly interesting and attractive, that we hope the professor will be induced to publish the whole from his manuscripts.
It appears to have been peculiarly his design to correct many erroneous notions which are still entertained by students of Arts; and we are much struck with the originality of idea, as well as the variety which pervades the whole subject. We are pleased to remark that he has again directed the attention of natural philosophers to Goëthe's Theory of Colours, a work which has not been duly appreciated in Europe, and which, perhaps, may render it difficult for posterity to decide whether Goëthe had a greater claim to immortality as a poet, or a natural philosopher.
A new review entitled Jahrbucher fur wissenschaftliche Kritik, herausgegeben von der Societat (Gesellschaft) wissenschaftliche Kritik zu Berlin, has since last January appeared at Stuttgard. A whole society have undertaken the editorial management of this review. The members have divided themselves into three classes. 1. The philosophical class, which comprehends theology, jurisprudence, political economy, and statistics, 2. The class for natural science, which embraces mathematics and medicine. 3. The historico-philological class, with which are connected the fine arts, This classification is taken from the Royal Academy of Berlin, with the exception that there the mathematics form a particular division.
This society does not pretend to survey the whole empire of literature, but declares in their prospectus that only important works which deserve a place in the history of science will come under their consideration. Many persons in Germany have thought this declaration very objectionable, appearing to pronounce a summary condemnation of those works which the society may omit to notice. We think, however, that this inference can hardly fairly be drawn. They further announce that every article must be approved of by the class which presides over the subject of the work reviewed; the object is to preserve the dignity and good temper which become men of science, even when the opinions are totally different: each article, therefore, appears under the signature of the contributor. This censorship, as it has been maliciously called, has given rise to another inconvenience; every author whose book is spoken of in terms of disapprobation, fancies he has a right to complain of the whole editorial body. A notion has also gone abroad that the tendency of this review is to dissemi nate the principles of a certain philosophical school, that of Professor Hegel at Berlin, which is now in great vogue in Germany, and we are truly sorry to see that a paper on Savigny's History of the Roman Law during the Middle Ages, which was rather flippantly written, has already drawn forth in the last number of the Rhenish Museum, edited by Niebuhr, at Bonn, a charge of this nature. With the exception of this article, and a few others, we have been highly gratified by the Review. Among the principal works which have been reviewed, are, Bronsted's Travels and Researches in
Greece ; Greece ; Mignet's History of the French Revolution ; Luden's History of Germany; Robert Brown's Works on Botany ; Thiersch's Epoch of Sculpture among the Greeks ; Grimm's German Grammar ; Lingard's History of England ; Berzelius on Chemistry ; Menzel's Modern History of Germany; Wachsmuth's Grecian Antiquities; Burdach's Physiology; Gehler's Physical Dictionary ; Daru's History of Brittany ; and various important works on Mathematics and Law. The society has announced a review of Sir Walter Scott's Life of Napoleon, and Hallam's Constitutional History of England. Among the contributors are mentioned Boeckh, the editor of the Corp. Inscript. Graec., Bopp, the Sanscrit scholar, Gesenius, the oriental professor at Halle, V. Goëthe, Hegel, W. v. Humboldt, Link, Meckel, Passow, Reisig, Ritter, A. W. v. Schlegel, Thiersch, Welcker, &c.
The Transactions of the Royal Society of Berlin, for the year 1824, have been lately published. The academy is divided into four classes : I. Physics. II. Mathematics. III. Philosophy. IV. History and Philology.
In the division of the natural sciences are the following treatises :
3. Experimental Observations on the Influence of different kinds of Manures in producing the Constituent parts of various Sorts of Corn, by Hermbstaed.
4. On the Fundamental Doctrines of Acoustics, by Fischer.
5. On Hydrocephalus before the Birth, with some General Remarks on Deformities of Birth, by Rudolphi.
Anatomical Observations by the same writer,
a. On the Ourang-Outang, and evidence that this Animal is the same as the young Pongo Ape.
b. On the Torpedo.
6. Plan of a Phytological Arrangement of Plants, to which is added a Crystogamic System, by Link.
7. On the Antelope of Northern Africa, with particular reference to the opinions of the ancients on this subject, by Lichtenstein.
8. Generalisation of certain Principles in the Treatise on the more exact Description of the Surfaces of Crystals, by Weiss.
In the Mathematical class are contained,
1. An Inquiry into the Planetary Aberration which arises from the Sun's Motion, by Bessel.
2. On the Integration of Linear Equations, with partial finite differences, by Eytelwein.
3. On Describing Isotomic Figures in Conic Sections, by Gruson.
1. On certain Historical and Political Allusions in Ancient Tragedy, by Süvern.
2. On the Antigone of Sophocles, by Boeckh.
3. Explanation of a Greek marginal note upon an Egyptian Papyrus, by Buttman.
4. Comparative Analysis of the Sanscrit and Cognate Languages, by Ворр.
5. On the Farnese Congius in the Gallery of Antiquities at Dresden, by Hase.
6. On Alphabetic Writing, and its Connection with the Structure of Languages, by W. v. Humboldt. 7. The History of Arabia Petræa, and its Inhabitants.
The The University of Marburg has conferred upon Spohr, the composer of Faust, &c., a diploma of doctor in music. This eminent master has just produced a new opera, entitled Pietro von Abano.
Bonn, In the University of Bonn there are at present fifty-five professors of public lectures. 4 for Catholic theology; 4 Protestant theology ; 9 for juris. prudence; 4 for mathematics; 4 for natural philosophy ; 12 medicine and surgery ; 6 for philosophy; 4 for philology; 2 for oriental languages; 1 for the fine arts; and 3 for history; beside these there are masters for fencing, dancing, and drawing. From the programme it appears that these professors will deliver 175 lectures in the course of the present session, viz., 12 on Catholic theology; 12 on Protestant theology; 35 on jurisprudence; 37 on medicine and surgery ; 15 on philosophy; 13 on mathematics; 14 on natural philosophy; 14 on philology; 4 on oriental languages; 5 on modern languages; 8 on history; 6 on statistics. · Professor Niebuhr will deliver one course of lectures on the countries and nations of the ancient world, and another on finance, money and banks, a subject on which this distinguished historian is very conversant. Professor Schleger lectures on the Ramayuna, on ancient universal history down to the fall of the Roman empire, and on the description of Egypt by Herodotus.
Copenhagen. A LITERARY Annual, edited by Mad. Beyer, and bearing the singular title of Gifion, contains prose and poetical contributions from several of the most popular writers in Denmark-Rahbek, Oehlenschläger, Winther, Falsen, Olsen, Heiberg, &c. This publication was commenced in 1826, since which it has much improved.
Dr. Otto, who, last winter, gave a course of lectures on phrenology, has established a journal, exclusively devoted to that science, under the title of Dansk Tidsskrift for Phrenologien. A number is published every three months.
Familien Usfeldt, an historical romance of the seventeenth century, by J. C. Lange; a new volume of tales, by Immermann, are among the few original productions of this class that deserve notice; the literature of Denmark being in this respect as scanty as that of its neighbours is prolific.
The fourth volume of Rahbek's Autobiography renders us impatient for the completion of these interesting reminiscences, in which the worthy veteran has preserved so many anecdotes of contemporary writers, and which form so valuable and entertaining a mass of information relative to the literary history of Denmark during the last fifty years.
M. Winther is about to publish, under the title of Literatura Scientiæ Rerum Naturalium in Dania, Norvegia, et Holsatia, usque ad annum 1828, a complete and scientifically-arranged view of all that has been written on the natural history of those countries. This work, in collecting materials for which the author has been employed during ten years, is expected to appear during the present month (Jan. 1828).
The same writer has commenced a monthly periodical, Sneeldier, intended to consist principally of original tales and poetical pieces, by Danish writers. The first number contains several articles by the editor himself, among which are, Specimens of Danish Amatory Songs of the Middle Ages, and ` A Night in Rosenberg Garden. There is, likewise, a tale by Kruse, entitled, “The September Evening;' and 'Love and Death,' a story, by Bruno.
Phrenology appears to excite considerable interest in this country. Besides the Phrenological Journal, there is another periodical, of a somewhat similar nature, entitled Archiv for Psychologie, &c. Dr. Nurgard, too, has recently published a volume, under the title of Bidrug til Phrenologiens nyeste historie i Denmark, in which he gives the result of his conversations with Peter Nielsen, the child-murderer. As connected with this subject, may be here mentioned Professor Sibbern's Sketch of Psychology, of which the second volume is just announced.
Hillerup, the translator of some of Sacchetti's tales, lately published in the Hertha, and who has resided for years past in Italy, has been employed on a poetical version, into his native tongue, of the Orlando Furioso, some specimens of which have already appeared in the abovementioned journal.
Florence. Our readers may form an idea of the state of literature in Italy from the following extract of a letter from Florence:
• You can hardly conceive how difficult the communication is between the different parts of Italy. What is printed in Sicily is unknown at Naples, and it is here almost more easy to get a book from Macao than from Naples. There are very few new publications. Besides Italian classics, the press sends out nothing but translations, and reprints of works that have been published somewhere else. The Antologia is the best periodical we have, M. Vieusseux neglecting nothing to make it from day to day more interesting.'
Geneva. The Society founded in 1777, by Jsak Iselin (Gesellschaft zur Beförderung des Guten und Gemeinnutzigen), held a meeting lately at Basil, in Switzerland, which was attended by many eminent scholars. This society has ranked among its members the most distinguished men of Switzerland. In the year 1779, they proposed, as a prize-question,-Whether it was advisable for a commercial and republican state to make legislative enactments against luxury. The late Pestalozzi was the successful candidate ;-his answer was in the negative.
Dr. Colladen, of Geneva, has obtained the prize from the Academy of Science in Paris, for his dissertation on the compressibility of liquids ; and Louis Pradier, also of Geneva, has received the prize for sculpture.
Leipzig. DR. FLEISCHER, a native of Saxony, who has been some years resident in Paris, is preparing a new edition of the Koran, with an Arabic commentary. From his eminent knowledge of the Arabic tongue, we may expect some very valuable illustrations in this publication, which may be looked for in about a year.
Munich. Ar Munich, where the new university has already begun a noble race with the other universities of Germany, a new periodical is shortly about to be published, called the Ausland. It proposes to give an account of the intellectual, political, and moral life of the nations out of Germany: it will collect information useful to the politician, the lawyer, physician, and to the divine, as well as to the merchant, mechanic, and manufacturer. Several learned men have undertaken the editorial management.
The Society of German Natural Philosophers and Physicians held their session at Munich, from the 18th to the 230 September. The celebrated Decandolle, from Geneva, was present, and a hope was expressed that the Swiss Society of Naturalists would enter into relation with them. Dr.