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in-law, obliged the parliament of Aix to he occupied the palace Barberini, in this acknowledge him as the protector of this city. Hunting he always made his prinprovince, in order, by this example, to in- cipal employment. He died at Naples, duce France to acknowledge the king of Jan. 19, 1819, of a relapse of the gout, Spain as protector of the whole realm. while on a visit to his brother, the king of The duke of Savoy, not less ambitious, the Two Sicilies. His wife died a short likewise aimed at this crown; and, after time previous, in Dec., 1818. Charles the death of Matthias, desired also to be was an immense eater. chosen emperor of Germany. He like- CHARLES Louis; archduke of Austria ; wise intended to conquer the kingdom of son of the emperor Leopold II, and Cyprus, and to take possession of Mace- brother of the present emperor Francis; donia, the inhabitants of which, oppressed field-marshal-general; bom Sept. 5, 1771. by the Turks, offered him the sovereignty He commenced his military career in Braover their country. The citizens of Ge- bant, in the year 1793, commanded the neva were obliged to defend their city, in vanguard of the prince of Cobourg, and 1602, against this ambitious prince, who distinguished himself by his military talfell upon them by night, in time of peace. ent and bravery. Shortly after, he was (See Geneva.). Henry IV, who had reason made governor of the Netherlands, and to complain of the duke, and whose gen- grand-cross of the order of Maria Theresa. eral, the duke of Lesdiguière, had beaten In 1796, he was made field-marshal of the Charles Emanuel several times, entered, German empire, and took the chief comat last, into a treaty of peace with him, not mand of the Austrian army on the Rhine. disadvantageous to the duke of Savoy; He fought several successful battles against but he could not remain quiet, and began the French general Moreau, near Rastadt, again a war with France, Spain and Ger- routed general Jourdan, in Franconia, many. He died of chagrin, at Savillon, near Amberg, Wurtzburg, &c., threw the 1630. He is one of those princes who French army into confusion, forced Jourrender the surname of Great suspicious. dan and Moreau to retreat over the Rhine, His heart was as hard as his native rocks. and crowned this victorious campaign by He built palaces and churches, loved and getting possession of Kehl, after a hard patronised the sciences, but thought little struggle, in the middle of the winter of of making them sources of happiness. 1797. During these successes in Germa
CHARLES I, king of Spain. (See Charles ny, fortune favored general Bonaparte in V.
Italy. In the month of February of the CHARLES IV, king of Spain, born at same year, the archduke Charles repaired Naples, 12th Nov., 1740, came to Madrid thither, and, in the month of April, articles in 1759, when his father, Charles III, after of peace were signed at Leoben. After the death of his brother, Ferdinand VI, the unsuccessful congress at Rastadt, the ascended the Spanish throne, and suc- archduke again took the command of the ceeded bim Dec. 13, 1788. He was mar- army in the year 1799, defeated general ried to the princess of Parma, Louisa Ma- Jourdan in Suabia, as he had formerly ria. Too imbecile to govern, he was al- done in Franconia, and distinguished himways ruled by bis wife and his ministers, self particularly at the battle of Stockach. among whom the prince of peace, Godoy Soon after this, he gave proofs of his great (q. v.), duke of Alcudia, from the year military talent against general Masséna, in 1792, had unbounded influence over him. a most difficult situation, in Switzerland. The hatred which this favorite drew on The impaired state of his health forced himself from the prince of Asturias, and him to quit the field in 1800, when he was other grandees, brought on a revolution in elected governor-general of Bohemia; but 1808, which enabled Napoleon to dethrone he had hardly left the army, which had the Bourbons. (See Spain.) Charles abdi- placed its whole confidence in him, ere cated at Aranjuez, March 19, revoked this the greatest consternation became evident. abdication, and finally ceded, at Bayonne, After the unfortunate battle of Hohenlinhis right to the throne to Napoleon, who den, the French entered Austria. At this settled on him for life the palace of Com- crisis, the archduke was again placed at the piegne and a pension of 30 millions of rials, head of the troops, into whom he instilled of which 2 millions were destined for the fresh courage. At last, be acceded to the queen's jointure. Charles after this lived at preliminaries of peace, which were conCompiegne with the queen and the prince firmed by the peace of Lunéville. After of peace, but subsequently exchanged this this, he was appointed minister of war, in residence for Rome, where the climate which capacity he displayed his talents in was more congenial to him. From 1815, a new sphere. In 1802, he refused the monument, proposed by the king of Swe- cess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg, by den, at the diet of Ratisbon, to be erected whom he has had three sons and one to him as the liberator of Germany. In the daughter. The archduke lives, generally, campaign of 1805, Charles commanded an quite retired in the country. Austrian army, in Italy, against Masséna. CHARLES AUGUSTUS of Weimar. (See Whilst affairs in Germany were taking a Weimar.) most unfortunate turn, and Napoleon had CHARLES RIVER; a river in Massachuentered the very heart of the Austrian setts, which flows into Boston harbor, diprovinces, the archduke gained a victory viding Boston from Charlestown. The over marshal Masséna, at Caldiero, and source of the principal branch is a pond led his army back to protect the yet un- bordering on Hopkinton. It is navigable conquered provinces. After the peace of for lighters and large boats to Watertown, Presburg was concluded, he was elected 7 miles. first chief of the council of war, and gen- CHARLESTON; a city and seaport of eralissimo of the whole Austrian army. South Carolina, in a district of the same In the war of 1809, in the month of April, name; 120 miles S. S. E. Columbia, 118 he advanced into Bavaria, with the chief N. E. Savannah, 590 S. S. W. Baltimore; part of the Austrian forces. Here he was lon. 79° 54' W.; lat. 32° 47' N.: populaopposed by the whole French army, com- tion in 1790, 16,359; in 1800, 18,712; manded by Napoleon himself, and a hard- in 1810, 24,711 ; 11,668 whites, and 13,043 fought and bloody battle, which lasted five blacks: in 1820, 24,780; 5323 free white days, ensued; after which, in spite of eve- males, 5330 free white females; 12,552 ry exertion, the Austrians were compelled slaves, 1475 free people of color. It is to yield to a superior force. On the 21st situated on a tongue of land formed by the and 22d of May of the same year, the arch- confluence of the rivers Cooper and Ashduke gained a victory at Aspern, oppo- ley, which unite just below the city, and site to Vienna, and compelled the French form a spacious and convenient harbor, to retreat across the Danube with great communicating with the ocean below Sulloss. The battle of Wagram, one of the livan's island, 7 miles from Charleston. greatest in history, had an unfortunate re- At the mouth of the harbor, there extends, sult, but no censure can be cast, either on from shore to shore, a sand-bank, dangerthe Austrian army, which distinguished ous to vessels, but having two channels, itself by its bravery, or on the archduke, the deepest of which has 16 feet of water who was wounded on this occasion, for at low tide. The harbor is defended by being compelled to give way to a much fort Pinkney and fort Johnson, which are superior force, after a battle of two days, on islands, the former 2 and the latter 4 during which they several times had the miles below the city; and by fort Moultrie advantage. Their retreat was effected on Sullivan's island. Charleston contains with the greatest order, and amidst con- a city-hall, an exchange, a custom-house, stant fighting, till they reached Znaym, a guard-house, a theatre, an orphan-house, where an armistice put an end to the bat- an hospital, an alms-house, 2 arsenals, 2 tle. Soon after this, the archduke re- markets, a college, and 19 houses of pubsigned the command, and has not since lic worship, 4 for Episcopalians, 3 for appeared at the head of the army. He Presbyterians, 3 for Methodists, 2 for Conhas enriched military literature with two gregationalists, 1 for Lutherans, 2 for Rovaluable works-Grundsätze der Strategie man Catholics, 1 for French Protestants, erlaütert durch die Darstellung des Feld- l for Baptists, 1 for Friends, and a Jews' zugs von 1796, in Deutschland (Prin- synagogue. The Charleston library conciples of Strategy, illustrated by the Cam- tains about 13,000 volumes. The orphan paign of 1796, in Germany), Vienna, 1813, asylum is a noble and well endowed in5 vols., with a map of the theatre of war stitution, which supports and educates and 11 plans, 2d ed. ; and, as a continua- nearly 200 orphan children. There are tion of the same, Die Geschichte des Feld- several other charitable societies richly zugs von 1799, in Deutschland und in der endowed, particularly the South CarSchweitz (History of the Campaign of olina society, the St. Andrew's society, 1799, in Germany and Switzerland), Vien- and the Fellowship society, instituted na, 1819, 2 vols., with an atlas in folio. for the relief of widows and orphans. Both works have been translated into The city is regularly laid out in parallel French. After the return of Napoleon, streets, which are intersected by others he was made governor of Mentz, and af- nearly at right angles. The tongue of terwards governor and captain-general of land, on which it is built, was originally Bohemia. In 1815, he married the prin- indented with creeks and narrow marshes,
which have been filled up; and it is drier Gage, governor of Massachusetts bay, genand more elevated than most parts of the erals Howe, Clinton, Burgoyne, &c. The low country of South Carolina. Many of American army of citizen-soldiers amountthe houses are elegant, and furnished with ed to about 15,000 men, enlisted for a few piazzas. It is much the largest town in months, without organization or discipline. ihe state, and was formerly the seat of They were armed with fowling-pieces, but government. It has an extensive com- few of them provided with bayonets. The
The shipping owned here, in whole was under the command of general 1816, amounted to 36,473 tons; in 1820, Ward, of Massachusetts, whose headto 28,403 tons. That dreadful distemper, quarters were at Cambridge. The right the yellow fever, has made frequent rav- wing, under brigadier-general Thomas, ages in Charleston ; but its effects have occupied the heights of Roxbury; the left, been chiefly confined to persons from under colonel Stark, was stationed at more northern situations; and the climate Medford. The city of Boston is built on of the city is accounted healthy to the na- a small peninsula, having the town of tive inhabitants, more so than that of most Charlestown, also built on a peninsula, other Atlantic towns in the Southern States. and separated from it by a narrow arm of Its superior salubrity attracts the planters the sea, about 1500 feet wide, on the north. from the surrounding country, and it is The heights of Charlestown, Breed's hill the favorite resort of the wealthy from the (62 feet high) and Bunker hill (110 feet West Indies. It affords much agreeable high, about 130 rods N. W. of the forsociety, and is reckoned one of the gayest mer), command the city. The
Americans towns in the U. States. (See Carolina, having received information of the intenSouth.)
tion of the British to occupy these heights, CHARLESTOWN; a post-town in Middle- and advance into the country, orders were sex county, Massachusetts, one mile north issued to colonel Prescott (June 16) to take of the centre of Boston; population, in possession of Bunker bill in the evening, 1820, 6591. The principal part of the and erect the fortifications requisite to town is finely situated on a peninsula, defend it. General Putnam (q. v.) had the formed by Charles and Mystic rivers, superintendence of the expedition. Findwhich here flow into Boston harbor. ing, on their arrival, that, though Bunker Charlestown is connected with Boston by hill was the most commanding position, it two bridges across Charles river; with was too far from the enemy to annoy his Chelsea and Malden by two others across shipping and army, the provincials deterMystic river, and with Cambridge by a mined to fortify Breed's hill, and began bridge across a bay of Charles river. It is their labor soon after midnight. Every a pleasant and flourishing town, the largest thing had been conducted with so much in the county of Middlesex, and advanta- silence, that the British were not aware of geously situated for trade and manufac- their presence till day-break, when the tures. The principal public buildings are ships of war and floating batteries, which the state prison, the Massachusetts hospi- lay in the harbor of Charlestown, together tal for the insane, a market-house, alms- with a battery on Copp's bill, opened a house, and five houses of public worship. heavy fire on the redoubt which had been One of the principal navy-yards in the U. completed during the night. The AmerStates occupies about 60 acres of land, in icans, meanwhile, continued their labor, the south-east part of this town. It is until they had thrown up a small breastenclosed, on the land side, by a wall of work, extending north, from the east side solid masonry, and contains, besides other of the redoubt, to the bottom of the hill. buildings, several arsenals, magazines of About one o'clock, the British, under genpublic stores, and three immense edifices, eral Howe, landed at Morton's point, in each sufficiently capacious to receive a Charlestown, without opposition. Here ship of 100 guns, with all the apparatus they waited for reinforcements, which for its construction. Bunker hill, on arrived soon after. The whole number which was fought one of the most cele- amounted to about 5000 men, with 6 fieldbrated battles of the American revolution, pieces and howitzers. The original deis in this town. (For an account of the tachment of provincials amounted to 1000 events wbich brought on the battle, see men, with 2 field-pieces. They had been Massachusetts, and United States.) The reinforced by about the same number, British army in Boston had been increased among whom were the New Hampshire to about 10,000 men, by the arrival of rein- troops, under colonel Stark. General forcements, towards the end of May, 1775, Pomeroy, and general Warren, president and was under the command of general of the provincial congress, joined the ranks as volunteers. The troops on the open born at Carlton house, Jan. 7, 1796, and ground formed a cover from the musketry passed the first years of her life under the of the enemy, by pulling up the rail fences, eyes of her mother, who watched over her placing them at small distances apart in with the fondest affection. She was afterparallel lines, and filling up the intervening wards placed under the care of lady Clifspace with new-mown grass. The British ford, and the bishop of Exeter superincolumns now moved forward, under gen- tended her studies. These were calculateral Howe, to the attack of the rail fence, ed to prepare her to become, one day, the and, under general Pigot, to attack the queen of a great nation, and she was breastwork and redoubt. The Americans obliged to attend to them from morning to impatiently withheld their fire until, ac- evening. She is said to bave been well cording to the words of Putnam, “they acquainted with the principal ancient saw the white of their 'enemies' eyes." writers, and with the history and statistics The British were repulsed with great loss. of the European states, especially with Had they charged, they would probably the constitution and laws of her native have been more successful, as the Ameri- country. She spoke, with ease, French, can troops were almost entirely destitute of German, Italian and Spanish, sung well, bayonets. A second attack, during which played on the harp, piano and guitar, and the village of Charlestown was burned to sketched landscapes from nature with the ground, was attended with the same much taste. Her style of writing was result. But the Americans had nearly ex- pleasing, and she was fond of poetry. In pended their ammunition, and their com- the unfortunate dissensions between her munication with the main army was inter- father and mother, she inclined to the side rupted by the fire of the floating batteries, of the latter. The prince of Orange was which enfiladed Charlestown neck. The fixed upon as her future husband, and the English now rallied for a third attack, de- nation desired their union, because the termined to concentrate their forces on the prince had been educated in England, and redoubt and breastwork, and to charge; at was acquainted with the customs and inthe same time, their artillery turned the left terests of the people. After having comof the breastwork, enfiladed the line, and pleted his studies at the university of Oxsent their balls directly into the redoubt. ford, he had served in the British army in The Americans, after resisting with stones Spain, and distinguished himself. The and the butts of their guns, retreated under union, however, was prevented by the disa heavy fire. They were, however, not inclination of the princess. In the mean pursued very warmly, and drew off with an time, she was introduced at court, in 1815, inconsiderable loss. They had 115 killed, on her 19th birth-day. The princess, who, among whom was general Warren (q. v.), in any situation, would have been an orna305 wounded, and 30 made prisoners. The ment to her sex, displayed an ardent but British loss was 1054 killed and wounded. generous disposition, and independence June 17th, 1825, the 50th anniversary of and loftiness of sentiment. She often said this battle was commemorated by a public that queen Elizabeth must be the model celebration, and the corner-stone of the of an English queen; and some persons Bunker hill monument was laid.
even thought there was a resemblance CHARLEVOIX, Peter Francis Xavier de, between them. In 1814, prince Leopold a French Jesuit, was born at St. Quentin, of Coburg visited England, in the suite of in 1682, and taught languages and philos- the allied sovereigns, who went to London ophy with some reputation. He was, for after the peace of Paris. His cultivated some years, a missionary in America, and, mind and amiable manners having made on his return, had a chief share in the an impression on the heart of the princess, Journal de Trévoux for 22 years. He died he was permitted to sue for her hand. in 1761, greatly esteemed for his high Their marriage, the result of personal inmoral character and extensive learning. clination, was solemnized May 2, 1816. Of his works, the Histoire Générale de la The prince (whom Napoleon declared, at Nouvelle France is the most valuable. This St. Helena, one of the finest men he had describes his own experience, and the ever seen) loved her with tenderness manners and customs of the native Amer. They were always together, rode out in icans, for which he is often quoted, as a wri- company, visited the cottages of the counter of good authority. His style is simple try people, and exhibited a pleasing picture and unaffected, but not perfectly correct. of conjugal love. They seldom lett Clar
CHARLOTTE AUGUSTA, daughter of enton, and only went to London when queen Caroline (q. v.) and George IV, and their presence at court was necessary. the wife of prince Leopold of Coburg, was Their domestic life resembled that of a private family: after dinner, they painted place. He was represented as an old man, together, and the evenings were devoted with a gloomy aspect, matted beard, and to music or reading. Meanwhile, the na- tattered garments. (Respecting the Egyption anxiously expected the moment when tian origin of this fable, see Cemetery, and the princess, who was highly beloved, Egyptian Mythology.) should become a mother. The expecta- Charost (Armand Joseph de Béthune), tions which had been entertained, how. duke of, born at Versailles, in 1728, a worever, were disappointed by a premature thy descendant of his great ancestor Sully, delivery. England soon conceived new distinguished himself, on many occasions, hopes; but, Nov.5, 1817, after three days of in the military service of his country. He suffering, the princess was delivered of a was the friend and father of his soldiers, dead child. A few hours after her deliv- and rewarded the brave from his own ery, she was seized with convulsions, and resources. In 1758, he sent all his plate breathed her last. The physician who to the mint, to supply the necessities of the had attended her shot himself.
state. The peace concluded in 1763 reCHARLOTTENBURG; a residence of the stored him to a more quiet sphere of useking of Prussia, built by Sophia Charlotte, fulness; yet he did not discontinue his the first queen of Prussia, on the banks of favors towards the soldiers whom he had the Spree, about three miles from Berlin, commanded. He was particularly active with a beautiful garden. The town, which in the promotion of agriculture and public has lately grown up, contains 430 houses, instruction. Long before the revolution, of which a large number are public houses, be abolished the feudal services on his and 4700 inhabitants. A beautiful walk estates, and wrote against feudal instituleads through the park of Berlin to Char- tions. He established charitable institu-' lottenburg, which is a favorite resort of the tions in sundry parishes, provided for the citizens of Berlin. In the garden adjoin- support and instruction of orphans, eming the castle is the tomb of the late queen ployed physicians and midwives, founded Louisa, by the statuary Rauch. Charlot- and liberally endowed an hospital. In a tenburg contains one of the best academies year of dearth, he imported grain into of Germany, that of Messieurs Cauer, who Calais at his own expense. In the provinformerly taught at Berlin.
cial assemblies, he spoke against the corCHARLOTTESVILLE; a post-town, and vées. In the assembly of the notables, he capital of Albemarle county, Virginia; 40 declared himself for an equal distribution miles E. S. E. Staunton, 86 W. N. W. of the public burdens. The revolution Richmond ; lat. 38° 2 N.; lon. 78° 52 W. broke out. Before the decree relative to a It is very pleasantly situated, one mile from patriotic contribution appeared, he made a the Rivanna, and is laid out in squares of voluntary present of 100,000 francs to the three or four acres. The university of state. During the reign of terror, he retirVirginia was established here, by the legis- ed to Meillant, where he was arrested, and lature, in 1817. The buildings comprise 10 did not obtain his liberty until after the pavilions, for the accommodation of pro- 9th Thermidor. In the testimonies given fessors; 109 dormitories and 6 hotels, for in his behalf by the revolutionary committhe lodging and dieting of the students. tees, he was called the father and benefacThe site is a little distance out of the vil- tor of suffering humanity. He returned to lage, and occupies 200 acres. The insti. Meillant, where he established an agricultution is to receive annually, from the tural society. No sacrifice was too great Virginia literary fund, the sum of $15,000. for him, and his vast fortune was scarcely
CHARON, in mythology; the son of Er. sufficient for his enterprises. He died Oct. ebus and Nox. It was his office to ferry 27, 1800, of the small-pox, lamented by the the dead, in his crazy boat, over the dark people, whose benefactor he had been. floods of Acheron, over Cocytus, resound- CHARPENTIER, I. F. G.; a man who did ing with the doleful lamentations of the much to improve the art of mining. He dead, and, finally, over the Styx, dreaded was born in 1738, and died in 1805. He even by the immortals. The shades were was one of the professors in the mining each obliged to pay him an obolus, which academy at Freyburg, in Saxony. was put, at the time of burial, into the Chart. (See Map:) mouth of the deceased. Those who could Charta Magna. (See Magna Charta.) not pay the fare, or had been so unfortu- Charte ConstituTIONNELLE (constitunate as to find no grave in the upper world, tional charter) is the fundamental law of were compelled to wander on the desolate the French realm, given by king Louis banks of the Acheron, till Charon was pleas- XVIII (q. v.) June 4, 1814, when he reed to carry them over to their final resting- turned from England. It is one of those